THE NEXT TSUNAMI I DA VINCI DISCOVERY VERMILION CLIFFS
I/ Vhere Will It Hit? I Is I t the Real Deal? A Southwestern Secr...
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GEOGRAPHIC...
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142
143
February 2012
DEPARTMENTS
Editor’s Note
Letters
National Geographic on TV
Explorers Jo...
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Indian Water Buffalo (Buba/ us arnee)
body length, 2.4 - 3 m (7.9 - 9.8 feet); shoulder heig...
£TlJR’S NOTE
By the Treacherous Sea
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THE
‘9 GREAT
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Exllefiencing Hubble.
nd '
I erstanding the Greatest
mages of the Universe
Professor David Me...
LTEIIS
The Teenage Brain
Could the brain rewiring described by David Dobbs be a sign
of aging? After all, our ancesto...
Congratulations, Lucy, for being named this year's 28-Day Challenge Champion.
Experience the difference that extraordi...
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National geographic usa feb 2012

National geographic usa feb 2012
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - National geographic usa feb 2012

  • 1. THE NEXT TSUNAMI I DA VINCI DISCOVERY VERMILION CLIFFS I/ Vhere Will It Hit? I Is I t the Real Deal? A Southwestern Secret NGM. COM FEBRUARY 2012 S
  • 2. , _ & . ‘ ‘T- ‘fi"-r- .7, 1'3"? -RT --‘ '*“- -— I "'2 ' 3&3“) D -Ts $ ' ’ J" ‘.711 ‘ O , , ’ (Q ‘ re” *’x. >;; I ' ’ x l’ I ‘ I. I _ / , i ' / T. I‘ 3’ IS‘ ’ I "ilk. I 1 r , ,y ‘ ill . » 5‘. 3‘. - Q ‘~ ébQ 11.1 I‘ l 5;’ 2 V i ‘saoU.9} ‘: " z“ V", 3 3; lfi} ’’ Q TVL- .3. Busy” Bone, with its unique twists, turns, and delicious r meaty middle, sends your dog to a world all his own. Busy® Unleashes the Adventure" v ‘stir . .4 K I ‘Y; /_’ ,2 / ‘vi ‘t_’/ /a_}"Ea/5 . . l"°- 7,) l
  • 3. VOL. 221 - NO. 2 NATIONAL A deejay urged, in English, “I-fverybody get crazy! Ziss iz bikini party. ’ " GEOGRAPHIC 9. PASCAL COTTE. SIPA PRESS The hands of the “Mona Lisa" reveal the delicacy in Leonardo da Vinci’s portraits. Now there may be one more woman to add to his list: “La Bella Principessa. " February 2012 New Tricks From Old Dogs The genetic code for canine shapes and sizes may help scientists unravel human disease. By Evan Ratliff Photographs by Robert Clark The Calm Before the Wave A tsunami strikes almost every year. When and where will the next giant wave hit? By Tim Folger i; _:: :_ Jr: A Japanese mother's tsunami warning. By Marie Mutsuki Mockett Kazakhstan’s Tomorrowland The oi| —rich country’s brash, bil| ion—do| |ar new capital has everything—inc| uding “the banana. ” By John Lancaster Photographs by Gerd Ludwig ' : Leonardo. ..Or Not? A cha| k—and—ink drawing purchased for $21,850 could be a $100 million masterwork. The proof may come down to a 500-year-old book. By Tom O'Neill Reclusive Rocks Do you like grit in your teeth? Isolation? Hoodoos that shift hues? Then come to the Southwest's we| l—kept secret: Vermilion Cliffs Monument. By Verlyn Klinkenborg Photographs by Richard Barnes A Last of the Cave People They came to meet Papua New Guinea’s no- mads—and stumbled into a life-and-death crisis. By Mark Jenkins Photographs by Amy Toensing OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
  • 4. O3 10 12 18 21 29 142 143 February 2012 DEPARTMENTS Editor’s Note Letters National Geographic on TV Explorers Journal VISIONS > Your Shot NUW Horn Heists The demands of Asian medicine have taken atoll on taxidermied rhinos. Love Geography, Part I > Top online-dating terms vary by state: “ant| er" in Montana, “sequin" in Arizona. Love Geography, Part II Global terms of endearment vary too. Mastodon Mystery Why are there so many bones near a Colorado reservoir? Bumblebee Flight Pattern > They plot the best route to each flower. NEXT Meow in the Dark > Cats in a study are set aglow by a luminescentjellyfish protein. Descent to Mars Lowered by a crane, roving robot Curiosity will explore the planet. The Modern Melting Pot Census data shed light on integration—and segregation. Gauging Head Injuries A device helps medics find hard- to-detect brain injuries in soldiers. NG Connect The Moment Flashback 5 ‘¢I§KLI¢I'-V; ."': II Here are the coolest extras in our electronic editions. Barking Dogs Never Pose A video captures pooch- photographer action at the Westminster Dog Show. ngm. com + iPad Enter the Vermilion Cliffs A lottery admits 20 people a day to see the Wave, a swirling rock formation at the national monument. How do you get on the list? ngm. com + iPad Field Test Follow photographer Michael “Nick" Nichols as he tracks lions in the Serengeti. ngm. com On the Cover Penny, born January 27, 2004, is the great-great- great granddaughter of the famously photographed Welmaraner Fay Ray. Says Wegman: “She is the quietest and stillest and most reliable of my dogs. ” Photo by William Wegman Subscriptions For subscriptions, gift memberships, or changes of address, contact Customer Service at ngmservice. com or call 1-800-NGS-LINE (647-5463). Outside the U. S. and Canada please call +1-813-979-6845. Contributions to the National Geographic Society are tax deductible under Section 501 (c)(3) of the U. S. tax code. Copyright '97 2012 National Geographic Society All rights reserved. National Geographic and Yellow Border: Registered Trademarks (R. Marcas Registradas. National Geographic assumes no responsibility for unsolicited materials. Printed in U. S.A PRINTED ON PEFC—CERTlF| ED PAPER l Please recycle.
