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National geographic usa 2012 08

National geographic usa 2012 08
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Transcripts - National geographic usa 2012 08

  • 1. *”iili1'i: iii-ri": 9;; -s llillllll ii-hill” . ‘l¢I. 'i. ,0Hl. '. llltlllti ‘Uh? - REBIRTH OF A SIOUX NATION
  • 2. I . II, Li, I itixl-". ‘I; "{, -‘i' I I rli: l. )II| /i; _' TL’) IDII/ —CTICE THE DRIVE TO THE GAIVIE THE I/ WE'RE LATE, JUST CHANGE ON THE WAY” SPRINT THE SUIVIIVIER-FRIDAY DAYTRIP THE CUT-OUR‘OWN-CHRISTIVIAS*TREE OUTING THE BACHELOR-PARTY WEEKEND THE SNOW DAY THE CAMPING TRIP THE DRIVE OVER INDEPENDENCE PASS THE "WE DON'T NEED AIRLINES" SUMMER VACATION THE 18'I'IOURS STRAIGHT'TI'IROUGH ROAD TRIP THE TWO-LANE HIGHWAY PASS THE SCENIC OVERLOOK THE "HEY. LO0K, THERE'S A MOOSE" DRIVE'BY THE WHITE-WATER RAFTING ADVENTURE THE COLLEGEFOOTBALL TAILGATE THE RIDE HOME FROM THE DUDE RANCH THE RUN TO THE DOG PARK THE ROAD TRIP THE SUVI MADE_; The redesigned Pilot combines rugged utility, smart functionality and Honda innovation. There’s room for 8, an available power tailgate, 25 mpg highway, ‘ a newly refined interior and an updated exterior. Making the Pilot the SUV made better. theHondaPiIot
  • 3. pilot. honda. com '18 city/25 highway. /21 combined mpg for 7WD models. Based on 2012 EPA mileage estimates. Use for comparison purposes only. Do not compare to models before 2008.YOur actual mileage will vary depending on how you drive and maintain your vehicle, 2011 American Honda Motor Co , Inc
  • 4. yl1'I'I-I SNAPSHOT, GREAT DRI VERs GET GREAT SAVINGS. HOWEVER oxen TRIANGLE PLAYERS w1i. i.' STILL co IINRECOGNIZED. not THAT rn BITTER. O . , ,,<(; &. I INSU“ P/705/7£J'. f/I/ £"~ A IF YOU ASK ME, 0000 DRIVERS SHOULD BE REWARDED — THAT'S WHY WE CREATED _ Plug it in your car, and your good driving could save you 30%. Well even let you try Snapshot‘ before you switch to us, so you've got nothing to lose. Rewarding 90°C‘ d"Ve’5- NOW “W5 P‘°9’e55'Ve- l.0OO. PROGRESS1VE. PROGRESSIVECOH ‘, ‘ii', ‘l'i‘<1'~-‘iyvilci . il» I ii I‘ , I-vim Iii .1.'i ll‘ ‘j“I‘. iii1:1‘. ;iI. Ij
  • 5. VOL. 222 o NO. 2 30 68 76 98 114 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC August 2012 lIlllllllllll| ||| Il| llIllIlllIlllll| l|| ||llll| l|| |lll| l|| ||llll Life After Wounded Knee Still deeply affected by the 1890 massacre, the Oglala Lakota find new hope in old ways. By Alexandra Fuller Photographs by Aaron Huey What a Dive! The gannet can plunge into the sea at 70 miles an hour and go as deep as 50 feet. By Jeremy Berlin Photographs by Andrew Parkinson East Side Story The “other London” gets ready for its role as venue for the Summer Olympics. By Cathy Newman Photographs by Alex Webb Chasing Lightning Tim Samaras zips along with his 1,600-pound camera, aiming to snap the birth of a bolt. By George Johnson Photographs by Carsten Peter Tibet’s Golden “Worm” It's part fungus, part moth larva. And for those who find yartsa gunbu, it’s pure profit. By Michael Finkel Photographs by Michael Yamashita lust boil afew in a cup of tea, and all that ails you will be healed. page 118 A cloud—to—ground strike flashes through a shaft of rain near Elephant Butte, New Mexico. Story on page 98. CAHSTEN PETER OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
  • 6. 14 17 25 130 131 August 2012 EXCLUSIVE ON THE IPAD D E PA RTM EN T S _ . ,_ _ . , , . Lightning Editor's Note Video Letters V A high-speed camera lets i ‘. “". ",""i‘ us show bolts in slo-mo. I on, ” - r . K E ' " E (_I liliri‘}. i[<II"l‘Ili Your Shot I NOW Pine Ridge Phone Booth Makeovers > Audio and Video Britain's red kiosk morphs Oglala Lakota speak or into an outdoor shower, a library, an art gallery. Rays at Risk They're hunted for alternative meds. horses, poverty, and hope; strike a pose for our cover. PHOTOS, CARSTEN PETER (TOP). AARON HUEV NEXT Spotlight on Lights A map of urban energy use could help shrink a city's carbon footprint. On the Cover Horse races are part of the yearly Oglala Lakota commemoration of the 1876 victory over Lt. Col. George A. Custer, held near Manderson, South Dakota. Photo by Aaron Huey Subscriptions For subscriptions, gift memberships, or changes of address, contact Customer Service at ngmservicecom or call 1-800-NGS-LINE (647-5463). Outside the U. S. and Canada please call +1-813-979-6845. A Python’s Growing Heart A Mealtime makes the organ expand. Supersize Me > Scientists try to figure out how long it takes to evolve to elephantine size. Contributions to the National Geographic Society are tax deductible under Section 501(c)(3) of the US. tax code. Copyright isfi 2012 National Geographic Society All rights reserved. National Geographic and Yellow Border: Registered Trademarks R, Marcas Registraclas. National Geographic assumes no responsibility for unsolicited materials. Printed in USA, NG Connect PRINTED on The Moment 100% PEFOCERTIFIED PAPER Flashback Please recycle
  • 7. :1 ,4”- . u ; ‘~ . ‘_. ' . .’ v, _ 5 . . _“‘ v-, ,.‘, _ V . - . T -' -vw . ' . - ~ -- --5.. E __ 4_ > J) . _ ur_. I'D -91‘ i J 4 4x_‘; : Ii - I m I 4.. __ _ N» ‘ E r _ _ . . . . . . . -K - <»“‘ ‘ . .“'~- . ~~~--: s- - ‘ , » ‘ V ' Q ~ n ‘ . fl V; “'d Pl '4." . "“-43" ’ 6 ' v " -5 . T I ' _ I »’ - . § r. .. A . ' » ‘/ ' I V *1 t! -v’‘ 3 In A ii WHY NOT PRETEND THAT FOR JUST THIS WEEKEND THERE'S NO SUCH THING AS WORK? CHASE SAPPHIRE PREFERRED” IChaseSapphire. com/ Preferred INTRO ANNUAL FEE OF SO THE FIRST YEAR, THEN $95. I © 2012 JPMorgan Chase & Co. Accounts subject to credit approval. Restrictions and limitations apply. Chase credit cards are issued by Chase Bank USA, N. A. See Chase. com/ Sapphire for pricing and rewards details. CHASE O SAPPHIRE PREFERRED 0. IMLDEN CHASE
  • 8. ) fijjii AWarEl'Winnin8 Dh0i0Era' advertisement ' pherfiaymond Gehman’s 3*“ images have appeared ‘ ‘I? in National Geographic 7 and otherpuhlications. 5 He lives in Waynesboro, Pennsylvania. 'Il'l Ii‘I1 - » II III I I I I. 'IIIIlI‘iiliI _ _ k M , , Capturing Luminescence 1; y first national park memory dates back to when . I was eight and my parents piled all of us kids Great Smoky Moummns into the car to spend the day on Skyline Drive in National Park Shenandoah National Park. My dad took snap- shots of the family posed in front of the overlooks. Fast-forward many years and I was working as a photojournalist for a large newspaper. One day, National Geographic called and offered me my first big assignment, documenting Yellowstone National Park through all four seasons. It was there that I discovered an affinity for photographing land- scapes and wildlife. I have shot nearly every national park in the country. This image from the Great Smoky Mountains National Park showcases Sugarland Mountain in spectacular autumn colors, viewed from the Chimney Tops Trail. The sun’s backlighting brings a lively luminescence to the sea of trees. The national parks offer everyone a chance to experi- ence America as it once was, a grand, mysterious. and challenging environment. When you climb to the top of a rocky peak, it allows you to connect with something much larger than yourself. Nature Valley is expanding its commitment to preserving the national parks through Nature Valley Trail View—a new digital platform that encourages exploration of our national parks. Now you can experience Grand Canyon, Great Smoky Mountains, and ENTER Fun A c| -|ANc| § 1'0 Yellowstone National Parks like never before through: } IMMERSIVE, STREET VIEW-STVLE CAMERA TECHNOLOGY } STEP-IV-STEP DIGITAL ACCESS TO 300+ MILES OF TRAILS ) 360-IJECREE PAIICRAMIC VIEWS ARI] INTERACTIVE GUIDES After you experience Nature Valley Trail View, you'll want to hit the trails . and explore. Announcing NATIONAL GEOGRAPHICS VIEW IT & DO IT NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC S SWEEPSTAKES, presented by Nature Valley. Enter for a chance to WIN A NINE-DAY HIKING TRIP IN GRAND CANYON NATIONAL PARK with National Geographic Adventures! Go to NatioiiaIGeograpIiic. r:om/ PRESENTED BY NATURE VALLEY Na turc Vallc yTraiI Vic w. NI] PIIIICHASE NECESSARY A I‘Ulll‘. HASE WILL NOT INIZIIEASE IUUII CHANCES [TE WINNING ELIGIBILITY LEGAL IIESIDENTS III THE : 'iiT UNITED STATES i. iiiil D C i ii IEAIIS AND ULIJEII VUILI WHLIIE PROHIBITED 3.‘. lIl: I]‘iI. ll(l: ‘~ i: iirI<. .‘I°. 'Il] IL’ Iiii [Jlliii. iIRiiii: I. IIIl. 'lIlIi“iliIIIIIIiIII‘> IIIIIIliiIlI‘vlII‘: (iIlJ‘»lIIII mil N. TI| l.‘lIiiIIIl‘ii: II. IIIIIIl‘i‘iIiIl IIIIIili’i'. V.IIIl. (II'tIIVIli. lu Sptiiitilll Nlilll l. LlI iI Ii‘. iN: iliiiii. iI Liitiigiigiiiliii. Di; iiiziIMitiiizi linlti I’/ i|iSlii'i‘i NW W: i:. |iiii. ';iiiiiIJ[I ZIIIIIIES
  • 9. <1-‘_si'. » , . lI‘ii; -IE iiiiiii*ioiiiii. i PARKS jI. IIf-TE iieiien. BEFORE IIIIIIIIIIIIIlI~. IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIAIIIIIII: ‘ i " o, - 4' / T / , v, " 1'' . I I / I I , A / _ _ 3/‘ rl i"/ I. : ."/ i‘ .1’. ' / 11 '4‘ ‘. - , ,’__g; .. ._/ ' I / I‘ I / /" . I / T . K.. I
  • 10. iTOR’S NOTE Embracing the Spirit On a windswept hill in South Dakota 25 years ago, in a small, traditional sweat lodge, I watched and photographed Robert Fast Horse and Ron Mousseau practicing a time—honored ritual in They prayed temperatures that would send most mortals fleeing. Seemingly as their Oglala oblivious to the scorching heat, they prayed and chanted as their Lakota fore_ Oglala Lakota forefathers had for generations. In embracing the fathers had_ ceremony known to them as inipi, or rite of purification, they were T coping with the reality of living on the Pine Ridge Reservation, one of the poorest, most depressed regions of the United States. They were coping as well with the scars left by one of the most brutal events in American history: the massacre at Wounded Knee, where Oglala men, women, and children were killed by members of the U. S. Seventh Cavalry Regiment on a winter day in 1890. This month writer Alexandra Fuller and photographer Aaron Huey report that the spirit I witnessed in that sweat lodge is growing. The people of Pine Ridge still battle poverty, and—as Olowan Thunder Chief Oliver Red Cloud Hawk Martinez, a 38-year-old activist, told Fu| ler—the weight of a I: ::: aII§g7:, ::: :§; :,h: °w Wow in Pine Ridge, South Dakota. The 94-year-old there is a powerful resurgence of traditional values. It is nothing less isadescendani °“he famous Chief Red Cloud. tragic history continues to press down. But across the reservation than a spiritual rebirth, and with that comes hope. “When we honor our customs. ..we have everything we need to heal ourselves within ourselves, " Martinez said. I am certain she is right. I saw and felt the power of that rich culture myself, years ago, on that windswept hill in South Dakota. Mr 4 PHOTO: AARON HUEV
  • 11. I DISCOVERED SOUTH AMERlCA’S OLDEST INDIGENOUS TRIBES A LUXURY HOTEL DEEP WITHIN THE RAINFOREST ECUAD%: ‘E: ,:R
  • 12. ‘ n ' RH — ‘ ‘ / ‘ I A L ‘ / ’ J ‘E ‘: ‘‘‘cc‘, ' . ”I I I ‘ ~ - . - ‘at I I 1:; ‘ I i X X ( , ' I L_. ‘; ‘.. ‘§¢; ,r ~ _. ’ 3-» ’“ . I I ‘ I I I I _ ~ -' . ‘ j‘ f . ‘ ’v / 2 I / ___g_ z T‘ 4.? 5‘ - ~ . ‘ -I? ’ I If '-' v ‘S *‘ / K.’ II I . v‘ =3 .3‘ -7‘. I