  • 5. @2012 Canon inc canon. (om Indian Water Buffalo (Buba/ us arnee) body length, 2.4 - 3 m (7.9 - 9.8 feet); shoulder height, 1.5 — 1.9 m (4.9 - 6.2 feet); tall, 0.6 -1 m Size: Head and (2.0 - 3.3 feet) Weight Approx. 700 - 1,200 kg (1,500 - 2,600 lbs) Habitat: Prefers low-lying alluvial grasslands, . riparian forests and woodlands Surviving number: Estimated at fewer than 2,500 mature individuals Plioiographed by Sandesn Kadiir WILDLIFE AS CANON SEES IT A dangerous mix. As habitat loss brings the Indian water buffalo closer to its cousin the domestic water buffalo, their union results in hybridized offspring that threaten the gene pool. Highly social, these prodigious grazers usually live in loosely structured maternal groups made up of females, their dependent young and a bull. Adult males not attached to such a group sometimes form groups of their own. But the urge to mingle is hazardous when wild and domestic meet—due to not only hybridization, but also diseases that can spread to wild populations. The two worlds have gotten too close for comfort. As we see it, we can help make the world a better place. Raising awareness of endangered species is just one of the ways we at Canon are taking action—for the good of the planet we call home. Visit canon. com/ environment to learn more. Can on
  • 6. £TlJR’S NOTE By the Treacherous Sea “Never turn your back to the sea, “ my mother used to tell me over the roar of the surf. She'd read about rogue waves coming in and sweeping children away, but I loved the magic I felt at the edge of the ocean and never gave her warning much thought as I ran up and down the beach exploring tide pools. That changed on Good Friday in 1964, when I was 12 years old. Just 25 miles south of my grandparents’ beach cottage in Harbor, Oregon, a tsunami created by the largest recorded earthquake in North America T E A C 7:: swept down the Pacific Northwest coast with the speed of ajet and slammed into Crescent City, California. The photos of the carnage, so close to home, were staggering. Ten people from the community of 3,000 perished. ‘‘It was like a violent explosion, ” one witness reported. “The whole beach- front moved, changing before our very eyes. ” This month author Tim Folger dissects the geophysics of tsunamis and explains how they have shaped civilization for thousands of years. More than 3,500 years ago a volcanic eruption in the Aegean Sea generated a tsunami that inundated Mediterranean shores. Last year's massive tsunami in northeastern Japan killed some 16,000 and erased entire towns and villages from the map. No one, Folger says, ever expected Japan—with all its elaborate preparations—to be so vulnerable, but sometimes nature's fury overwhelms our most carefully crafted defenses. After reading his piece, I am even less inclined to turn my back to the sea. Kr Photos of the carnage were staggering. Crescent City, 1964: “Buildings, cars, lumber, and boats shifted around like crazy, " said a witness. 4 PHOTO. DEL NORTE COUNTY HISTORICAL SOCIETV/ WALT HARRIS COLLECTION
  • 7. THE ‘9 GREAT I COURSES” Exllefiencing Hubble. nd ' I erstanding the Greatest mages of the Universe Professor David Meyer Noilmw~. lr. ~rn 'Jn versily — : .. 6 n :5. o D n , . '5 J9 — y‘ E ‘L EL 0 Experience the Wonders of the Hubble Telescope For more than 20 years, the Hubble Space Telescope has been amassing discoveries that rival those of history’s greatest scientists and explorers, making it the most important—and most productive—scientific instrument ever built. Experiencing Hubble: Understanding the Greatest Images of the Universe is an unforgettable visual feast of carefully chosen images taken by this fascinating telescope. Noted astronomer and award-winning Professor David M. Meyers 12 spectacularly illustrated lectures take you on a dazzling voyage of discovery that will delight your eyes, feed your imagination, and unlock new secrets of the cosmos. Offer expires 03/31/12 1-800-832-2412 WWW. THEGREATCOURSES. COM/5NG LECTURE TITLES 1. The Rationale for a Space Telescope 2. Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 and Jupiter 3. The Sagittarius Star Cloud 4 . The Star Factory inside the Eagle Nebula 5. The Cat's Eye Nebula- A Stellar Demise 6. The Crab Nebula- A Supernova's Aftermath 7. The Sombrero Galaxy- An Island Universe 8. Hubble’s View of Galaxies Near and Far 9. The Antennae Ga| axies—~ A Cosmic Collision 10. Abell 22I8—A Massive Gravitational Lens 11. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field 12. Hubble's Legacy and Beyond Experiencing Hubble: Understanding the Greatest Images of the Universe Course no. 1884 | 12 lectures (30 minutes/ lecture) SAVE $160 DVD ‘$193.93 +$5 Shipping, Processing, and Lifetime Satisfaction Guarantee Priority Code: 62461 Designed to meet the demand for lifelong learning, The Great Courses is a highly popular series of audio and video lectures led by top professors and experts. Each of our more than 350 courses is an intellectually engaging experience that will change how you think about the world. Since 1990, over 10 million courses have been sold.
  • 8. LTEIIS The Teenage Brain Could the brain rewiring described by David Dobbs be a sign of aging? After all, our ancestors hundreds of thousands of years ago barely surpassed adolescence, meaning that the brain was designed to peak then. Maybe what happens to K999 . $9_’TI‘. ’_ . ‘?iTl9l¢? '1°Y_€'= lil¢l ad. "?‘. P.t, 19 II. ‘ 9. . l.J. '.‘. e?‘_l’. ‘?_9t_"_? ‘. . S‘. ‘.". ‘/l‘. ".3_': And that question brought a second thought: The leap from early hominids to humans, and the subsequent conquest of the world, was done by teenagers. We must look at young people with more respect; they have powerful minds. Two quotes from the article: “The more you seek novelty and take risks. ..the better you do, " and “this age group dies of accidents of almost every sort. ..at high rates. " Interesting. We haven't really improved on Aristotle at all. HAROLD LAFONT Aptos, California Most of these behaviors seem to fit males more than females. I found no clue whether any attempt has been made to ‘‘I now understand better what my two teens went through. " “[Teens in the past] lived adult lives and made adult decisions. " “Teenagers have brains? " ADU LTS BRUNO BENAVIDES Baltimore, Maryland distinguish between them—or to nullify such a distinction. JAN EAGLE Tucson, Arizona I was a foster parent for over 40 years. More than a hundred teenagers passed through my home in that time, not including their friends and families. I have come to see teenagers as inquisitive, impulsive, adventure- some, and an excellent cure for boredom. What really astounds me is that this population, our F E E D B A C K These quotes reflect the top three sentiments expressed by adults and teens in response to the “Teenage Brain” article. c) , Illll lII‘lIi| I{rI'III( October 2011 children, constitutes the only group left that mainstream media can insult with impunity. In general, their resilience is quite amazing. HARRY H. SNYDER Ill Whiting, Maine When, as a 17-year-old, I take a risk, it is to experience reward, but we aren't the metaphor of a dog being led by a bone you’ve made us out to be. I take risks to reap the reward of furthering my education. When I drive down the road at 113 miles an hour, I’m considering the consequences, but I'm also discovering how far I can push myself and the traction-controlled rocket that could propel me to my death. When hurling toward a lacrosse goal, I want to know how many g‘s I can really pull in a direction change before falling. BRADY ATWOOD Midway, Kentucky Corrections OCTOBER 2011: WORLD WITHOUT ICE Page 98: The Okefenokee Swamp is primarily in Georgia, not Florida. Page 109: Camels are artiodactyls, not perissodactyls. ‘‘I found this article very (too? ) relatahle. " "We teens can be taught what is right and wrong. " “I found myself wanting to emulate the risks. ” TEENS EMAIL ngsforum@ngm. com TWITTER @NatGeoSociety WRITE National Geographic Magazine, PO Box 98199, Washington, DC 20090-8199. Include name, address, and daytime telephone. Letters may be edited for clarity and length. 6 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 FEBRUARY 2012 GRAPHIC: LAWSON PARKER, NGM STAFF: STEPHANIE ROZZO
  • 9. Congratulations, Lucy, for being named this year's 28-Day Challenge Champion. Experience the difference that extraordinary nutrition can make in 28 days or get 110% of your money back. Visit facebook. com/ Eukanuba to learn more. 28-DAY ' CHALLENGE ©2011 P&G
  • 10. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC IIN TV , |I= i»: iIi Plnii‘ 'g[: IL~u: n(n‘Iv' i. ll cl iltgli : li¢l,0' Lu-. :ii: iw: iuiui: - I IilI= II' slum Ill ~‘fq| Ii= Iul1~‘l'ni Elfillelii i’iolIIinl'oIl: i THIS MONTH 1" , ,. ,, It I: -rm_i. a.i. i. I? .11. Climber and BASE jumper Dean Potter has dropped 8,900 feet in the Swiss Alps, setting the record by soaring in his wing suit forjust under NATIONAL th - t _ N GEOGRAPHIC h '69 """“ esh. ': ‘”_ telaims feven Mlg etr. 0 jump rom oun Bute, a 9,200-foot peak that towers near the British Columbia coastline. Follow . . . . W‘ld M‘ ' ' ' Potter from his base in Yosemite to Florida, INN CEO I ISSISSIPPI, _ _ 1 _ [ID Prepare for a rollicking ride in this. where hes fitted for a new, custom-made -. . new es. ,. ,,, ,C, , exp,0,e. , Nam, wing suit, and to Montana, where he America 3 biggest river system - - - - - - and celebrates the wi| diite—from gets tips from a bird biologist. Training bobcm to boars ‘0 great gray is intense. Techniques must be perfect. owls (above)—| i/ ing min. .. ii. Will the plan take flight? Tune in to the National Geographic Channel to find out. For listings go to natgeotv. com and natgeowi| d.com. 8 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 FEBRUARY 2012 PHOT0$: J|MMYMART| NELLO(TOP); STAN EOU$SON, NGC
  • 11. I r I . sf‘ AND THE C '. r-A Po . i='rj«. o c‘ r-*i 7-! I 1:. VOICE-ACTIVATED SEARCH. ’ AVAILABLE oiv " THE REINVENTED 2012 CAIVIRY. Li. . ..7r . . - —. .:. .'. :zl. ii--is: E l~ :7 . I ‘I A .1’. toyota. com/ camry . -_. ~. s—- with Entunew“ Need a restaurant reservation? Use Open Table? "'r, ‘i 5 . ' A 1:1.‘ 7-3‘ ‘-' ; zi. .s It if 0.? COFFEE. L BLACK. NO Si: i*G; «.e. .-. i2. NO WHIR l = , NO FOAM. HOLD TI-IE. ‘ ICE CREAM i'~'A. 'ivt'ES. ARE YOU? u I You need a strong cup of black coffee and you need it now. So the reinvented 2072 Toyota Camry is available to help you find the perfect cup. Want to find a good slice of pizza? Use Bingf“ '-iii-at K‘ p With Entunel” you can get what you want when you want, without having to reach for your smartphone. It's like a large cup of technology with a double shot of handy. :1»: r M In, " K‘ '1 TOYOTA Prototype shown with optional equipment. Production model may vary. 1.Voice-activation for all Entunem’ apps available spring 2012. 2‘ Be sure to obey traffic regulations and maintain awareness of road and traffic conditions. Select Entunew apps use a large amount of data and you are responsible for all data charges. Apps and services vary by phone and carrier. Not all apps and data services are available initially. Apps identified by “TM" or “®” are trademarks or registered trademarks of their respective companies and cannot be used without permission. See toyotacom/ entune for the latest information regarding apps and services. 3. Enturie”" available on SE, XLE and Hybrid XLE models only. ©2011 Toyota Motor Sales, U. S.A. , Inc.
  • 12. ‘-r -1 i . . _‘ . _ . I ~ ' ' L: ‘ . ‘ g - _ I , 3.“ . . 5:‘- I. ‘V. I ; . u I '-. A V‘-. . ‘ N. L . . w . . . . ‘T I‘ ‘ A‘ , . , _ . . x at . /' _ “ ‘ . .« _ i ( - M , . ‘ . I "53’ ' ‘ . " J . :v. i , ’-'. ,. ~ , _ . L. . ~ _ . " L ' . i _. ' y < _.4;- __ I . ‘re - ; :~ . - . , _ . .‘ ' _ . ,, — . 1,». I J . ' 5 ‘; . . ‘$_ _ 1 .3.-_ ‘, ~. A11 ii- . _ /7 -: i ‘__ . .' i , -> «_ ' . i. *.f , F’; . _. —.—-. . . _-J. 2 - :4“! ‘For limitations regarding waterproof, freezeprooi and sliockprool attributes, go to i. vwwNil<0nUSA coiiilav/100iiiIo. Nikon and COOLPIX are registered tradernarks of Nikon Corporation. @2011 Nikon NIL.
  • 13. EXPLUHEHS JUUIINAL E"“'C5a1a "; ln: |9III: I Ilnilto . flniilniuici °1:IIlg| l:| _|IiITO '). t_OIlIll>l" iI-- : ;i: l‘toI: imi: - mi-«min ark : u : IIio‘l¢lIIgI= II: u‘l nlIi: ~l: ' gIloiI| _ni: -ii ‘U V_, ‘; . ‘ it . J"v'v . -.' ~, ** ". ’ ‘~ = .‘: ;. i. :., », ‘ii. ‘xk M I S SION To restore the oceans’ health and protect pristine areas Foundedin 1888, the National Geographic Society has added to our knowledge of earth, sea, and sky by supporting more than 10,000 explorations and research projects. Readers’ member» ship dues make this support possible. 0 cean Advo cate As a child, I learned to snorkel before I knew how to swim. My first clear memory is of seeing a red starfish one summer off Spain's Costa Brava. My fami| y’s experience with fish was mostly on the stove—they ran a restaurant. But I watched the documentaries of Jacques-Yves Cousteau and dreamed of being a diver on his Calypso. I assumed as a child that big fish belonged only to exotic, tropical seas. I didn't see them in the Mediterranean I knew. But years later, in that same sea’s Medes Islands Marine Reserve, I finally saw all the fish I’d never seen before: sea bream, corvina, grouper. I saw all that had been lost to overfishing and pollution and realized that the whole Mediterranean must once have been like this. 10 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 FEBRUARY 2012 That is when I decided to work on creating marine reserves. These protected areas benefit fish and people. After many years sea life can recover to levels similar to those in pristine areas. Fishermen gain too. At one Kenya fishery their incomes have doubled because of marine reserves. In recent years I've helped inspire leaders to create marine protected areas off Chile, Costa Rica, Belize, and the United States. But more needs to be done to restore ocean health: We need to better manage our unsustain- able fisheries, improve aquaculture, and enforce marine-pollution laws. My happiest moments are under- water, especially in places with large predators. If there are predators, it means there is more of everything, and I know the waters are healthy. —Enric Sala PHOTO: JOSEF CLOTAS
  • 14. ': ' it-‘or arthritis patients, it's simple physics: A body in motion tends to stay in motion. . v *2: Celebrex can help relieve arthritis pain. ..so you can keep moving. Staying active can actually relieve arthritis symptoms. But if you have arthritis, staying active can be difficult. Celebrex can help relieve arthritis pain. ..so your body can stay in motion. 0 Just one 200mg Celebrex a day can provide 24-hour relief for many with arthritis pain and inflammation? ‘ 0 Celebrex is proven to improve pain, stiffness and daily physical function in clinical studies. ** 0 Celebrex is not a narcotic. When it comes to finding the right arthritis treatment for you, you and your doctor need to balance the benefits with the risks. So ask your doctor about prescription Celebrex. It could be an important step towards keeping your body in motion. Visit ce| ebrex. com or call 1-888-CELEBREX for more information. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. l/ isit www. fda. gov/ medwatch or call 1-800-FDA—1088. *lndividual results may vary. **Clinica| studies with osteoarthritis patients. Important Safety Information: All prescription NSAlDs, like CELEBREX, ibuprofen, naproxen and meloxicam have the same cardiovascular warning. They may all increase the chance of heart attack or stroke, which can lead to death. This chance increases if you have heart disease or risk factors for it, such as high blood pressure or when NSAlDs are taken for long periods. CELEBREX should not be used right before or after certain heart surgeries. Serious skin reactions, or stomach and intestine problems such as bleeding and ulcers, can occur without warning and may cause death. Patients taking aspirin and the elderly are at increased risk for stomach bleeding and ulcers. Tell your doctor if you have: a history of ulcers or bleeding in the stomach or intestines; high blood pressure or heart failure; or kidney or liver problems. CELEBREX should not be taken in late pregnancy. Life—threatening allergic reactions can occur with CELEBREX. Get help right away if you’ve had swelling of the face or throat or trouble breathing. Do not take it if you’ve had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergies to aspirin, other NSAlDs or certain drugs called sulfonamides. Prescription CELEBREX should be used exactly as prescribed at the lowest dose possible and for the shortest time needed. See the Medication Guide on the next page for important information about Celebrex and other prescription NSA/ Ds. rtéiprui . - Uninsured? Need help paying for Pfizer medicines? answers’ Pfizer has programs that can help. Call 1-866-706-2400 or visit PfizerHelpfulAnswers. com CELEBRE)(, / Forabodyinmotion j ©2012 Pfizer Inc. All rights reserved. CSP00840K/417611-01 (CELECOXIB CAPSULES)'2%3$3