  • 13. EXPLORE. EXERT. AS YOU GET OLDER, REALLY GREAT. BUT DON'T FORGET TO VACCINATE. Now’s the time to help prevent Shingles with ZOSTAVAX” (Zoster Vaccine Live). ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that helps prevent Shingles in adults 50 years of age or older. Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. The virus stays in your body and can resurface at any time as Shing| es—a painful, blistering rash. And no matter how healthy you feel, your risk increases as you get older. The sooner you get vaccinated with ZOSTAVAX, the better your chances of protecting yourself from Shingles. In fact, the AC| P* of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) recommends that appropriate adults 60 years of age and older get vaccinated to help prevent Shingles. Talk to your health care professional to see if ZOSTAVAX is right for you. ZOSTAVAX is given as a single shot. ZOSTAVAX cannot be used to treat Shingles, or the nerve pain that may follow Shingles, once you have it. For more information, visit ZOSTAVAX. com or call 1-877-9 SHINGLES. ABOUT ZOSTAVAX ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that is used for adults 50 years of age or older to prevent Shingles (also known as zoster). Important Safety Information - ZOSTAVAX does not protect everyone, so some people who get the vaccine may still get Shingles. - You should not get ZOSTAVAX if you are allergic to any of its ingredients, including gelatin or neomycin, have a weakened immune system, take high doses of steroids, or are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. You should not get ZOSTAVAX to prevent chickenpox. - Talk to your health care professional if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as PNEUMOVAX°23 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent) because it may be better to get these vaccines at least 4 weeks apart. - Possible side effects include redness, pain, itching, swelling, hard lump, warmth, or bruising at the injection site, as well as headache. - ZOSTAVAX contains a weakened chickenpox virus. Tell your health care professional if you will be in close contact with newborn infants, someone who may be pregnant and has not had chickenpox or been vaccinated against chickenpox, or someone who has problems with their immune system. Your health care professional can tell you what situations you may need to avoid. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www. fda. gov/ medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088. Please read the Patient Information on the adjacent page for more detailed information. "ACIP= Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Before you get Shingles, get vaccinated. 0 Merck Helps Having trouble paying for your Merck medicine? Merck may be able to help. Visit www. merck. com/ merckhelps Copyright ©2012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck & Co. , Inc. All rights reserved. VACC-1016603-0025 05/12
  • 14. Patient Information about 9989115 ZOSTAVAX” (pronounced "ZOS tah vax”) Generic name: Zoster Vaccine Live You should read this summary of information about ZOSTAVAX before you are vaccinated. If you have any questions about ZOSTAVAX after reading this page, you should ask your health care provider. This information does not take the place of talking about ZOSTAVAX with your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider. Only your health care provider can decide if ZOSTAVAX is right for you. iumclsl ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that is used for adults 50 years of age or older to prevent shingles (also known as zoster). ZOSTAVAX contains a weakened chickenpox virus (varicella-zoster virus). ZOSTAVAX works by helping your immune system protect you from getting shingles. If you do get shingles even though you have been vaccinated, ZOSTAVAX may help prevent the nerve pain that can follow shingles in some people. ZOSTAVAX does not protect everyone, so some people who get the vaccine may still get shingles. ZOSTAVAX cannot be used to treat shingles, or the nerve pain that may follow shingles, once you have it. Wh t in kn w $m9 szauses_i1Z Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Once you have had chickenpox, the virus can stay in your nervous system for many years. For reasons that are not fully understood, the virus may become active again and give you shingles. Age and problems with the immune system may increase your chances of getting shingles. Shingles is a rash that is usually on one side of the body. The rash begins as a cluster of small red spots that often blister. The rash can be painful. Shingles rashes usually last up to 30 days and, for most people, the pain associated with the rash lessens as it heals. Copyright ©2006 Merck Sharp 8: Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck 8: Co. , Inc. All rights reserved. 9 You should not get ZOSTAVAX if you: I are allergic to any of its ingredients. I are allergic to gelatin or neomycin. I have a weakened immune system (for example, an immune deficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, or HIV/ AIDS). I take high doses of steroids by injection or by mouth. I are pregnant or plan to get pregnant. You should not get ZOSTAVAX to prevent chickenpox. Children should not get ZOSTAVAX. 9imfl ZOSTAVAX is given as a single dose by injection under the skin. ymmmm 9 You should tell your health care provider if you: I have or have had any medical problems. I take any medicines, including non-prescription medicines, and dietary supplements. I have any allergies, including allergies to neomycin or gelatin. I had an allergic reaction to another vaccine. I are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. I are breast-feeding. Tell your health care provider if you expect to be in close contact (including household contact) with newborn infants, someone who may be pregnant and has not had chickenpox or been vaccinated against chickenpox, or someone who has problems with their immune system. Your health care provider can tell you what situations you may need to avoid. gag I get ZQSTAVAX with gjher vaccines? Talk to your health care provider if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as the flu vaccine. Talk to your health care provider if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as PNEUMOVAX®23 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent) because it may be better to get these vaccines at least 4 weeks apart. Z The most common side effects that people in the clinical studies reported after receiving the vaccine include: 0 redness, pain, itching, swelling, hard lump, warmth, or bruising where the shot was given. 0 headache The following additional side effects have been reported with ZOSTAVAX: I allergic reactions, which may be serious and may include difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have an allergic reaction, call your doctor right away. chickenpox fever hives at the injection site joint pain muscle pain nausea rash rash at the injection site swollen glands near the injection site (that may last a few days to a few weeks) Tell your health care provider if you have any new or unusual symptoms after you receive ZOSTAVAX. For a complete list of side effects, ask your health care provider. Call 1-800-986-8999 to report any exposure to ZOSTAVAX during pregnancy. 9 Z TAVAX? Active Ingredient: a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus. Inactive Ingredients: sucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L—g| utamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride. This page summarizes important information about ZOSTAVAX. If you would like more information, talk to your health care provider or visit the website at www. ZOSTAVAX. com or call 1-800-622-4477. Rx only Issued June 2011 Distributed by: Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck & Co. , Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA VACC-1016603-0025 05/12
  • 15. It's a first. It's silver. It's patriotic. And it's a steal. Washington crossing the Delaware. Eisenhower launching l}Day. Kennedy rescuing the crew of PT 109. These men made history. This set made history To celebrate the bicentennial of America, the U. S. Mint struck this special three-piece proof set honoring these three American presidents—and our 200th birthday. To capture the bicentennial spirit, the coins in the set are dua| ~dated 1776-1976. This set was so popular over 4 million were sold. Unlike the regular circulating coins of the day, these coins are struck in 40% precious silver. It's the first commemorative U. S. Mint Proof Set ever. It's also the first proof set to feature all dual-dated coins. And finally, it's the first U. S. Proof Set to include a Silver Dollar. Prices and availability subject to change without notice. Past performance is not a predictor of future performance. Note: GovMint. com is a private distributor of worldwide government coin issues and is not affiliated with the United States government. Americans love proof coins from the U. S. Mint. Each coin is struck twice from specially prepared dies and has deeply-mirrored surfaces and superb frosty images. And you know you've got a real piece ofAmerican history when you hold this set—the red white and blue holder is spectacular! Now for the steal part. .. This first-ever Bicentennial Silver Proof Set sold out at the mint three decades ago. When you consider how much prices have risen since then, you might expect to pay $100 or more to buy this set today. But for this special offer, we are releasing our entire stock of Bicentennial Silver Proof Sets for only $49 each. Or better yet, buy five and pay only $39 each! Facts and figures were deemed accurate as of May 201 2.©GovMint. com, 2012 Order now risk free We expect our small quantity of Bicentennial Silver Proof Sets to disappear quickly at this special price. We urge you to call now to get yours. You must be satisfied with your set or return it within 30 days of receipt for a prompt refund (less s&h). Buy more and SAVE 1776-1976 Bicentennial Silver Proof Set $49 +5/h 5 for only $39 each +5/h To| |—Free 24 hours a day Offer Code BPFZOO-03 Please mention this code when you call. fiGovM1NT. Co L 1: g ml 1: uni mi rl< lit t lIvl- mun wnr. i.’7sIlIt 14101 Southcross Drive W. Dept. BPFZOO-03 Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www. GovMint. com ACCREDITED BUSINESS