  • 15. Medication Guide for - ri lAni-lnfl mm Dr N AID (See the end of this Medication Guide E . E . . I S 9 H: . . What is the most important information I should know about medicines called Non-Steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAlDs)? NSAID medicines may increase the chance of a heart attack or stroke that can lead to death. This chance increases: 0 with longer use of NSAID medicines - in people who have heart disease NSAID medicines should never be used right before or after a heart surgery called a “coronary artery bypass graft (cABG). ” NSAID medicines can cause ulcers and bleeding in the stomach and intestines at any time during treatment. Ulcers and bleeding: - can happen without warning symptoms - may cause death The chance of a person getting an ulcer or bleeding increases with: - taking medicines called “corticosteroids” and “anticoagulants” - longer use 0 smoking 0 drinking alcohol - older age - having poor health NSAID medicines should only be used: - exactly as prescribed . - at the lowest dose possible for your treatment - forthe shortest time needed What are Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAlDs)? NSAID medicines are used to treat pain and redness, swelling, and heat (inflammation) from medical conditions such as: - different tppes of arthritis _ - menstrua cramps and othertypes of short-term pain Who should not take a Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drug (NSAID)? Do not take an NSAID medicine: - if you had an asthma attack, hives, or other allergic reaction with aspirin or any other NSAID medicine - for pain right before or after heart bypass surgery Tell your healthcare provider: - about all of our medical conditions. 0 about all 0 the medicines you take. NSAlDs and some other medicines can interact with each other and cause serious side effects. Keep a list of your medicines to show to your healthcare provider and pharmacist. - if you are pregnant. NSAID medicines should not be used by pregnant women late in their pregnancy. if you are breastfeeding. Talk to your doctor. What are the possible side effects of Non-steroidal Anti- lnflammatory Drugs (NSAlDs)? Serious side effects include: - heart attack stroke high blood pressure heart failure from body swelling (fluid retention) kidney problems including kidney failure bleeding and ulcers in the stomach and intestine low red blood cells (anemia) life—threatening skin reactions life—threatening allergic reactions liver problems including liver failure asthma attacks in people who have asthma Other side effects include: - stomach pain - constipation 0 diarrhea heartburn nausea vomiting dizziness 9218 Get emergency help right away if you have any of the following symptoms: shortness of breath ortrouble breathing chest pain weakness in one part or side of your body slurred speech swelling of the face orthroat Stop your NSAID medicine and call your healthcare provider right away if you have any of the following symptoms: nausea more tired or weaker than usual itching your skin or eyes look yellow stomach pain flu-like sym toms vomit bloo ltolltere is blood in your bowel movement or it is black and sticky l e at - skin rash or blisters with fever - unusual wei ht gain - swelling oft e arms and legs, hands and feet These are not all the side effects with NSAID medicines. Talk to our healthcare provider or pharmacist for more information about N AID medicines. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088. g}l§o‘r| Diri)formation about Non-steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs s - Aspirin is an NSAID. medicine but if does_not_increase the chance of a heart attack. Aspirin can cause bleeding in the brain, stomach, and intestines. Aspirin can also cause ulcers in the stomach and intestines. - Some of these NSAID medicines are sold in lower doses with- out a prescription (over-the-counter). Talk to your healthcare pro- vider before using over—the—counter NSAlDs for more than 10 days. NSAID medicinesjhat need aprescription Generic Name Tradename Celecoxib Celebrex Diclofenac Cataflam, Voltaren, Aithrotec (combined with misorostol Dolobid Lodine, Lodine XL ]—Na| fon, Nation 200 Ansaid Motrin, Tab-Profen, Vicoprofen* (combined with hydrocodone), Combunox (combined with oxycodone) lndocin, lndocin SR, lndo—Lemmon, lndomethagan Ketoprofen Oruvail Ketorolac Toradol Mefenamic Acid Ponstel Meloxicam Mobic Nabumetone Relafen Naproxen Naprosyn, Anaprox, Anaprox DS, EC—Naproxyn, Naprelan, Naprapac (copackaged with lansoprazole) Daypro Feldene Fenoprofen Flurbiprofen ibuprofen lndomethacin Tolectin Tolectin DS Tolectin 600 * Vicotprofen contains the same dose of ibuprofen as over—the-counter (OT ) llSAlDs, and is usually used for less than 10 days to treat pain. The 0T0 NSAID label warns that long term continuous use may increase the risk of heart attack or stroke. This Medication Guide has been approved by the US. Food and Drug Administration.
  • 16. Greek God Invents FREE Love Inspired by a mythological romance, this stunning 170-carat amethyst bead necklace is yours for the taking! he was Amethyst, a maiden devoted to virtue. He was Dionysus, the notorious Greek god of intoxication and revelry. He loved her, but she wanted to wait for someone more suitable. He was a 1 god, used to getting what he wanted. The chase was on. But once i Diana saw that Amethyst was serious about keeping her heart pure, the goddess transformed her into a statue of perfect stone. l Dionysus stopped partying for a moment and wept. He spilled his l wine and infused the statue with the rich violet color we now know i as amethyst. l l It's not what you would call a happy ending. Luckily we discov- ered that something good came from their ill-fated romance. Specifically, this spectacular 1 70-Carat Amethyst Maiden Necklace. And the incredible price may just have you shedding tears of joy. For a limited time, you can get 170 carats of polished purple gems valued at $249.. .absolutely FREE (you pay only for basic shipping and processing). Pay NEVE1'e, An Exclusive FREE / ewelry 077%, . from Staum Drape yourself in purple perfection. Each rounded bead retains its own unique shape and just the right amount of translucence to let the light ignite the velvety, violet hues. Each gem is hand set on double-knotted jeweler’s thread. The entire length secures with a .925 sterling silver lobster clasp layered in gold. The 18" necklace (with 2" extender) hangs with the same weight and elegance as ‘ similar strands that sell for hundreds more. ' ‘ Extremely limited offer. The good news is that right , ‘ now, you can get the 170-Carat Amethyst Maiden ' Necklace for FREE (you pay only the standard $24.95 shipping and processing fee). We'll also include a $20 Stauer Gift Coupon with your delivery, good towards your very next purchase. If you're interested in getting 170 carats of genuine amethyst for V nothing. ..we recommend you reserve your necklace now. Because as Dionysus knows . all too well, the party can't last forever. This ' {"1 ‘ ‘~‘ -’ . offer is strictly limited to one FREE " necklace per shipping address. » , 3; Amethyst Necklace (1 70 ctw)—$249’ T Your Cost—FREE — pay only $24.95 shipping 8t processing. _ Call now to take advantage of this offer. 3 3 ~ istrauer has a . 1-800-386-5195 . ::. ::: ::. 7 ‘ i Promotional Code ABNl75—02 : ::f: ;' 7‘ ' Please mention this code when you call. of A+ ® 14101 Southcross Drive W, Dept. ABN 175-02 Burnsvillc, Minnesota 55337 WWW-stauer-Com
  • 17. Afghanistan On drought-pocked earth near Marjah, in the restive Helmand Province, a lone shepherd leads his sheep through a mud wa| |’s gap. Scenes of pastoral grace intensive country, despite strife, insecurity, and dire food shortages. PHOTO: KEVIN PRAYER, AP IMAGES
  • 18. istan Taji Long hair flowing in the Pamir mountain air, two sisters prepare to bathe in a pond near Rushan. Several major ranges radiate from this re gion, providing water—some of it diverted for irrigation ‘and a growing populace- to much of Central Asia. PHOTO: CAROLtN DRAKE, PANOS PICTURES
  • 19. x I
  • 20. K Order prints of National Geographic photos online at PrintsNGS. com.
  • 21. - l “.3 ' vv / . _ 1/ . ’ 4 ‘-. t ‘I , _ , , . V V‘ } u -. 4‘. . . . . s. / ‘{ , "l ’ . Q My‘ ‘ _ _ ‘-. § . .‘ ’ I‘ ‘. I ~ . _ ~. . “I. l I . ”~- l S ‘ 1 1» . . ls‘ -‘v _ ' (1'- France On a bright summer morning a captive-bred male harvest mouse perches acrobatically in an Alsace wheat field. This species—the smallest European rodent—boasts a prehensile tail and builds a round nest that resembles a bird's. PHOTO: J. L. KLEIN AND M. L. HUBERT, BIOSPHOTO
  • 22. Y0_UR SHOT liifiifllllfl HEADERS’ CHOICE N. Vijayaraghavan Grenoble, France When Vijayaraghavan, 31, descended from the top of Paris’s Eiffel Tower on a sunny spring day, he saw a cluster of people on the ground below. “Each shadow was different, " he says, “and seemed to be telling its own unique story. " 18 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 FEBRUARY 2012 This page features two photographs: one chosen by our editors and one chosen by our readers via online voting. For more information, go to ngm. com/ yourshor. EDITORS’ CHOICE Sajad Jamali Tehran, Iran Strolling in the Kurdish city of Mahabad, Jamali, 29, was drawn to this “great wall of co| or"—a makeshift store where used clothing from Europe is displayed and sold. As a young boy stands in the doorway, coats and other garments beckon customers—and photographers.
  • 23. Your dog shares the spirit of the wolf. And his love for meat. I N I High-protein BLUE Wilderness” is I made with more of the chicken, duck or salmon dogs love. All dogs are descendants of the wolf, which means they share many similar traits—including a love for meat. That’s why we created BLUE Wilderness. Made with the finest natural ingredients, BLUE Wilderness is formulated with a higher concentration of the chicken, duck or salmon dogs love. And ‘ ‘ . BLUE Wilderness contains none of the grains that contain gluten. If your want your dog to enjoy a high-protein diet like his ancestors once did, BLUE Wilderness is for you. Wilderness PetFood. com Love them like family. Feed them like family. ® Learn more about BLUE P; _| d O 2 cu ii: :5 [I] <1) 2 II] N ‘- 8 © KAI. E'm. i"| Iiwuu’ 171“ Also available for cats. - at n-iulliur’. -». ..l. m mu _ I ‘ « J3: ‘ «m. m urc<"HIl* LH-I(1KE. lRl7.(1ll’lEJ‘; —’<: > I . pa. -- o“. .l‘c. .'¢‘. ;t; o: o1‘: »1~. .. It
  • 24. More than words. You test yourself. Daily. Learning a new language gives you an advantage. |t’s the game-changer for all that comes next. START LEARNING A LANGUAGE TODAY. V. ‘ l ‘ (877) 222-6677 RosettaStone. com - ©2011 Rosetta Stone Ltd. All rights reserved. Rosetta Stone and oliiertrademarks, logos, product names or service names used herein are registered trademarks or trademarks of Rosetta Stone Ltd in the U. S and other countries
  • 25. In 2011 a replica horn was‘ stolcnfroni this rhino in England’: Natural History l~lu5L'zmz at Tritzg. Until recently, stuffed rhinoceroses stood intact in Europe's museum halls, a heritage of hundred-year-old hunting expeditions. But then the black market value of rhino horns rose, fueled in part by Asian rumors that they cure cancer. Now, with horns said to be fetching as much per ounce as gold or cocaine, postmortem poachers are making the imperiled species an imperiled specimen as well. In the first eight months of 2011 alone, thieves broke into multiple museums, an auction house, a zoo exhibit, and a Czech castle (map). In some cases they sawed off the horns; in others they made off with whole 200-pound mounted heads. Museums are being advised to hide their rhinos or install repli- cas. Christian Michel of Be| gium’s Liege University Aquarium- Muséum says a sign now informs visitors that the rhinoceros there is fake “due to human stupidity. ” —KeIIy Enright NEXT ? .l"l©. ”l'u‘§~l Read more about the plight of rhinos in our March 2012 issue. SKYCAST Overhead this month in parts ofthe world Q February 25 6 The crescent moon and Venus—the sky’s brightest planet—appear in proximity tonight. 0 lhl 300 l—v*w'% SWEDEN 0 km 300 1 NGM MAPS Goteborg U. K. S d Ipswich tanste Mountfitchet ‘Hamburg _ -1 BELG. Oerrel Trmg: | Brussels Haslemere - . GERMANV, .. V , . Rouenu Liege T Usov l I l l( Blois. Bamberg CZE‘CH (HI . " FRANCE REp_ lie d’Aix rrA| _y Florence . Coimbra PORT. 2 1
  • 26. NOW ', Pi'r. ky 6 . _ S . I la ‘ha 3 Hudwqhvs “““» chces zcaliti Glacier’ . ‘ ’ Couaar ’; ’Lok5y Tl’°| d' R. Q*h“ . B"_¢b“‘k QCVQD L k ‘I, anon ‘P ‘, T,M[, ,Y' saw 2. Juvnr A ggA| »{£ , ,~.5'*''°- “ impish ' I Backfire n ‘r §“l é ‘ _ V . I-Iovn{opal+hi°: . D“ck find. “ ‘ Y°‘l"l"‘3 00 7.5 . Pw| m WWM‘ Moxie. mm , _ K Win Swzr _ k-d _ Lov s’- k ct. i: J 3-H ' "*l°r'- ‘ ‘ wfsk ‘‘ 1'‘ ghflkfi I/ . .*‘ ‘r 5 ‘fawn’; Q (l; __ i L 2 WI'vJ, l Pk . in Masculgng . KX i S Ifjhuv-ms Ergfkn vul Min c ' - , gm“ G kIl. ul"I$. l' / Cows”. I girnhy ah“ nnj ‘, ‘ 1'g_E+o qlgr [Ga 4 cq+k°Mst 'wq,5‘l’4,SrlM. t~ Trespass Fflgivth lkau; Y Iiil. ,t“. m er-po. n1' g, .,w7 ‘~ _ I Safer Roadrunners ll-x‘-lilmmlole. k. '.(. 'l( V""l'~ ‘A V‘. Pol», . r. God: , rs. I £(‘i'V| V‘q_ qr P fisnh Polyflamy Yoga kcfiflno ; y K I _ l ‘r ‘"’° Looks. K {ml me. 3 S Plvsfihum Words culled Ad""3 from 19 million , V; if , - dating profiles E"‘h"'+""" W‘¢—V‘l' J a I” speak to who we are and what we love. v‘ , - 1‘ . « A’ V Ui: i.i‘. i:e<: l. D are: Cllf Ai: i.i. ei‘: i:<': a. Bliss Governments like to look at statistics—incomes, jobs, ages—to size up a nation. -""“‘Y But that’s not really us, says New York City artist and computer programmer R. Luke DuBois, who asks, “What if, instead, we looked at what people do on a Saturday night? ” To find out, he jumped online and analyzed profiles from 21 dating A websites, searching every U. S. zip code. In places where words appeared more often than anywhere else, he pulled out the terms and mapped them. The result, some of which is illustrated here, is “a romantic riff on the government census, ” he says. Certain matches appear fated (“acting” and Los Angeles, “wet" and a Seattle suburb), others less so (“marshma| low” and Oskaloosa, Iowa). As with all relationships, some even get caught up in mixed messages. “Tryst, " for instance, may evoke clandestine affairs in Washington, D. C., but it's also the name of a popular neighborhood café. —Catherine Zuckerman _ V TERMS OF ENDEARMENT “My angel, ” Beethoven wrote in letters English Afrikaans "' K to his mysterious Immortal Beloved. The object of the composer’s honey bokkje affection may be unknown, but one thing is certain: Pet names have time buck endured the test of time, and translate love in any language. —CZ