  • 16. Inspiring people to care about the planet NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization “for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge. " NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MAGAZINE EDITDR IN CHIEF TEXT PNOTOGRAPHV DESIGNIART com I RESEARCH E-Put-ILISIIING ADMINISTRATIDN PRODUCTION SERVICES Chris John: DEPuTv EDiToR Victoria Pope CREATIVE DIRECTOR Bill Marr EXECUTIVE EDITORS Dennis R. Dimick (Eni/ llonlrlerrl). Kurt Mutchler (Photography), Jamie Shreeve (Science) MANAGING eoiron Lesley B, Rogers DePuTv DIRec1DR: Marc Silver. sronv DEVELDPMENT eDrroR: Barbara Paulsen ARTICLES enrronz Oliver Payne seriion EDITDRS: Lynn Addison (Features), Robert Kunzig (Environment), Peter Miller (Expeditions). EDITDR AT LARGE: Cathy Newman FEATURES EDiTons: Glenn Oeland. Jane Vessels EDITOR. MIssIoN PRo. iEcTs: Hannah Bloch AssoCIATE EDIToRs: Jeremy Berlin. Amanda 8. Fiegl sENioR wRITeRs: Tom O'Neill. A. R. Williams. wRiTeR: Peter Gwin. ADMINISTRATION: Nicholas Mott; Katia Andreassi. Lacey Gray coNTRiIauTiNG wRITERS: Caroline Alexander. Don Belt. Joel K. Bourne. Jr. , Robert Draper. Cynthia Gorney. Peter Hessler. Jenniler S. Holland, Mark Jenkins. David Ouammen DEPARTMENTS Dineirronz Margaret G. Zackowitz DEPUTV DIRECTOR! Luna Shyr EDIToR: Johnna Rizzo. ADMINIsTRATIoN: Catherine Zuckerman DePuTv Dinecronz Ken Geiger SENIDR EDITORS: Bill Douthitt (Special Editions). Kathy Moran (Natural History). Susan Welchman (Departments). EDITOR AT LARGE: Michael Nichols SENIOR PNoro EDITORS: Pamela Cheri. Alice Gabriner. Kim Hubbard. Todd James, Elizabeth Krist, Sarah Leen. Sadie Ouarrier PHOTO EDITOR sREciALisT: Deirdre Read. RESEARCI-i eDiToR: Mary McPeak STAFF PNoTocRAPNER: Mark Thiessen. sTuDio: Rebecca Hale DlGITAL IMAGING: Edward Samuel. Evan Wilder. PNoTo ENGlNEER| NGZ Walter Boggs. David Mathews. Kenii Yamaguchi RIGHTS MANAGER: Elizabeth Grady. ADMINISTRATION: Jenny Tiucano: Sherry L Brukbacher. Zahira Khan. Elyse Lipman. Jeanne M, Modderman. Elena Sheveiko. Jenna Turner. Tess Vincent DePuTv cneATIve Dinecron: Kaitlin M, Yamall DESIGN Dinecronz David C. Whitmore ART Dinecron: Juan Velasco. MAPS ninecron: William E. McNulty SENIOR DESIGN EDITORS: John Baxter. Elaine H. Bradley, DEsIoN eDIToR: Oliver R, Uberti seNioR GRAPHICS eDIToRs: Fernando G Baptista, Martin Gamache. Virginia W Mason. John Tomanio, Jason Treat. SENIOR CARTOGRAPHV EDITOR: Gus Platis. GRAPHICS eDIToRs: Jerome N. Cookson. Lawson Parker. ART REsEARcN EDiroR: Amanda Hobbs. sENioR DESIGNER: Betty Clayman-DeAt| ey. DESIGNER, DIGITAI. EDITIDN: Bethany Powell. PRDDucTioN si>EciAi. isTs: Stewart Bean. Sandi Owatverot—Nuzzo. Maggie Smith. Hannah Tak. Matthew Twombly ADMiNisrRArioN: Cinde Reichard; Trish Dorsey, Michael Kritikos DEPuTv IAAuAcIIr«: I EDITon: David Brindley SENIOR coPv EDITDR: Mary Beth Oelkers-Keegan coPv Eoirons: Kitry Krause. Cindy Leitner DEPUTV RESEARCH DIRECTOR: Alice S. Jones RESEARCH EDITDRS: Heidi Schultz, Elizabeth Snodgrass. Christy Ullrich. Barbara L. Wyckoll, seNioR RESEARCHERS: Karen C. Font. Nora Gallagher, David A. Lande. Nancie Maikowski, Taryn Salinas, Brad Sciiber PRODUCTION: Sandra Dane. ADMINISTRATIDN: Jacqueline Rowe Dcneclonz Melissa Wiley SENIDR wee PRoDucER: John Kondis. SENIOR vIDeo PRoDuceR: Hans Weise ASSOCIATE WEB PRDDucER: William Barr, Vioeo PRoDuceR: Spencer Millsap INTERACTIVE DEVELOPER: Jaime Hritsik. PRoDucTioN SPECIALIST: Susan Park Lee Karen Dutort Sligh (Asst to the Editor in Chief), Carol L Dumont (Scheduling). Valarie Cribb-Chapman (Finance), Nikisha Long coMMuIIIcATIoNs VICE PRESIDENTS: Beth Foster, Mary Jeanne Jacobsen. Barbara S. Moftet IIIAGE coLLEcTIoN. vioeo ARCHIVE AND sAI. Es SENIOR vice PRESIDENT! Maura A, Mulvihill; William D Perry. I. IanAnv DIRECTOR: Barbara Penfold Ferry; Renee Braden. Anne Marie Houppert. PuaI. IsNIND svsveus vicE PRESIDENT: Dave E. Smith. sENIoR PROJECT MANAGER: Gina L Cicotello, svsTEMs ADMiNisrRATons: Patrick Twomey; Robert Giroux. Casey Jensen senion Vice Iuiesineim Phillip L. Schlosser IMAGIND Vice PRESIDENT: Thomas J, Craig. GENERAL MANAGER: Bernard Ouarrlck; John Ballay. Neal Edwards, James P. Fay. Arthur N. Hondros. Gregory Luce. Ann Marie Pelish. Stephen L Robinson PRINTING: Joseph M. Anderson ouAI. iTv DIRECTDR: Ronald E Williamson; Clayton R Burneston. Michael G. Lappin, William D. Reichens, DIsTnIauTIoN DIRECTDR: Michael Swarr INTERNATIONAL EDITIONS EDITORS EDITORIAL DIRECTDR: Amy Kolczak PHOTO AND DESIGN EDITDR: Darren Smith. PHOTDGRAPHIC LiAISoN: Laura L Ford PRODUCTION: Angela Botzer ARABIC Mohamed Al Hammadi nnAzII. Matthew Shins auuaAnIA Krassimir Drumev CIIIIIA Ye Nan CRDATIA Hrvoie Prcic CZECHIA Tomas Turecek EsToNIA Erkki Peetsalu FRANCE Francois Marot CERMANV Erwin BrI. inner Gneece Maria Atmatzidou nuNGAnv Tamas Vitray INDIA Nilouter Venkatraman INDoNesIA Didi Kaspi Kasim IsnAEL Daphne Raz ITALV Marco Cattaneo JAPAN Shigeo Otsuka I<oReA Sun-ok Nam LATIN AMERICA Omar Lopez Vergara LITiIuANIA Frederikas Jansonas nETREnI. ANDs/ eeI. eIuM Aart Aarsbergen Nonnic couirrnies Karen Gunn PoI. AND Martyna Wojciechowska Ponruorii. Goncalo Pereira RDMANIA Cristian Lascu nussui Alexander Grek sennIA Igor Rill sI. oveNIA Mariia Javornik sum Josep Cabello TAIwAN Roger Pan TRAILAND Kowit Phadungruangkii Tunkev Nesibe Bat ADVERTISING 161 Sixth Avenue. New York. NY. 10013: Phone 212-610-5500: Fax‘ 212-610-5505 EXECUTIVE vice PRESIDENT AND wanI. DwIDE PuDLIsNER: Claudia Malley, NATIDNAL ADVERTISING DiREcToR: Robert Amberg. VICE PRESIDENT MARKETING: Jenifer Berman. VICE PRESIDENT BUSINESS AND oPERATIoNS: Margaret Schmidt. NATIDNAL MANAGER: Tammy Abraham INTERNATIONAL MANAGlNG DiREcToR: Charlie Attenborough. DiREcToRs: Nadine Heggie (International). Rebecca Hill (Marketing), David Middis (British Isles) cousuuen MARKETING vicE PRESIDENT wDRLDwIDE: Terrence Day. DIREcToRs: Christina C Alberghini (Member Services). Anne Barker (Renewals), Richard Brown (New Business), John MacKethan (Financial Planning and Retail Sales). John A Seeley (International) NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC I AUGUST 2012 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETV CNAIRMAN AND CEO John Fahey PRESIDENT Tim T. Kelly Execunve MANAGEMENT LEGAL AND INTERNATIONAL EDiTioNs: Terrence B. Adamson ENTERPRISESZ Linda Berkeley CHIEF D| GlTAL OFFICERS John Caldwell TELEvisioN PnoDucTioN: Maryanne G. Culpepper MISSION PRDGRAMS: Terw D. 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Jr. , Michael Pillsbury, Susan Pillsbury. Sally Engelhard Pingree. W Russell Ramsey. Catherine E. Reynolds. Victoria P Sant, 8. Francis Saul ll, Ted Waiit. Sam R Walton. Garry A Weber. Tracy R Wolstencrott EDUCATION FOUNDATION DDARD OF GOVERNORS CHAIRMAN: John Fahey vicE GNAIRMAN: Patrick F. Noonan Brendan P, Bechtel. Jack Dangerrnond. Gilbert M, Grosvenor. Charles 0. Holliday. Jr. . Gary E. Knell. Gerry Lentest. Lyle Logan. Julie A. McGee. Floretta Dukes McKenzie. William K Reilly. Alex Trebek. Anthony A Williams RESEARCR AND EXPLDRATIDN COMMITTEE CRAIRMAN: Peter H. Raven VICE CHAIRMAN: John M. Fmncls Kamaliit S Bawa, Colin A. Chapman. Keith Clarke, Steven M Colman. J. Emmett Dutty. Philip Gingerich. Carol P Harden. Jonathan B, Losos, John 0’Lough| in, Naomi E Pierce. Elsa M. Redmond. Thomas B Smith, Wirt H Wills. Melinda A. Zeder EXPLDRERS-IN-RESIDENCE Robert Ballard, James Cameron. Wade Davis. Jared Diamond. Sylvia Earle. J. Michael Fay. Beverly Joubert. Dereck Jouben. 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  • 17. National Geographic Shorts NATIONAL El GEOGRAPHIC 5'10"“ DOOMSDAY 2 NATIONAL I2 GEOGRAPHIC , t. ":" _-. 5 _. ' 3:2,: v-3' . . NATIONAL l: lc. £ocRAI= Hic 5h°"t5 nulmessenflal LANDING 2iJi2 . MARC KAUFMAN ‘7‘7 NATIONAL El GEOGRAPHIC 5h°"t5 SHARK Available wherever ebooks are sold. Find us on Facebook www. facebookcom/ NatGeoBooks
  • 18. IILTEIIS Titanic I would not fully agree with Robert Ballard and Eva Hart that the Titanic is a gravesite. By their definition. wouldn't all wrecks from the earliest points of history be considered gravesites? Is the Titanic more of a gravesite because of When does a wreck not become a gravesite? What about a wreck that contains gold, silver, or historical treasure? Titanic was a great loss indeed. but when you compare that sinking with the losses during World War I. there is no comparison. Since Titanic’s discovery, she has been photographed, filmed. analyzed. and sadly. robbed. Let us now leave her and her dead in peace on the ocean floor and move on. NICK HART Beverley, England I was intrigued by the photo on page 82. the group of workers at the Belfast shipyard. To the immediate left is a worker who appears to be a ghost. I can see right through FEEDBACK Some readers responded to the technical aspects of the Titanic story, others focused on emotion. THADDEUS B. KUBIS Sheffield, Massachusetts him to the rivets behind him. Intriguing, to say the least. DAVID MECHAM Seattle. Washington According to Bill Sauder, the RMS Titanic, lnc. s director of Titanic research, the ghostly appearance is most likely due to an attempt to improve the composition of the photo by removing the figure standing in a pit. The figure probably wouldn't have been visible in the newspapers of 1912, EMAIL ngsforum@ngm. com TWITTER @NatGeoMag 6 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 AUGUST 2012 which had very poor black-and- white contrast. The article refers to Titanic as “the greatest ship that ever sai| ed. ” Maybe in 1912 it was the greatest ship, but there have been many great ships built in the past hundred years. The Titanic was a beautiful vessel, inside and out, but it did not even complete its first voyage. I think the author got a little carried away with the legend. CHUCK JOHNSON Irving, Texas Page 95 reads: “No ship since the Titanic has been sunk by an iceberg in the North Atlantic. " On January 30. 1959, the Danish ship Hans Hedtoft sank south of Greenland after striking an iceberg. It was well north of the route of the Titanic but still in the Atlantic. NIELS MDLLER CHRISTENSEN Vlborg. Denmark Hans Hedtoft’s telegrapher sent an SOS that the ship had collided with an iceberg, but no visual confirmation was ever made. WRITE National Geographic Magazine, PO Box 98199. Washington, DC 20090-8199. Include name. address, and daytime telephone. Letters may be edited for clarity and length. GRAPHIC, JOHN TOMANIO. NGM STAFF
  • 19. 2t‘3E’, ,'i{l}, ,.C Give An Inspiring Gift n 2007 Pat Minnick, a professional artist, decided to establish a charitable gift annuity to support National Geographic. ’’I feel good knowing that National Geographic is doing so much to protect endangered wild1ife, ” says Pat. ”The environmental problems we face are vast, but by joining with National Geographic and their history of remarkable accomplishments, I know we can pass on a more beautiful world. " Pat now receives a guaranteed life income and is a direct part of the Society's efforts to inspire people to care about the planet. For more information about a charitable gift annuity or other ways to include National Geographic in your Pat Minnick included estate plans, please see below. National Geographic in her fi“““°‘“' Pm“ SAMPLE ANNUITY RATES FOR ONE BENEFICIARY (Rates at other ages available upon request. ) Age 65=4.7% Age 75= 5.8% Age 85= 7.8% Rates are subject to eluuzge. Please Contact us for the most current rates. TO MAKE YOUR BEQUEST CONTACT US: to National Geographic, please use the following Phone: (800) 226-4438 language: ”To the National Geographic Society in Email: plannedgiftinfo@ngs. org Washington, D. C., I give % of my estate. ” Web: www. nationalgeographic. org/ donate or you can name a fixed donar amount‘ The . lational Geograpliic Society is a 501(c)(3), tax—cxempt organization. Please send me information about a National Geographic charitable gift annuity! Birthdatels) Minimum age 50. Pnynzeizts begin at age 60. Amt: :‘ $10,000 ‘ $50,000 ‘ $100,000 Phme l Other (wminmnzgifr$10,000) Ema“ l Send me information on including Mail to? National Geographic 505199’ National Geographic in my will. Office of Estate Planning 1 have already included National Geographic 1145 17th Street N. W. in my will. Washington, D. (:. 2()()36—4688 Photo: Nel Cepeda
  • 20. 8 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC I AUGUST 2012
  • 21. I. ’ n, Unlted s'taté€'. .,’-"'- - It's sp| ashdown$fqr_ Lulu, a Parson Ruésejl. ‘ terrier playing under-' 5 water fetch in a Phoenix. - Arizona, pool. The clinch- ing momentrequired familiarity wifiythe pho- tographer, abdflendiye attempts; aqua'tl¢; -J1_§_€tiTf9, and perfecttiming: ' ‘ PHOTO: SETH CASTEEL, TANDEM STOCK
  • 22. early ‘ ilndla ‘. .Tree_s infused with . ‘,' “ nlig'ht7dwa'rf an 1“ » ‘ < if . morrling visitor to the 5 su v :1 rain forest on«Have| ock '4 Island Rajan. ~an Asian i from. -andvoccasionally swims in the Andaman Sea: i-. el_eph’ant retired . “]_p_gging! _tal(e_s the stroll “as part-of. his daily rdutine Pi-, lo‘ro: JODY MACDONALD Order prints of National Geogfaphicbh . c§, m? c ‘ otoé
  • 23. ’ « I »-r'
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  • 25. Chlna GETTV IMAGES If *2 J (J 5/ On his way to second place in a bee—wearing contest-in Hunan Province, a contestant disappears beneath a carpet of insects lured by a queen bee in a cage. A scale hewas standing upon tallied his total take: about 50 pounds of bees. PHOTO: CHINAFOTOPRESSI
  • 26. . ”When I learned my AFib puts me at 5 times greater risk of stroke, my first thought was about my family. " a. ‘ What is Pradaxa® (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) capsules? PRADAXA is a prescription blood-thinning medicine used to reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in people with atrial fibrillation not caused by a heart valve problem. PRADAXA can cause bleeding which can be serious and sometimes lead to death. Don't take PRADAXA if you currently have abnormal bleeding or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it. '‘ Boehringer lllll Ingelheim . . k Patient portrayal Your risk of bleeding with PRADAXA may be higher if you: are 75 years old or older, have kidney problems, have stomach or intestine bleeding that is recent or keeps coming back or you have a stomach ulcer, take other medicines that increase your risk of bleeding, like aspirin products, non-steroidal anti—inflammatorydrugs lNSA| Dsl and blood thinners, have kidney problems and take dronedarone lMultaq®l or ketoconazole tablets lNizoral®). Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have any of the following signs or symptoms of bleeding: any unexpected, severe, or uncontrollable bleeding; or bleeding that lasts a long time, unusual or unexpected bruising, coughing up or vomiting blood; or vomit that looks like coffee grounds, pink or brown urine;
  • 27. red or black stools (looks like for), unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain, headaches and feeling dizzy or weak. It is important to tell your doctor about all medicines, vitamins and supplements you take. Some of your other medicines may affect the way PRADAXA works. Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Don't stop taking PRADAXA without talking to your doctor as your risk of stroke may increase. Tell your doctor if you are planning to have any surgery, or medical or dental procedure, because you may have to stop taking PRADAXA for a short time. Ii vlrlll hicvla «film It‘I= ;;| Ili-ill’ lII= r‘jIr'll‘I= I<“. I'i v: r.Ill: x-fl -'; I‘Ir'Ir, Il ill‘1r’lllr, I‘ir-‘m vii AF"1l't uni -; :~: IuI-«soil in -, l ‘us: -:. Ir"i ~Ir; IivI¢—— gwiiliiiam FlI§: ,_| l:. _I'! :* riclai l: x«'fIurr: - vlfllli i'I~"Ik nl til! -’li(= -L. In C: l ~'illnI‘t-": ‘:. Il il‘ir: .Il fliiiiiilévlvi 'rI'—x-‘_lIr-r-—r-fl —iiju'-)i, (‘—— Ki-15 ‘J-_'t'*? .i nr-1,1: Iii-: ;IIi 'mIlr: ;II‘In Rial l: il; flIrcllt«; l|i wc; r.-. gr= xc, It= i.ii wircinl I: - iiI| ;x«: ,Ir: i;fl tr «, :x«: ;Itl= inIi. ~. vni vmriiontinl v1lh»ru= - , lCll<. ‘lflC, l i= li‘lic .1ircw= xcfl icxwcir lav/ ale, vii 4:-: nilml lllI, ll, l,i, (=-‘ '-'/ -Ital’-, lflIt-‘ Nev ‘vii-L: i!l. l-. I.= ‘ T-item-il t7—n‘s. ~. Ric» -‘. ,l, 'l-—t‘t-. ,It" ‘it-—i-‘til’! -ll'l-i, u:. Ask your doctor about ¥¢, :’*riii/ ti‘ ' Ir‘ dabigatran etexilate 5‘ CAPSULES isomg‘ PRADAXA can cause indigestion, stomach upset or burning, and stomach pain. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www. fda. gov/ medwatch or call l-800-FDA-i088. Please see more detailed Medication Guide on next page. H', .~'c, /a; x,_-' dablgalran etexilate CAPSULES l50mg For more information or help paying for your medication, call l-877-PRADAXA or visit pradaxacom. PX235700CONS
  • 28. Pradaxa“ MEDICATIDII GUIDE _ I ‘ PRADAXA (pra dax’ a) dabigalran etexilate ! (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) CAPSULES 150mg (; apsu| es Read this Medication Guide before you start taking PRADAXA and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment. What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? - PRADAXA can cause bleeding which can be serious, and sometimes lead to death. This is because PRADAXA is a blood thinner medicine that lowers the chance of blood clots fonning in your body. 0 You may have a higher risk of bleeding if you take PRADAXA and: 0 are over 75 years old 0 have kidney problems 0 have stomach or intestine bleeding that is recent or keeps coming back, or you have a stomach ulcer 0 take other medicines that increase your risk of bleeding, including: 0 aspirin or aspirin containing products 0 long-term (chronic) use of non-steroidal anti—inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) 0 warfarin sodium (Coumadin®, Jantoven®) 0 a medicine that contains heparin 0 clopidogrel (Plavix®) 0 prasugrel (Effient®) 0 have certain kidney problems and also take the medicines dronedarone (Multaq®) or ketoconazole tablets (Nizoral®). Tell your doctor if you take any of these medicines. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if your medicine is one listed above. 0 PRADAXA can increase your risk of bleeding because it lessens the ability of your blood to clot. While you take PRADAXA: 0 you may bruise more easily 0 it may take longer for any bleeding to stop. Call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of these signs or symptoms of bleeding: 0 unexpected bleeding or bleeding that lasts a long time, such as: 0 unusual bleeding from the gums 0 nose bleeds that happen often 0 menstrual bleeding or vaginal bleeding that is heavier than normal - bleeding that is severe or you cannot control - pink or brown urine - red or black stools (looks like tar) - bruises that happen without a known cause or get larger 0 cough up blood or blood clots - vomit blood or your vomit looks like "coffee grounds” 0 unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain - headaches, feeling dizzy or weak Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed. Do not stop taking PRADAXA without first talking to the doctor who prescribes it for you. Stopping PRADAXA may increase your risk of a stroke. PRADAXA may need to be stopped, it possible, for one or more days before any surgery, or medical or dental procedure. If you need to stop taking PRADAXA for any reason, talk to the doctor who prescribed PRADAXA for you to find out when you should stop taking it. Your doctor will tell you when to start taking PRADA)(A again after your surgery or procedure. See “What are the possible side effects of PRADAXA? " for more information about side effects. What is PRADAXA? PRADA)(A is a prescription medicine used to reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in people who have a medical condition called atrial fibrillation. With atrial fibrillation, part of the heart does not beat the way it should. This can lead to blood clots forming and increase your risk of a stroke. PRADA)(A is a blood thinner medicine that lowers the chance of blood clots forming in your body. it is not known if PRADAXA is safe and works in children. Who should not take PRADAXA? Do not take PRADAXA if you: 0 currently have certain types of abnormal bleeding. Talk to your doctor, before taking PRADA)(A if you currently have unusual bleeding. - have had a serious allergic reaction to PRADA)(A. Ask your doctor if you are not sure. What should I tell my doctor before taking PRADAXA? Before you take PRADA)(A, tell your doctor if you: - have kidney problems - have ever had bleeding problems s have ever had stomach ulcers 0 have any other medical condition
  • 29. 0 are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if PRADA)(A will harm your unborn baby. 0 are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if PRADA)(A passes into your breast milk. Tell all of your doctors and dentists that you are taking PRADA)(A. They should talk to the doctor who prescribed PRADA)(A for you, before you have any surgery, or medical or dental procedure. Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non-prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Some of your other medicines may affect the way PRADA)(A works. Certain medicines may increase your risk of bleeding. See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? ” Especially tell your doctor if you take: 0 rifampin (Rifater, Rifamate, Rimactane, Rifadin) Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine. How should I take PRADAXA? 0 Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed by your doctor. 0 Do not take PRADAXA more often than your doctor tells you to. 0 You can take PRADAXA with or without food. 0 PRADAXA comes in a bottle or in a blister package. 0 Only open 1 bottle of PRADAXA at a time. Finish your opened bottle of PRADAXA before opening a new bottle. - After opening a bottle of PRADAXA, use within 4 months. See “How should I store PRADAXA? ” - When it is time for you to take a dose of PRADAXA, only remove your prescribed dose of PRADAXA from your open bottle or blister package. 0 Tightly close your bottle of PRADAXA right away after you take your dose. 0 Swallow PRADAXA capsules whole. Do not break, chew, or empty the pellets from the capsule. 0 if you miss a dose of PRADAXA, take it as soon as you remember. If your next dose is less than 6 hours away, skip the missed dose. Do not take two doses of PRADAXA at the same time. 0 Your doctor will decide how long you should take PRADAXA. Do not stop taking PRADAXA without first talking with your doctor. Stopping PRADAXA may increase your risk of stroke. 0 Do not run out of PRADA)(A. Refill your prescription before you run out. If you plan to have surgery, or a medical or a dental procedure, tell your doctor and dentist that you are taking PRADA)(A. You may have to stop taking PRADAXA for a short time. See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? ” 0 If you take too much PRADAXA, go to the nearest hospital emergency room or call your doctor. 0 Call your healthcare provider right away if you fall or injure yourself, especially if you hit your head. Your healthcare provider may need to check you. What are the possible side effects of PRADAXA? PRADAXA can cause serious side effects. 0 See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? ” 0 Allergic Reactions. In some people, PRADAXA can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, including hives, rash, and itching. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you get any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction with PRADAXA: 0 chest pain or chest tightness - swelling of your face or tongue 0 trouble breathing or wheezing 0 feeling dizzy or faint Common side effects of PRADAXA include: 0 indigestion, upset stomach, or burning 0 stomach pain Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects of PRADAXA. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. How should I store PRADAXA? 0 Store PRADAXA at room temperature between 59°F to 86°F (1 5°C to 30°C). After opening the bottle, use PRADAXA within 4 months. Safely throw away any unused PRADA)(A after 4 months. 0 Keep PRADAXA in the original bottle or blister package to keep it dry (protect the capsules from moisture). Do not put PRADAXA in pill boxes or pill organizers. 0 Tightly close your bottle of PRADAXA right away after you take your dose. Keep PRADAXA and all medicines out of the reach of children.