  • 27. 5l'wo_ _ Parker R : ‘ - . ’ . Snudaaltr w°“'+r‘“ "4/Buoy Bflrl TONE. .D“P"””“w. '+c u-ci'1' ‘ , ' ’ . T (vulile , 4 H 1., ‘ ‘vhf: , Psychic ililigh 1°‘”'* _ §AnblUf, sk. 'y. .,, -., _,_ F. l.'. ,e" . 5%‘? .»’ V 'l’I'n - . , ASH Top . ,PI. sh‘ bmuur Th! -qw, ,fl say. 1 ‘$2 . _ Sire-V‘ l Pr°vMw' Best Professor-Fa-““Y kl‘ ‘C OVPQF 4+5 B"**°-l . '’ D°P¢ ’A L‘: in ' "___ P| .u“‘J I’ Hun‘ / in I b0Pk Fociattd’. u ~ _ , 5MV¢v~ Main Lint. ~a‘. "l‘Iv~_’ , ‘ <“. . , /; _l Ania ! k . W“ ‘Polislu ”<o, ,.t. i.. . « w w N‘arp“A“°w V M uluwlflfl/ w! ,r’ - _ V ‘ I _ ‘Sb-I‘t. ~> I . ' us 21' v. V’ , . zu. _‘, l"l"“5l‘l I V‘ Vqur BM Ceon$ki'n/ —/btplbmqf read 1‘. a“‘, w:“ B&${loAl }| -|¢§§| 'O. l", <°A‘ ' in I 5", ,"- I skfisuh . (A‘,3fl1$t. lK/ A‘“k. l J), .jB| “‘3"'”‘{ Asktru, IVS Tofigggg NAVY 0")‘-T‘ Fox (Blunts, ‘C i r I F: '’/ '‘‘- ; ,4 , . ar b| "~V'~ ‘ 7”” °+° 4 “"”"y Inferno ‘' «vii? -S . +. km? 5 MM. 1/ I _‘ H"_v“+| .“9il H argmzum Ian ‘V )(“? /s‘ . A/ _/ Svmtlurher £“vuhm‘. ‘. ‘; o Prissy / J M| drl'F/ // g‘ci“$ D tkerokie x ' ' ' 1‘ F°°+“L Predq+°V' ' ’ -hi" 7' ‘ ~. He! ‘ P ken‘ 5 amp: I/ ./ ‘ - / - ‘P’/ ‘ 4 ll / * V‘ I/ //’ Mug ¢, '¢y . _ Sqskqhon / / / V - "‘V Tn‘-5+1‘ - DqFg. ‘J‘§['_ W‘: . rk“. ;‘"a"°“_l. , Prasier (N4 ~a, ~3.i». -1 ’"|1:. { . '.lel-"l7: M Para heir mail C . E»11.rPru’5¢_‘. °"' EAT"IVI35 ' V A” 4. _ B “‘’+ 1:lh&“s‘e? '‘lc°r“L'. .¢ad MN“ F'.3L'l'-0." / loevouT Ghc s'l' ‘i“"“"V"+'V‘ I D {V o‘l'i'on)_ x iSLMil l Seusitivil-7 on 4,-| .‘_A i’ Bqpl‘{S"l' ' T'_"Fu: ‘L AW. “ ' ~— ' ' . _IMl'Jl| .9kt_V _9.f‘‘“ ’ " g Fla sky ‘ S 1. c“rv ‘ ‘ , . ‘ Tumul At| ‘0V'la| A+| ¢‘l 10“ V Mfij es. “ 9. “ , FIuMu; Rfela , - $VY'Vi'V'/0Y' , ~ ‘ MW“- / RI‘-'nlrv’ Sgnny »/ vtadunnq ‘L L; S _ (' ; y5‘*5'I-tr. 3 RQ. ‘l'IY'¢_& L V Wtnky 7-'77 . " '*. L _ Ll.3k+s 4;, _: V ~. Q-T| Vt0 . 0n1’Jursy 2 : _ )’_f""°‘ H. 'M(vn('~, V '_ s“'¥ 1‘ ‘ ’Q. ‘¢‘” NenPuvu. .' Fflkumm £3‘, v°‘c‘“° French Turkish Persian Swedish Thai Russian Quechua mon Chou sultanim jigar sotnos jum—mum radost moya urpi sunqu my cabbage or my sultan liver sweet snout roly-poly myjoy dove heart my cream puff KAITLIN M. YARNALL, NGM STAFF. ART: MARC JOHNS. SOURCE: R. LUKE DUBOIS
  • 28. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Grace Cleere included National Geographic in her estate plans. TO MAKE YOUR BEQUEST to National Geographic, please use the following language: ”To the National Geographic Society in Washington, D. C., I give % of my estate. ” Or you can name a fixed dollar amount. Inspire Future Generations communications expert for the government, Grace Cleere recently named National Geographic as a beneficiary in her will. ’’I included a bequest intention to National Geographic because I believe in everything the organization represents, " says Cleere. ’’If we don't understand our world, we are bound to mistreat it. And if we are not curious about all living things on our planet, we are bound to lose them through thoughtlessness and indifference. National Geographic shines a spotlight on the critical issues of the day and proposes innovative solutions that are grounded in science. I feel good about my legacy knowing that National Geographic will leverage my gift so it can have the greatest impact. ” It is easy to include National Geographic in your will. For more information about how to include National Geographic in your estate plans, or to let us know that you have already done so, please Contact the Office of Estate Planning. CONTACT US: Phone: (800)226-4438 Email: plannedgiftinfo@ngs. org Web: wwwnationalgeographic. org/ donate The National Geographic Society is a 501(c)(3), tax-exempt oiganizatioii. YES! Please send me information on how to include National Geographic in my will! I have already included National Geographic in my will. Please send me information on a National Geographic charitable gift annuity. Birthdatels) Miiliinuiiz age -15. Piiyiiiciits liegiii at age 65. $10,000 $50,000 $100,000 Other (Miiziiiiiuiigift$10,000) Amt: Photo: Adam Buchanan Phone Email 0:0 -1 Mail to: National Geographic Society Office of Estate Planning 1145 17th Street N. W. Washington, D. C. 20036-4688
  • 29. No More Mr. Nice Watch J/ rig; S: :-‘: : C. Ca*. »:s ; _'e ; a/. .-_ F‘ "r ‘F ‘l '. ']r , //*nr-: .> ? { 1-.49-. J. JJ’ J‘. /.1. . . —. -—-. ... ¢ ‘§. ((; (( / / ’/ ‘l? ~ ”C: ':: : / /=. ::. r_. .. = Forget sleek and subtle, the Stauer Colossus Hybrid is one tough timepiece. ever underestimate your competition. Just ask Demetrius, the unfortunate Greek general who set out to conquer Rhodes in 305 BC. He assumed that a massive force of 40,000 men, a fleet of Aegean pirates and an arsenal of wall-smashing war machines would be enough to crush the tiny Greek island. He was wrong. The Rhodians were tougher than he thought. And so is this watch. If you’ve always believed that the biggest, baddest watches had to cost big, bad money, the $79 Stauer Colossus Hybrid Chronograph is here to change your mind. A monument to toughness. The people of Rhodes were ready for Demetrius and repelled his attack. To celebrate, they built the Colossus of Rhodes, a 107-foot bronze and iron giant that towered over the harbor like a ten—story trophy. It warned future invaders that "Rhodes is tougher than you think. ” You