  • 30. General information about PRADAXA Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use PRADAXA for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give your PRADA)(A to other people, even if they have the same symptoms. It may harm them. This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about PRADA)(A. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about PRADAXA that is written for health professionals. For more information, go to www. PRADA)(A. com or call 1-800-542-6257 or (TIY) 1-800-459-9906. What are the ingredients in PRADAXA? Active ingredient: dabigatran etexilate mesyiate Inactive ingredients: acacia, dimethicone, hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, talc, and tartaric acid. The capsule shell is composed of carrageenan, FD&C Blue No. 2 (150 mg strength only), FD&C Yellow No.6, hypromellose, potassium chloride, titanium dioxide, and black edible ink. This Medication Guide has been approved by the U. S. Food and Drug Administration. Distributed try: Boehrin r Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc Ridge ' . CT osan USA Revised: January 2012 " Boehringer IIIII Ingelheim PRADAXA” is a registered trademark of Boehringer Ingelheim Phariria GmbH and Co. K13 and used under license. The other brands listed above are trademarks of their respective owners and are not trademarks of Boehringer Ingelheim Pharinaceuhcals, Inc. The owners of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, lric. , or its products. Copyright ©2012 Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED PX 1 50000CONS ADVERTISEMENT / y’j@"a“. @‘v; i& ‘pg www. meerkatsmovie. com tilms playing at a theater nearyou! 1' I FLYING IVIONSTERS 3“ wirH DAVID A'l'TliNl’iOROUGH www. tlyingmonsters-movie. com NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC
  • 31. 2‘/ .76/-BlLlTY TO GREET STRANGERS '-' '——I TZBC-G CONFIDENCE TO WIN THEM OVER The best part about learning a new language is using it. It connects you to the world in a whole new way. And you'll move with a swagger that mightjust take you by surprise. INDIVIDUAL LEVELS LEVELS 1,2, 3,48. 5 FREE 2-DAY SHIPPING. use PROMOCODE: ngs082 . I : (877) 206-5336 RosettaStone. com/ ability In n e H ‘L Livellfefluently. 3 Classic U. S. Stamps FREE Mint Condition Now get 3 classic U. S. stamps in mint condi- tion FREE! These stamps are hard to find! Send today for your three classic U. S. stamps (stamps vary) and you’ll also receive special collector’s information and other interesting stamps on approval. Limit one collection. Send today. I 3 Classic Mint U. S Stamps FREE 1 i L! fYes! Send me 3 Classic Mint Postage Stamps. Limit i §°"e°°"eCIi°"~ Travel with National Geographic. Explore the world with our experts. I FOSS ' : City/ Slate/ Zip I 1_838_966_3687 E Send coupon to: Mystic Stamp Company E ngexpeditiongcom/ ngm , Dept. GK972, 9700 Mill St. , Camden, NY 13316-9111 ,
  • 32. llO| f"" - . V ‘Gun is l This page features two photographs. one chosen by our editors and one chosen by our readers via online voting. For more information, go to rigmcom/ yourshot. [T L ’ , ' l/1"; , , _ : . -. t . . . , " . . _ 4*, I -I I. It u. 4 ‘RC V . < - . EDITORS'CHOlCE Wieslawa Dabrowska Gdansk, Poland To explore close-up photography, Dabrowska, an art restorer, turned to small objects at home, like flowers, fruits, and vegetables. Here the inside of a red pepper reminded her of a woman's neck, adorned with a ruff collar and red dress. READERS’ CHOICE Marie-Pier Couture Quebec City, Canada During a break from her job working with aerial photographs of cities, mining facilities, and forests around Canada, Couture, 30, visited one of her favorite animals at the zoo in St. -Félicien. She watched this polar bear drift lazily up and down in the water sev- eral times. 14 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 AUGUST 2012
  • 33. Remaking a Britislt Icon. i For decades the red telephone booth has been a much loved symbol of Britishness. The most popular model, the K6, was designed in 1935 by architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott to commemorate King George V's silver jubilee and became an instant classic. Nearly 70,000 . -' I were installed throughout the U. K. Now, though, the glass-and-cast- « ‘ / iron kiosks are mainly gathering dust, thanks to mobile phones. Thousands have been removed, sold overseas as curios, and used v , as everything from movie props to outdoor showers. 5‘ , » Others are being “adopted" under a British Telecommunications ' program in which communities buy a decommissioned kiosk for one ' ' ,3 pound (about $1.60). Westbury-sub-Mendip in Somerset, for instance, _ 1 _ _ . Iiiastorage lot in now claims one of the worlds smallest libraries, a refurbished booth ' ‘ England, decommis- with 150 books and DVDS. Villagers in Settle, North Yorkshire, made -/ 5,-0,, edK6,e1eph, ,,, e theirs "an art gal| ery—former'Queen guitarist Brian May exhibited _. »" [moths await there—for a touch of “bohemian rhapsody” on the green. —Roff Smith " refurbishment. PHOTO TOBY SMITH. REPORTAGE BY GETTY IMAGES . _
  • 34. . . x ' l A _‘ ‘ . ¢— . , _- 3. _. -* 3, . I‘ - “)1 I " , _. _, .. '— F ‘ an. i , . , i I . . . , ro- ‘ I, a ‘ ‘ . ' ~, . . ‘ 1 I I E . ’ ’ ' .5 . '. - -ii Sri Lanka tops the list of nations with fisheries targeting mob, ul'a rays (seen“. ~' . here at a" bustling Negambo market)’ . and mantas. India, Peru, Indonesia, -and China, .ronnd out the tdpfive. ix , ex ’ A ‘I ' ’. ‘ - 4. '1' V’ . 64 5 ~_ . 5 ‘ 2- " .1 — . - . - Oct _. .~ -‘ . . ' .3 ‘ ‘ ~- I ' ' a. e .2. . . _ I "-. 4‘; . I , ' . » a. 2 ~.
  • 35. cup. ‘ Manta and mobula ray numbers are falling as they’re hunted for Asian remedies. . , : ~/5; Ii! l ‘ at; s I In the ocean, manta and mobula rays move with exceptional grace, gliding and twirling with mouths agape to feed near the surface. Now an appetite for their gill rakers—filaments that filter out plankton, krill, and other food—has put their populations at risk, says a new study. Demand in China for dried gill rakers as pur- ported medicine for chicken pox and other ailments means a large manta can fetch several hundred dollars, versus $20 to $40 for its meat alone. Last year around 100,000 of the rays landed in global fish markets, the study estimates, boding ill for nearly a dozen mobulid species—many listed by the IUCN as vulnerable or near threatened. “As quickly as rays started appearing in markets, we fear they could disappear from the sea just as quickly, ” says Shawn Heinrichs, lead author of the report released by conservation groups WildAid and Shark Savers. Mobulid catches rose sharply about a decade ago. Despite increased fishing efforts, fewer and smaller rays are being caught, indicating populations in peril, says Heinrichs. On the flip side, the sublime creatures have proved a lucrative tourist draw—a ray of hope for the slow-to-reproduce sea dwellers. -Luna Shyr A?
  • 36. Go green without going slow. Driving a fuel-eft'icient* car shouldn’t mean sacrificing performance. It's this belief that drove us to develop the TD| ® Clean Diesel engine and a turbocharged hybrid. Both help maximize driving dynamics while helping minimize environmental impact. And we've expanded that thinking beyond cars to everything we do: from the first LEED® Platinum-certified automotive plant to working with the Surfrider Foundation to protect our oceans. It’s called thinking blue and it's how we're thinking beyond green. That's the Power of German Engineering. rfx , ~v Das Auto. VW. c0m/ fl1inl(l)lUe ‘firm l‘; r', "l, wHli‘tH', ‘ml. tw W/ Z v. |m: t: . VMH H‘ ". lll>' rm 1.1%, ‘ 2‘ lZ‘/ i'». ‘,yZ‘l1’tll/ ''Hl'Hl ; i i
  • 37. /“T , 1 CITY SOLUTIONS .416 4 _ -’ ‘ . _ <-I.1,§r (1 17. Mg] 1,1,3 Charting New York City's energy consumption block by block makes for powerful knowledge, according to researchers at Columbia University. By pointing out areas of intensive use, the mapmakers hope to help city officials, power companies, and landlords lower NYC’s carbon footprint. Seeing red on the map (key, below) doesn't have to be a negative though. Almost a million more people will call New York City home by 2030, too many for the town's dated energy-delivery systems to handle. Engineer Vijay Modi says that the crimson may , _ 5' 3’ hot. —Bruce Falconer point to buildings or even blocks 1.3 5" § '~. that could share resources. ‘‘$. §, ' Powering a building creates heat, and that excess can ‘~. ,_. ;: ' t . ._ ' a - . be siphoned to make a = _, ¢‘. ,~‘§ « , neighbor's shower . __ T‘/ 'C; ;§§$:5¢ “ M13133 T? ‘l'il~~'. .. § ' Q’ ‘V ~‘$ "~ Estimated annual energy consumption, 2009 (kWh per square meter of block area) l 2,500 and greater l 1,250-2,499 600-1,249 300-599 100-299 1-99 No data Open space A 100-watt lightbulb turned on for ten hours uses one kilowatt-hour (kWh) of energy. JEROME N. COOKSON. NGM STAFF SOURCES. COLUMBIA ENGINEERING AND EARTH INSTITUTE: NYC DEPARTMENT OF INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY AND TELECOMMUNICATIONS it BROOKLYN law «/2 iv II /4 :1 11’, f ~I THE BRONX § . '/4 7, / QUEENS I i I / ' Omi 1 CO 0km 1
  • 38. You are a partner, a friend and a fighter. If you have type 2 diabetes you still have a chance to control your blood sugar for yourself and those who depend on you most. Reducing your blood sugar can help reduce the risk of diabetes complications such as blindness, kidney disease, nerve damage and other serious health problems. If pills, diet and exercise aren’t enough, insulin is the most effective way to reduce your blood sugar. And today insulin comes in easy—to-use pens. SANOFI , ©2012 San0fi—aventis U. S. LLC, A SANOFI COMPANY. US. GLA. l2.0l. Oz17
  • 39. _-fill. .rk, I I VJ} ilvly Y . rv ail -Ii , _ - rl‘ ' N >1, ‘. -4: «- I-I '- '/ ,>- . ' I I ‘I’ ~ I IV’ .0 I , A t - / "" .3. 1.. .)’ i I I~‘ ‘. f’ . :2. if ‘iv *~’3%“**' ‘ ll, 9 l I ' " I: I‘ ‘ ' < . 5 ‘ x. f ‘ , . ~.: » l’ '; "_ “ -_. .- ' . ‘.- " ‘ — . l » I ‘I lit *2 l. ”>*'c‘ ll‘ I“ 71' E _‘» Mi . . ~— ‘ V’. «r. ‘ ' All ' ill I” I r - . ,»£f~_l '_ I , ll, llgll. 2 2.». . 2/_. _. . . - '1'. ,' ll . I ll " ' if l, ;,l_. . ll 1; / ’ / ylv ; _ I l I I . l ' ‘III , ' -1 , 3 , l__ 2. l . .,l. _, - , ., _, . / ll‘ « l u xx Ifiilllll Important Safety Information About Insulin: The most common side effect of insulin is low blood sugar. Some people may experience symptoms such as shaking, sweating, fast heartbeat, and blurred vision, while some experience no symptoms at all. That’s why it’s important to check your blood sugar often. Talk to your doctor about whether insulin is right for you. Learn more at UnderstandBloodSugarControl. com or call 1.866.923.0210.
  • 40. About half of our brain pathways are devoted to VISIOFI. IflT en . ,, , , . , —. . , ... "I Biologist Leslie Leinwand found Burmese pythons to be bighea ed, at least when they eat. In fact, with the exception of the brain (likely constrained by the skull), all of the snake’s organs studied grew between 30 and 100 percent after a meal. Portion size matters. Leinwand says, “The organs will just keep getting bigger and bigger as the meal does. ” And when the pythons do feast—it may be months or even a year between mea| s—reaction time is relatively fast. Organs start to grow at 12 hours and reach maximum size by 76 hours, shrinking back to normal in ten days, digestion done. The suite of enlarged organs, anchored by the heart, accommodates a metabolic rate 40 times normal. “It's like a thoroughbred running the Kentucky Derby, except for days on end, " says Leinwand. The python is building new tissue, not swelling up—a feat that Leinwand thinks might translate to treating heart disease in humans. Her team hopes the three—| ipid combo that triggers the cardiac cell growth may combat heart atrophy in cancer patients and astronauts. Or, conversely, that disease-enlarged hearts might mimic the python ticker's regression phase and go down a size. —Johnna Rizzo X -rays of u Burmese python (below) expose the 40 percent increase of its heart after a meal, which can equal 75 percent of its body mass. II; /', .' r ‘ 1‘ r , V .1 ” . I ‘ 4 s_ I I . ? COLORED X-RAYS HUGH TURVEY. GRAPHIC ALVARO VALINO SOURCE LAURA BALCER, UNIVERSITY OF PENNSYLVANIA
  • 41. lE, :‘u_I; ‘lIlII Inn: .; l;; li: n'w'l ' W N, —I ! "_t-(LCIEI I. §(gIT'I: r‘]4#1l‘r| ‘I. :V: ;_IIIIll( ma f ' ll . ~1’r. ~"rr 66 . .i -V. _ ]’J‘| “‘ -Q‘ ‘ ll ‘Obs ‘‘II‘III IE/ I// I, “ _ Ii’. '1 HI I 5II. a'. ';vsz-ed Relflil 3395.. . W, on our 1 F0!‘ :1 lilllited ‘ Time Only ‘ ; 9 FT Amazing New Hybrid Runs Without Gas The new face of time? Stauers Compendium Hybrid fuses form and functionality for UNDER $30! Read on. .. nnovation is the path to the future. Stauer takes that seriously. That's why we developed the Compendium Hybrid, a stunningly-designed hybrid chronograph with over one dozen analog and digital functions that is more versatile than any watch that we have ever engineered. New technology usually starts out at astronomical prices and then comes down years later. We skipped that step to allow everyone the chance to expe- rience this watch’s brilliant fusion of technology and style. We originally priced the Stauer Compendium Hybrid at $395 based on the market for advanced sports watches. .. but then stopped ourselves. Since this is no ordinary economy, we decided to start at 92% off from day one. That means this new technological marvel can be yours for only $29! Welcome at new Digital Revolu- tion. With the release of the dynamic new Compendium, those boxy, plastic wrist calculators of the past have been replaced by this luxurious LCD chronograph that is sophisticated enough for a formal evening out, but rugged and tough enough to feel at home in a cockpit, camping expedi- tion or covert mission. The watch’s extraordinary dial seam- lessly blends an analog watch face with a stylish digital display. Three super- bright luminous hands keep time along the inner dial, while a trio of circular LCD windows track the hour, minutes and seconds. An eye-catching digital semi-circle animates in time with the second hand and shows the day of the week. The watch also fea- tures a rotating bezel, stopwatch and alarm functions and green, electro- luminescence backlight. The Com- pendium Hybrid secures with a rugged stainless steel band and is water- resistant to 3 ATMs. Guaranteed to change the way you look at time. At Stauer, we believe that when faced with an uphill economy, innovation and better value will always provide a much-needed boost. Stauer is so confident of their latest hybrid timepiece that we offer a money-back-guarantee. If for any reason you aren’t fully impressed by the performance and innovation of the Stauer Compendium Hybrid for $29, simply return the watch within 30 days for a full refund of the purchase price. The unique design of the Compendium greatly limits our production, so don't hesitate to order! Remember: progress and innovation wait for no one! y3(AI_Cl: l_S_P_EC$; — Three LCD windows show hour, minute and second - Stop watch function . ‘V L - Fits 6 3/4"—8 3/4" wrist E-I ; Offer Limited to First 2500 Respondents Compendium Hybrid Watch—$}9’S' Now $2925 +S&P Save over 3365 Other discounts and coupons do not apply to this exclusive offer. Call now to take advantage oft/ air limited oflen 1 -888- 324-43 70 Please mention this code when you call. 14101 Southcross Drive V/ ., Stauete Dept. VHW479-03 www. stauer. com Smart Luxuries—Surprising Prices Burnsvillc, Minnesota 55337
  • 42. he i3euty the Beast or almost a hundred years it lay dormant. Silently building strength. At 10,000 feet high, it was truly a sleeping giant, a vision of peaceful power. Until every- thing changed in one cataclysmic moment. On May 18, 1980, the once-slumbering beast awoke with violent force and revealed its greatest secret. It was one of nature's most impressive displays of power. Mount St. Helens erupted, sending a column of ash and smoke 80,000 feet into the atmosphere. From that chaos, something beautiful emerged. .. our spectac- ular Helenite Necklace. Produced from the heated volcanic rock dust of Mount St. Helens, this brilliant green creation has captured the attention of jewelry designers worldwide. Today you can wear this 6‘/2-carat stunner for the exclusive price of only $129! Your satisfaction is guaranteed. Our Helenite Necklace puts the gorgeous green stone center stage, with a faceted pear-cut set in gold-layered .925 sterling silver. The explosive origins of the stone are echoed in the flashes of light that radiate as the piece swings gracefully from its 18" gold-plated sterling silver chain. Today the volcano sits quiet, but this unique _ .1 piece of natural history con- tinues to erupt with gorgeous green fire. Your satisfaction is guar- anteed. Bring home the Helenite Necklace and see for yourself. If you are not com- pletely blown away by the rare beauty of this exceptional stone, simply retum the neck- lace within 30 days for a full refund of your purchase price. Helenite Necklace (6 ‘/2 ctw)—$249 $129 Helenite Earrings (3 ctw)—$249 $129 Helenite Set (necklace 81; earrings)—$488 $199 Save $299 Call now to take advantage of this extremely limited ofi‘er. Promo tion 31 Code HEL233_01 — 6 ‘/2 ctw Helenite in gold over sterling ‘ “ Please mention this code when you call. ' 18" 9°| d‘f“5ed Chain l4l0l Southcross Drive W, Dept. HEL233—0l, Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www. stauer. com Add the 3—carat earrings! Stauer has a Better Business Bureau Rating of A+
  • 43. NEXT - I O Slzlng Seventy million years ago the largest known mammal weighed only six pounds. From then, some animals grew steadily. But slowly. Large-scale changes in body size actually took millions of generations. So say scientists led by Alistair Evans of Australia’s Monash University, who studied fossil records of 28 groups of mammals, including elephants, primates, and whales. The team is the first to get hard numbers on just how long IT TAKES A MINIMUM OF 3 MILLION GENERATIONS for a dolphin-size aquatic mammal to increase to the size of a blue whale. (‘T4 1000 times (X) ONE MILLION GENERATIONS change in size 1.6 MILLION GENERATIONS . for a sheep-size land mammal to increase to the size of an elephant 100x 5 MILLION GENERA11ONS 0 for a rabbit-size mammal 1,000>< T j T j j 24 MILLION GENERATIONS for a mouse-size mammal 100,000x it takes to get a lot bigger. After all, gaining girth Isn't just about adding muscle and bone. It's also about reengineering hearts and eyes—even metabolism and diet. And limbs need to carry more weight, which may explain another revelation: Whales can grow twice as fast, likely because water helps support newly added mass. Evans adds that evolving larger takes ten times as long as evolving smaller, reaffirming just how much sheer size is to be prized. —Gretchen Parker BUT IT TAKES ONLY A MINIMUM OF 0.1 MILLION GENERATIONS for an elephant-size land mammal to decrease to the size of a sheep. +100 I| I|| III. I IIIIIIIIIIIII I I II| II| |I| ‘|I IIIIIII IlI‘I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIHIIIIIII III I IIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII I I! .II. IIIII IIIIIIIIIIIII I III IIIIIII I I I II| I|I| Il. I I I I IIIIIII III I IIIIIIIII ET CETERA Prostate cancer is discovered in a 2,200-YEAR-OLD MUMMV in his 50s—the second oldest known case and further evidence for a genetic link for the disease. CHICKPEAS AND FAVA BEANS from Syria are among the 25,000 samples recently added to the Arctic seed vault. ' MADAGASCAR was first settled 1,200 years ago by 30 women from Indonesia, say researchers from Massey University. The French government ordered a phaseout of “MADEMOISELLE" to identify unmarried women on official forms. GRAPHIC: SIWEN LI. SOURCE: ALISTAIR EVANS, MONASH UNIVERSITY, AUSTRALIA
  • 44. _ l , 1 l'_ V ' V V l l V V xi l ‘ _ k _ N l ~ » l I I ‘l l ' l / Q ‘I . r- ' ' ' I ’7', .n: ' H ' II‘ ,1'l, l§ , I‘ ll ; . “ ‘ ‘N I: -, ‘A. ’ H‘ g‘/ I | V I ‘ V. . . . I . / ~ _ 1-’ - ’ 5- ’ I " I I‘ I ‘ ‘ « ll‘ { 1.’ I1, ‘ l l l l l l " l. » l 7 l ‘: , fl ' : ll. f_, l,; ,’{_ / ’(t: .,jl. 'i; . ‘$5’/ |’/ q‘-, ~v U’. - , , ":3" 1 l ' l l, ‘ ' V, /V . ‘ ’ .9. ‘z "1 ll 5'; '{j”. , ll, ' I l ' . - I ‘l i ‘ "l [V]. V V. _ 1,. ’ After 1150 years of broken promises, the Oglala Lakota people of the Pine Ridge Reservationiri South Dakota are nurturing their tribal Eustoms, language, and beliefs. A rare, intimate portrait shbws their resilience in the face of hardship, , . ' ' ‘ ~ _ ‘7 Riders take a break during a day of activities to mark the 1876 defeat of Lt. Col. George Armstrong Custer. , . -1: l . I , , v ' ’ l l , ' I I * l
  • 45. s . ‘Ii inf/ i 1.‘ ‘J 4., _. r, . ', ,_v. , : - . ~,. ' IA‘/ llifitklu-' -. ;¢; «:‘«-‘r'lf,4:3 . " L. ‘ . r/ ‘. '| l il~ . V_ ! I I K . I K ,
  • 46. . I . I I_, ' * — I -‘ n I , . I Q. I I ‘xv’, Wt‘: Y}: ‘, I I 4’ Q1 l‘ ‘n. .. . ... .. . A,. ¢.<- A/1‘
  • 47. Stanley Good Voice Elk, a heyoka, burns sage to ritually purify his surroundings. In Oglala spirituality, heyokas are recipients of sacred visions who employ clownish speech and behavior to provoke spiritual awareness and “keep balance, " says Good Voice Elk. Through his mask, he channels the power of an inherited spirit, which transforms him into Spider Respects Nothing.
  • 48. i ll l. lll. l=‘-"ll ‘liwl ; -ll; g «I , ‘ , ‘-« l‘ ‘. Three—year—old C. J. Shot bathes among dishes. The Oglala concept of tiospaye—the unity of the extended family—means that homes are often overcrowded, especially with the severe housing shortage on the
  • 49. reservation. In 2008, when this photograph was made, 22 people lived in the three-bedroom house. “These houses aren’t who we are, " says Oglala activist Alex White Plume. IAN WILL WAY Pol III!