give the same message when you wear the Stauer Colossus. The timepiece that works twice as hard. In designing the Colossus Hybrid Chronograph, our instructions to the watchmaker were clear: build it as tough as a battleship and fill it full of surprises. Make it a hybrid, because it should work twice as hard as a regular watch. And make it look like a million bucks, because when you put it on, you should get excited about rolling up your sleeves. Mission accomplished. A toolbox on your wrist. It will keep you on schedule, but the Colossus Hybrid is about much more than time. The imposing case features a rotating gunmetal bezel that frames the silver, black and yellow face. You'll find a bat- talion of digital displays on the dial arranged behind a pair of luminescent hands and a bold yellow second hand. Powered by a precise quartz movement, the watch is doubly accurate in analog and digital mode. And it's packed with plenty of handy extras including a bright green EL back—light for enhanced nighttime visibility, a tachymeter along the outer dial and a full complement of alarms and split-second countdown timers. The Colossus Hybrid secures with a folded steel bracelet that highlights a row of striking dark center links. It's a rugged watch that's more than ready for your daily grind. Your Satisfaction is Guaranteed. Wear the Stauer Colossus Hybrid for 30 days and if you are not 100% thrilled with your purchase, return it for a full refund of your purchase price. But once you get a taste of more watch for less money, it's likely you'll be back for more. .. and we'll be waiting. WATCH SPECS -Easy-to-read analog/ digital modes —Back-lighting and luminescent hands - Tachymeter, countdown timers and alarms -Folded stainless steel bracelet fits a 6 3/4"—9" wrist Offer Limited to First 5000 Respondents Colossus Hybrid Digital/ Analog Watch—$39S Now $79 +S&P Save $316 Call now to take advantage of t/91'; limited oflfar. 1 -888-277-8380 Please mention this code when you call. l4l0l Sourhcross Drive W, Dept. CHW/287-02 Burnsville, Minnesota 55337 www. stauer. com Stauer hs a Better Business Bureau Ratlng of A+ Smart Luxuries—Surprising Prices
  • 30. ,/ illapge, Colorado. Many of_th_e' bones"—inclu_djng_this mandible. _ Mastodoii Mystery Last spring scientists - recovered a vast trove of . —|9e -Agé fossils, spied by a sharp-'e_yed bulldozer driver’ I at a reservoir near Snowniass ‘ (right). —belonged, to' mastodons. Moie massive than today's African elephant but shorter _ than their mammoth cpusins, mastodons browsed here beside what was once a lake in, a lush forest. But a riddle , remains: Why did so many of, them die in this particular spot? Kirk Johnson of the Denver Museum. of Nature & Science. ‘ is investigating a macabre scenario in which periodic earfhquakes caused the soil to swiftly liquefy then harden, repeatedly trapping entire mastodon families. Unable’ to move, the mighty tusked beasts slowly starved to death. "If we're right. ” says Johnson, “the lake was an Ice Age death trap. " —Evan Hadingham / ix, 5,5691ge Age fossil§ have been found at a Colorado site, including Fr” 1’ o N -‘ , -i A . . . . 1. Loose teeth Tusks Mandibles Skulls Pelvises PHOTO: CHRIS SCHNE| DER. ART: HANNAH TAK, NGM STAFF
  • 31. .. _.fi_. ... :.= ..a. .H. .Q§.5_ §:1.. «.fI: ! n. E1.rm1§. _. . .w. _§§ -. .m®, .. §__. £:. %nuin. ..u= m.. _.: .anEma. .a. ... =aw. E.-Ea. -y. maa9Eow . ... ..§. .wim. E_. a1o . zm_E: .Hn. m_mar. u.. _,. ... _ . .#= nR: .§ . u:o>1._ . .3=r. ;.. _.. _.. w.. _ . ..1u. I=. o.. .u: ___ . ..= .=f, . . .‘ . .u¢_o=4r__. n —bL. ._ 9.. ., . ._. ..n. ..; _= ._. f_f.1€. , : » 1‘. .. ‘ . Winn __n= _=. . m 25.. _. _.__u_, ¢¥ w_. m.. _«: o. _: ‘.n ; J_m. ‘ 0:. .. _. ‘ . ._. ‘.u. _, _, . ..= =_. ‘mW q_. .=~. __ 0:. .. F . o7__= _o_= _ ”. r4o: .:o_. _, are u. -0.0_E_ . I . 2 7 . é
  • 32. NOW Bumblebees travel up to five miles per foraging trip, so optimizing routes among flowers helps conserve energy. . /"9 B l, l.l. ‘I. ‘I. t'5t".5‘ . The flight of the bumbIebee—even when not set to music—may seem frenetic and random as the workers forage for pollen and nectar to carry home. ‘. ~ ____ . —» - But researchers at Queen Mary, University of London discovered -, . -" there’s choreography in the flower bed. Each bee has a brain the I, 5123125‘ size of a grass seed, but the insects are able to harvest efficiently by ‘-‘ solving one of math’s great puzzles: the traveling salesman problem. ' " " ° ‘-u. ‘ '. l The challenge is to find the shortest way to visit each flower once A, ,,, ,,, ,,, . B, .,. , before returning to the nest. Computers must resort to laborious l'“'4‘/ ‘Y’ "W calculations, measuring each possible route. The bees studied, '3 Bombus terrestris, and perhaps other species use spatial memory, rapidly refining routes through trial and error. (Hint: Moving to the next ---- ' "'. nearest flower isn't the answer. ) Scientists know why the bees do it— 5, flying is exhausting. Now they're trying to figure out how the insects do it. Learning what dictates their decisions could yield insights that ‘~, , improve our transportation and communication networks. To the ' ° ' ' ' "D '. bees, it’s just a matter of good orchestration. —Gretchen Parker Longest route "- FAST LEARNERS In lab trials, bees found the shortest route connecting six flowers without trying all the possible paths. Each bee was tested 80 times and used the shortest route more frequently overtime. Attempt Shortest route taken Bee m. O><.7t: .xc. oN—~ First ten attempts Final zen attempts Average distance traveled 215 ft 126 it PHOTO: ANDRE SKONIECZNV, IMAGEEROKER/ ALAMY. GRAPHICS: LAWSON PARKER, NGM STAFF SOURCE: NIGEL RAINE, ROYAL HOLLOWAY, UNIVERSITY OF LONDON