  • 50. BY ALEXANDRA FULLER PHOTOGRAPHS BY AARON HUEY ALMOST EVERY HISTORICAL atrocity has a geographically symbolic core, a place whose name conjures up the trauma of a whole people: Ausch- witz, Robben Island, Nanjing. For the Oglala Lakota of the Pine Ridge In- dian Reservation that place is a site near Wounded Knee Creek, 16 miles northeast of the town of Pine Ridge. From a distance the hill is unremarkable, an- other picturesque tree—spotted mound in the creased prairie. But here at the mass grave of all those who were killed on a winter morning more than a century ago, its easy to believe that certain energies—acts of tremendous violence and of transcendent love—hang in the air for- ever and possess a forever half—life. Alex White Plume, a 60-year-old Oglala La- kota activist, lives with his family and extended family on a 2,000—acre ranch near Wounded Knee Creek. White Plume’s land is lovely be- yond any singing, rolling out from sage—covered knolls to creeks bruised with late summer lush- ness. From certain aspects, you can see the Badlands, all sun—bleached spires and scoured pinnacles. And looking another way, you can see the horizon-crowning darkness of the Black Hills of South Dakota. One hot and humid day in early August, 36 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - AUGUST 2012 S, DAK. PINE RIDGE REBR UNITED STATES . , , _—__; ,., ,,, » NGM MAPS
  • 51. -«rs ”zI"i‘3‘€7"; ‘ -. .__, ____M_____. _ L g _) . ‘_A‘. —"‘ ‘T ‘ flu» VVVVV 7- ’ T Oglala youths hold an upside-down f| ag—an international symbol of distress and an act of defiance toward the U. S. government—at a rally to commemorate a 1975 shoot-out between American Indian Movement (AIM) activists and FBI agents. Two agents and one AIM member died; A| M’s Leonard Peltier was jailed for life. THE OGLALA SIOUX TRIBE OF PINE RIDGE CALL THEMSELVES THE OGLALA LAKOTA. (THEIR FLAG IS OPPOSITE, TOP. ) THEY ARE ONE OF SEVERAL GROUPS THAT MAKE UP THE SIOUX NATION. "SIOUX" COMES FROM THE NAME USED FOR THEM BV THEIR ALGONQUIAN~SPEAKlNG ENEMIES AND ADAPTED BY FRENCH TRADERS. PINE RIDGE RESERVATION
  • 52. I drove out to interview White Plume in a screened outdoor kitchen he had just built for his wife. Hemp plants sprouted thickly all over their garden. “Go ahead and smoke as much as you like, ” White Plume offered. “I always tell people that: Smoke as much as you want, but you won’t get very high. ” The plants are rem- nants from a plantation of industrial hemp- low—tetrahydrocannabinol $9 (THC) Cannabis sativa— Annugl per cap, “ Income’ cultivated by the White PINE RIDGE Plume family in 2000. RESE"VAT'°" (RES) During World War II $27,334 UNITED STATES cultivation of hemp was encouraged in the United States, its fiber used for rope, canvas, and uni- forms. But in 1970 low- THC industrial hemp was outlawed under the Controlled Substances Act. In 1998 the Oglala Sioux Tribe passed an ordinance allowing the cultivation of low—THC hemp, a crop well suited to places, like the “rez, ” with a short growing season, arid soil, and weather fluctuations. “The people of Pine Ridge have sovereign status as an independent nation, ” White Plume said. “I take that to mean I am free to make a living from this land. ” So in spite of reportedly stern warnings from Robert Ecoffey, the super- intendent for the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA) on Pine Ridge, who pointed out that Oglala Sioux sovereignty is limited and does not in- clude the right to violate federal laws, the White Plumes planted an acre and a half of industrial hemp using seeds collected from plants growing wild on the rez. A few days before the crop was due to be harvested, in late August 2000, agents from the Drug Enforcement Administration, the FBI, the BIA, and the U. S. Marshals Service swarmed the place in helicopters and SUVs and shut down the hemp operation. The crop went feral. “It was an experiment in capitalism and 48.3% Poverty rate, PINE RIDGE RES. 13.8% UNITED STATES Alexandra Fuller wrote in June 2010 about reconcili- ation in South Africa. Aaron Huey spent seven years documenting life on Pine Ridge Reservation. a test of our sovereignty, but it seems the U. S. government doesn’t want to admit that we should have either, ” White Plume said. Then he laughed in the way of a man who knows that he cannot be defeated by ordinary disappointments. After that we spoke of the treaties made and broken between the U. S. and the Sioux, and that led naturally to a conversation about the Black Hills, which the Oglala consider their axis mundi, the center of their spiritual world. The 1868 Fort Laramie Treaty guaranteed the Sioux possession of the hills, but after gold was dis- covered there in 1874, prospectors swarmed in, and the U. S. government quickly seized the land. The Sioux refused to accept the legitimacy of the seizure and fought the takeover for more than a century. On Iune 30, 1980, in United States v. Sioux Nation of Indians, the U. S. Supreme Court upheld an award of $17.5 million for the value of the land in 1877, along with 103 years’ worth of interest, together totaling $106 million. But the Sioux rejected the payment, insisting that the Black Hills would never be for sale. And then White Plume asked me to consider the seemingly calculated insult of Mount Rush- more. “The leaders of the people who have bro- ken every treaty with my people have their faces carved into our most holy place. What is the equivalent? Do you have an equivalent? ” I could offer none. Then White Plume, who punctuates his oddly unexcited view of history’s injustices not only with laughter but also with pauses long enough to roll a cigarette, looked up and asked if I had extra time on my hands and extra fuel in my car. I SAID I HAD BOTH, and we drove out onto his cathedral land. Sitting by a cottonwood—lined creek, in a dark pool of shade, we spoke of the ways in which lives are lost on the rez and about the suicide, earlier that summer, of a 15-year- old Oglala Lakota girl. Partly because time is not linear for the Oglala Lakota but rather is ex- pressed in circular endlessness and beginnings, and partly because many can recite the mem- bers of their family trees, branch after branch, twig after twig, vines and incidental outgrowths ‘MOST RECENT STATISTICS AVAILABLE. 2005-I0 SOURCES" U S CENSUS BUREAU: U 5 DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES: SOUTH DAKOTA DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH
  • 53. WHEN I WAS A BOY THE SIOUX OWNED THE WORLD. The sun rose and set in their lands. They sent 10,000 horsemen to battle. Where are the warriors to—day? Who slew them? Where are our lands? Who owns them? . fi_ r3<V: .t'. r I Sitting Bull, circa 1831-1890 included, it does not seem to me too big a his- torical step to go from the bodies piled in the snow at Wounded Knee in 1890 to the body of Dusti Rose lumping Eagle lying in shiny man- nequin perfection in an open coflin in a tepee in Billy Mills Hall in the town of Pine Ridge in early Iuly 2011, a scarf draped over her neck to conceal the manner of her suicide. “The whole Sioux Nation was wounded at that last terrible massacre, and we’ve been suffering ever since. It’s true we have our own ways of healing ourselves from the genocidal wound, but there is just so much historical trauma, so much pain, so much death, ” White Plume said, and he would know. There is a flat plateau in the center of his ranch, he told me, where some of the historic Ghost Dances that precipitated the Wounded Knee massacre are supposed to have taken place. Participants in these ritualized spiritual ceremonies danced themselves into an altered state and claimed to have communed eas- ily with their dead, become mentally untethered from the Earth, and touched the morning star. Then there is the unavoidable fact that three of his relatives were killed on that winter day. In 1890 a bad drought brought more than the usual deprivation to the reduced reservations of the Great Plains. (The Great Sioux Reservation had been chopped up into six smaller reserva- tions. ) At the same time, agents of the BIA got jumpy about an upswing in the number of Ghost Dances being performed by the Sioux, who were gathering with increasing desperation and fre- quency on the open prairie, petitioning for advice and guidance from their ancestors and spirits. On December 15, 1890, U. S. Indian policemen arrested Sitting Bull in an effort to quell the “mes- siah craze” of the native ceremonies. The arrest turned unintentionally violent in ways that retro- spectively seem inevitable. Sitting Bull was killed, along with seven of his supporters and six of the policemen. Fearing a backlash, another leader, Big Foot, fled south with his band under cover of night to seek asylum with Red Cloud on the Pine Ridge Reservation. Nearly two weeks later, on the morning of December 28, 1890, a nervy U. S. Seventh Cav- alry unit found Big Foot’s band at Porcupine Creek and escorted them to Wounded Knee Creek. The following morning the cavalry at- tempted to disarm the Indians. What happened next on that frozen—prairie morning isn’t en- tirely clear. It is said that a medicine man, Yel- low Bird, began to perform a dance, throwing handfuls of dirt in the air. A scuffle ensued, a gun was discharged, the Army opened fire, and by the time the smoke cleared, Big Foot and at least 145 members of his band had been killed (the Oglala argue many more), including 84 men and boys, 44 women, and 18 children. A reported 25 U. S. soldiers also died, some possibly as a ( Continued on page 48) PINE RIDGE RESERVATION
  • 54. -1. - . ~9 ' kl , 1 .1 , , - T’ . ~ ~. ... . , I . u "° _ . , . - 4‘ - . - “ ‘ . ‘ . ' 1 I I -. o_ , _ . . . . .43»; .‘___‘ ‘ ' -‘ca r‘-' I".
  • 55. Bareback riders Carey Rouillard (left) and Travis New Holy stop for a neighborly chat in Evergreen. Oglala have a traditional reverence for the horse, which they call sunka wakan, or sacred dog. Evergreen, one resident says, is “a good community. Everybody gets along. Neighbors help out neighbors. ” ’ nu L I x I’ Ta= v' - ’ .3.’-‘k
  • 56. Around 1700, Sioux tribes on the prairies of western Minnesota hunted buffalo on foot. By the mid-1700s various tribes had gained access to horses, and by the turn of the 19th cen- tury the Oglala Sioux and other Plains Indians had developed a way of life that depended on mounted buf- falo hunting. After gold was found in California in 1849 and in the Black Hills in 1874, prospectors, mer- chants, and settlers streamed into Sioux territory. The cul- ture clash led to a series of broken treaties and unfavor- able legislation, which con- fined the tribes to an ever shrinking area (maps, right). Meanwhile, the newcomers had all but exterminated the buffalo. In 1980 the Supreme Court ordered the U. S. gov- ernment to pay for its appro- priation of the Black Hills. With interest, the amount is now more than a billion dollars, but the Sioux won’t touch it. They want their land back. 0 mi 100 I-1-‘1—’ 0km100 PRESENT BOUNDARIES AND DRAINAGE SHOWN MARTIN GAMACHE, NGM STAFF SOURCES: DAVID BARTECCHI, VILLAGE EARTH; BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS; U. S. CENSUS BUREAU: RICHMOND CLOW. UNIVERSITY OF MONTANA; RAYMOND J. DEMALLIE, INDIANA UNIVERSITY: U. S. DEPT. OF THE INTERIOR; LIBRARY OF CONGRESS: MARGARET PEARCE, UNIVERSITY OF KANSAS June 25-26,1876 . -"til lI. ‘»lllIll Blllck HlIl ( / I ‘In . . ‘; Black I lu'. ". -' (RESERVATION lI. *»llIIl‘I 2'» T’ " Black 锑l: « Hills 42 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC I AUGUST 2012 Wounded ‘I’/ I,‘ Knee massacre, ° Dec 29. 1890 x , 1851 Treaty boundary 1868 Reservation - boundary . ‘k l RESER VATIOIT7 '7 j/ llaasl 1 __ C‘-/ ‘H, Article I6 Fort Laramie‘ ‘ ‘ Unceded Indian ' r Territory » ‘ll. III)“ fl" Article II Hunting Grounds (I868) ! ‘_i‘: ‘:““". .0. 2 ‘-' I I -' Battle of the ’ ‘L, Greasy Grass" Y' (Litlle Bighorn), H 1877 Reservation -—— boundary GREAT Hills . ; slow“ I I‘- --1889 Reservation L . boundaries I 1 'lIIIt~" W4 I. -_g 1851-1868 Treaties with the United States first established the Sioux Nation's boundaries and then set up a res- ervation. An 1868 treaty allowed hunting in unceded territory as long as buffalo herds roamed there. 1876-1877 The U. S. Army fought the Sioux who remained outside the res- ervation. Colonel Custer’s troops were annihilated at Little Bighorn. The gov- ernment then seized the Black Hills and other Sioux land. 1889 As North and South Dakota moved toward statehood, the 21-million-acre reservation was cut by half and the remaining land divided into six smaller reserva- tions. Some of that reservation land was later opened to settlers.
  • 57. FORT PECK l. R. 1Sioux and Assinibome) | >‘1i’. ’~'. S'l)1>[, _,_ 9 SPIRIT LAKE INDIAN RESERVATION IS/ aux) . “¥ / /‘ "I: -i x~u“" ”'~»n/ mil STANDING W“? ,. Great Plains tribes TRAVERSE / R 1 , , h - (Sioux) K 1- ~ ; ave various names s . s for Devils Tower. c UPPER SIOUX l. R. Q Oglala Sioux call it CHEYENNE (5,», ,,, ,,; Mato Tipila, meaning RIVER “be” '°d9e-" LOWER SIOUX 1 R , Di-wit , .. t m“ (Sioux) 7 W. .. , Q“ LOWER I CROW 5 § , i 3 m He Sapa im1vwiIr. BRuLEjé9 REEK FMNDREAU / ,R_ Q: vi “ (mack H, ~”s)“ N/ I7’/ ON/ ii P/ IRA’ —- #1 (Sioux) . ~”~ " u. .. if liiiv “ IT‘ .1 .4; . ‘ 'V’t/1T(/ )L[)t""/ tlixlvti/ tfS‘t4/l()/1/9/Mitt‘ 1910 €- , /I V , / . ”NE 1 1907 , ,.‘_O I ROSEBUD I 1904'» ’/ I VANKTON LR. . VSioux Hatched areas are SA/ VTEE "'2' additional reservation{S'°ux) , ,_ I « ’*»-, / lands lost to white ~ ' I "4," settlers between 1899 ‘ and 1910. o I ll 50 ~' i; i—*—# , I. ~u _ W“ 0 km 50 ‘SINCE 2003, THE DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR .00 I I. _ HAS INTERPRETED A1936 SECRETARIAL omen 3‘ h'1‘" ‘ “ an AS HAVING RESTORED BENNETT coumv TO THE PINE RIDGE RESERVATION. B/ l[}IflND§ T°d3V NATIONAL PARK On Pine Ridge and five - ‘ “mu »~ . ' other reservations (above), the Sioux own five million f their original treaty PINE RIDGE "’°’°S ° land. Through the Bureau INDIAN RESERVATION of Indian Affairs, tribes can E r E """""""""""" ‘I arrange leases of reserva- , mg een tion land, used mainly for , Porcubine , . Wounded BENNETT A grazing. Some leases go to Pine I. Knee = . COUNTY fi‘f, ,RRE5“ Indians, others to outsiders. Because of the way land was originally allotted, the Sioux have been left with Land owned by Indians within the reservation as of 2007 the least productive tracts. r . A J’ Whiteclay
  • 58. Teenagers disregard the threat of a summer storm in the town of Wounded Knee. On December 29, 1890, at least 146 Indians were killed by the U. S. Army near here. For the Sioux and other Native Americans, Wounded Knee remains a potent symbo| —geographica| |y and po| iticaI| y—of historic injustice.
  • 59. — A passenger barely has room for the journey home as a car is loaded with used clothing donated by a Colorado-based Native American charity. Contrary to popular myth, Native Americans do not automatically
  • 60. J V / ~ 1 / _ . 3 . , i>‘ T . . ‘I / “ I / / ‘ , / ’ / _/ ,9 1" / / / / ‘S ' I receive a monthly federal check and are not exempt from taxes. The Oglala Lakota and other Sioux tribes have refused a monetary settlement for the U. S.’s illegal seizure of the Black Hills, their spiritual home.
  • 61. (Continued from page 39) result of friendly fire. Testifying to the commissioner of Indian Af- fairs in February 1891, the Oglala leader Ameri- can Horse said of that day, “There was a woman with an infant in her arms who was killed as she almost touched the flag of truce. . . Right near the flag of truce a mother was shot down with her infant; the child not knowing that its mother was dead was still nursing, and 66 , 6 that was especially a very | ';| lf’<'%Ee)F<‘Ilr; :=; t:r; ;=Evé sad sight. .. Of course it (Shannon Conn, ” would have been all right 765 UNWED 51-A-I-Es if only the men were killed; we would feel al- most grateful for it. But the fact of the killing of the women, and more es- pecially the killing of the young boys and girls who are to go to make up the future strength of the Indian people, is the saddest part of the whole affair and we feel it very sorely. ” 18.4 Infant mortallty per 1,000 blrths, PINE RIDGE RES. (Shannon County) 6.8 UNITED STATES “THEY TRIED EXTERMINATION, they tried assimi- lation, they broke every single treaty they ever made with us, ” White Plume said. “They took away our horses. They outlawed our language. Our ceremonies were forbidden. ” White Plume is insistent about the depth and breadth of the policies and laws by which the U. S. government sought to quash Native Americans, but his de- livery is uncomplainingly matter-of-fact. “Our holy leaders had to go underground for nearly a century. ” It wasn’t until Congress passed the American Indian Religious Freedom Act, in 1978, that any interference in native spiritual practices was made a crime. “And yet our cere- monies survived, our language survived, ” White Plume said. Buried deep within the pages of the 2010 Defense appropriations bill, signed by Presi- dent Barack Obama in December 2009, is an oflicial apology “to all Native Peoples for the many instances of violence, maltreatment, and neglect inflicted on Native Peoples by citizens of the United States. ” The resolution commends those states “that have begun reconciliation 48 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - AUGUST 2012 efforts with recognized Indian tribes, ” but there is no mention of reparations, nor of honoring long—broken treaties. White Plume lit one of his rolled—up cigarettes and squinted at me through a ribbon of smoke. “Do you know what saved me from becoming a cold—blooded murderer? My language saved me. There is no way for me to be hateful in my language. It’s such a beautiful, gentle language. It’s so peaceful. ” Then White Plume started to speak in Lakota, and there was no denying the words came softly. Above us, in an otherwise empty sky, two small clouds touched each other and melted into nothing. White Plume got up and walked toward the creek, and then I heard him exclaim in surprise——“Aha! ”—as if greeting someone revered, and deeply known. He had found the cottonwood tree for his Sun Dance ceremony. Although most Pine Ridge traditions are off- limits to outsiders, I gathered that the following would occur: The tree would be brought down by White Plume and some of the men in his family and carried to the Sun Dance grounds with the kind of reverence due a holy being. There it would be fixed with prayer ties—bun— dles of tobacco and other offerings wrapped with cloth of various colors—and set in a hole in the ground, where it would remain until the following year. In 1974 White Plume joined the Army and was deployed to Germany. (Native Americans are dis- proportionately represented in the armed forces. ) “The year I left to join the Army, there were only three Sun Dances on the whole reservation, ” he said. “Now there are scores. ” White Plume still holds his own family and extended family’s Sun Dances in the traditional way. “It’s just us, ” he said, in a way that sounded less exclusive than it looks in print. “It’s so beautiful, so spiritual. ” The vigorous resurgence of Sun Dance cer- emonies owes much to the passage of the 1978 act but also to the widespread Indian activism that began earnestly in the early 1970s. Now ev- ery year during the summer there are more than 50 separate Sun Dances across Pine Ridge, up from the few held in secret decades ago. At each
  • 62. WE PREFERRED HUNTING to a life of idleness on the reservation, where we were driven against our will. . . We preferred our own way of living. . . All we wanted was peace and to be left alone. r“« 4 » A-V4 Crazy Horse, ca 1842-1877 ceremony scores of invited participants dance, meditate, pray, are purified in sweat lodges, and fast for days at a time. Men who are deemed spiritually equipped to withstand this symbolic act of communal self-sacrifice are pierced with bone pegs at the end of ropes tied to the branch- es of ritually harvested cottonwood trees. They then jerk themselves free, tearing their skin in the process. A mantle of ancient—feeling, sacred humidity settles over the rez. IT SAYS A LOT of what you need to know about Alex White Plume that an imperfect yet conta- giously optimistic 38-year-old woman named Olowan Thunder Hawk Martinez considers him a mentor. At one time or another, Mar- tinez has been almost everything you might despair of in a person, but she is also an irre- pressible spirit and a courageously outspoken, self—appointed youth leader. “You want me to be that drunk Indian woman in the corner? ” Like her mentor, Martinez has an unsettling habit of laughing when she is most serious. She laughed now. “I’ve been there, done that. I snapped out of it. ” On the night she heard of lumping Eagle’s suicide, Martinez said, she could feel the vic- tim’s pain—as if the body of the dying girl had briefly broken its bounds and inhabited her own. “I know why a lot of young girls try to kill them- selves on the rez, ” Martinez said. “We’re all in constant danger of losing ourselves, losing our identities. It’s a daily struggle for each and every one of us to be fully Lakota. And sometimes we lose the struggle, and then the men take out their feeling of worthlessness on the women, the women take out their feelings of worthlessness on themselves, and everyone takes out their feel- ings of worthlessness on the children. ” In Martinez’s case, an uncle had molested her when she was six and again when she was ten. “Afterward he used words—he told me I was use- less. I remember feeling such a deep pain that nothing and nobody could reach inside to take it away. ” Soon after the second defilement Martinez found herself standing alone in the kitchen of her mother’s house. “Just like today, it was hot outside and building up for rain, ” Martinez said. “I re- member looking down at the kitchen counter and seeing a knife. And suddenly that knife seemed like the only way to cut out every pain inside me. So I picked it up and started to saw through the skin on my wrist. ” As Martinez was telling this story at her kitchen table, there was a rumble out of the sky, as thunderclouds massed—Wakinyan, the Oglala Lakota call them, Thunder Beings. “The sixth time I was trying to cut, the floor beneath me rumbled, ” Martinez said. “Wakinyan were speaking to me. They were telling me I had to live. I dropped the knife. ” For a moment we sat in the sultry, fly—buzzing PINE RIDGE RESERVATION
  • 63. In 1868 men came out and brought papers. We could not read them, and they did not tell us truly what was in them. .. When I reached Washington THE GREAT FATHER EXPLAINED TO ME . . . that the interpreters had deceived me. All I want is right and justice. 11?- Red Cloud, ca 1822-1909 silence. She lit a twist of sage, and we took turns wafting the cleansing smoke around our hair. A small commotion erupted outside. Although money is always tight, and Martinez has three children of her own (who are 19, 11, and 5), there is often a posse of unrelated or half—related youngsters hanging around, participants in Mar- tinez’s somewhat haphazard youth-leadership endeavor. Today was no exception. Several boys, ranging in age from 14 on up, were running in circles around her humid, overgrown garden, shooting at each other good—naturedly with pel- let guns. One of them had been shot in the rear and was wailing. Martinez laughed and got to her feet. “Oh my warrior youth, ” she said. “Let’s find out who did what to who. ” IT IS PERHAPS ONLY NATURAL that Martinez, who grew up on the rez in the 1970s and early ’80s, has radical tendencies. “Those were crazy times, ” Martinez told me. Unseen people walked at night, heavily armed; houses in the more remote towns were frequently shot at after dark; there were scores of killings. “You can dance words around it, but what was happening back then felt a lot like a war to the people who were in it, ” she said. In February 1973, 200 members of the American Indian Movement (AIM), a pro—native group that included Martinez’s young parents, occupied the site of the Wounded Knee massa- cre to protest broken treaties and corrupt tribal 50 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - AUGUST 2012 governance. In response the tribal government formed its own private militia—Guardians of the Oglala Nation, they called themselves (GOONs for short)—and along with dozens of National Guard troops and FBI agents, faced down the activists. By the time the siege was over, 71 days later, 130,000 rounds had been fired, and authori- ties had made more than 1,200 arrests. Martinez and I were talking about this one late afternoon at the Wounded Knee Cemetery, not far from her house. “I am a direct result of that revolution, ” she said. We had spread out in the shade of a tree that also sheltered her father’s grave. Angelo “Angel” Martinez had died in a car crash in 1974, when Martinez was a baby. It is a measure of the esteem he was held in by AIM members that his funeral included an elaborate procession from the village of Porcupine and burial in this highly significant cemetery. “Right here at Wounded Knee, ” Martinez said, digging her finger into the ground. “This is where the idea of me happened. ” Looking at it head—on, the 1973 siege did not achieve its goals. Broken treaties between the U. S. and the Oglala Sioux remained broken, the tribal government remained as corrupt as ever, and those rebellious days had a long and violent afterlife. Between March 1, 1973, and March 1, 1976, the murder rate on the Pine Ridge Reservation was more than 17 times the national average. But the AIM activists had

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