  • 33. grovfltty '“ VERSOSHOCK REVERSE TRAMPOLINE SOLE Defy Pain, Defy Aging, Defy Fatigue This is my story Excitement swept through I put them on and all I l _ I could say was, "WOW! " used to be more active. I used to run, play my body I . l t h d basketball, tennis, football. .. I was more I mceived my package from G, a, ityDefye, _ I , I . n I. “'n. Ilfie_5 . w‘|3S °L. ' t e 0°" Illa" 3 Weekend ""a”'I°I- I ""°ke “P ever)’ com and rushed to tear it open like a kid at . v 5 Gwas-tmémfc; Fhme elsts In my rilfw ‘I33’ filled Wltll lllel BUT “OW. l“ In)’ late Christmas. Inside I found the most amazing legvgayd bee; rzptilaecséd asfjperljy 305' I SP’-“Id m°5I °f my ‘I33’ I” the °ffI‘e °I shoes I had ever seen — different than most sacked out in front of the TV. I rarely get to wnning Shoes. Stwdy construction. Coot powered bI°nIc5' What the d°Ct°I promised was all correct. No more knee : :etSJ| )/Cl! " “zlot colors. Nice lines. .. Iwas holding a_miracle pain. I started to lose Weight At last’ I customer Satisfaction , 3 °'I of technology. This was the real thing. I was pain free and Speaks for Itself! l| l<e {V0l'l<l"9 _ I filled with ener , 4 out of 5 customers purchase a out, It's the GDefy Benefits | b k _ h 9Y~ 2nd paiiwithin 3 months. nagging pain I. . l I was ac _I”t e in my knees 0 Re Ieve pain or game. Gravity had and ankles. Low energy and laziness has ' E356 JOINT 8! $P| nal 1 I no power over me! got me down. My energy has fizzled and pressure I ‘ Nothing to I'm embarrassed to admit that I've grown a , Reduce fatigue & V I I _ St rt spare tire (I'm sure it's hurting my love life). tiredness I 059- a Eliminme am from eve Sm Nowadays I rarely walk. For some reason _ | I your 30 Day p ry I)‘ it'sjust harder now. Gravity has done a job ' 36 m0l'e aCt| Ve Tr-ia| Today! ‘ on me‘ i ° I'IaVe m°I'e eI'IeI'9V So, my friend, get Wear them and, 0 Appear ta| |er back on your feet Y°U'll kn°W 0 Jump higher, walk and ‘ : $I; ‘:, y'e‘f, ';jc')rT; ,l: jr's*‘e‘1'fty That’s what my doctor run faster recommended. He said, "Gravity Defyer shoes are pain- You have nothing to 0 Have instant comfort lose but your pain. relieving shoes. " He promised ' COOI your feet 8i I R d f , B . they would change my life—like reduce foot odor lg Tell us your story! 9 “Ce angua 6 more acme they were a fountain of youth. L - t G - d _ "They ease the force of Qravityi . Elevate your I 09m a rawty efyer Com performance and share your experience. relieving stress on your heels, ankles, knees and back. They boost your energy by propelling you forward. " The longer he talked, the more sense it made. He was even wearing a pair himself! "/ Resilient High Glrade Ethylene-Vinyl " Acetate (EVA) Midsole Rocker construction protects metatarsal _ bones and aids fluidstepping motions Semi-Rigid Heel Stabiliz- ing Cage Removable ' - ‘ . Comfort-Flt ‘ - , Insole . ‘ " ' ' ' ‘. - Accommo- dates most orthotics Rugged Polymer Sole Versoshockl" 1' ram . figgfk-Abs. —°rbin9_pMBmb ‘ I‘ wivvtltbilizerr-nvs‘_. ’ 8Ventilation“" Port - Sm‘art Memory” M 2 L _ spnng ' _ Cools 8. Reduces Microbial Growth - “Wm 'a@'a"9"e , . $2 _ 5133295 — MEN (Shown above) nsozmwss ‘ S5967-13 ‘ - 1 Take advantage of this exclusive offer at gland‘ °"‘I ‘ ' www. GravityDefyer. comI M H4BDB5 Extl'aWi@eWidths . w°MEN(SlWWithmw) or by phone, dial (800)429-0039 and — Tsgozfwas - mention the promotional code below. _sizes5-11~ _" ‘ llll4BDB' '_' _ 5.-“my pefyer Med/ Wltle and 3 cusmme, sunny “suns Extrawide/ Xxwide widths *Of'fer not available in stores. Shipping & Handling not included. 3 T E Z T T‘ T’ I apw ‘f wolf‘-s "Vi. , 0} £7" g f I _ «.2. ‘ ‘ " Q ‘$7“. a_J
  • 34. ll ' . ,1 / l i ‘I r ll i . ' r‘ ‘ _ i I _ , i' I ’ 2 l ’—*i’. i.i7 . /,i. '— l’ " , . Introducing a new discount for i'. a'tfoiia| Geograpliic Society members. GEICO is known for saving people 3 y money on car insurance. And now, ‘P7 M l as a National Geographic Society ‘*"" ‘ 1 member, you may qualify for a special new discount on GEICO insurance. Simply get a quote today, and mention your affiliation. In just 15 minutes, you can see how much you could save. Get a free quote. ii}[: ;fi Zr 3 geico. com 1-800-368-2734 or your local GEl00 office . ..; -.3: _. ,-. ... AUTO 0 HOME - RENTERS - MOTORCYCLE 0 RV 0 BOAT - PWC Somedlscountscoverages, paymentplansandfeaturesarenotavailableinallstatesorallGElC0companies. Discountamountvariesinsomestates. Onegroupdiscountapplicable perpolicy. Coverage is individual. lnNewYorkapremium reduction may be availabie. Nationa| Geographicsocietymembersarecomprised ofsubscrlberstoNational Geographic magazine. For details on membership goto www. nationalgeographic. com/ member. Motorcycle coverage is underwritten by GEICO Indemnity Company. Homeowners, renters, boat and PWC coverages are written through non-affiliated insurance companies and are secured through the GEICO Insurance Agency, Inc. GEICO is a registered service mark of Government Employees Insurance Company, Washington, DC. 20076; a Berkshire Hathaway Inc. subsidiary. GEICO Gecko image © 1999-2012. © 2012 GEICO
  • 35. AIDS illumination Glow, cat, glow! That light helps researchers see if you might be capable of resisting feline immunodefi- ciency virus—a development that could one day point the way toward protecting humans against HIV/ AIDS. FIV causes AIDS in cats much as HIV does in people, by decimating infection- fighting T cells. So last year a team led by the Mayo Clinic’s Eric Poeschla inserted a rhesus macaque gene—producer of an antiviral protein—into unfertilized feline eggs. To monitor the gene transference under microscopes and certain lights, Poeschla added a luminescent protein from a jellyfish. The next-generation result: glow-in-the-dark kittens that produce the antiviral protein themselves. Soon he’| l see if the modified cats are truly FIV immune. Paula Cannon, a Univer- sity of Southern California gene therapist, says the illuminating work is “a vital step" in genome-based AIDS research—for the health of humans and cats alike. —Jeremy Berlin PHOTO: MARK THIESSEN, NGM STAFF Glowing in the dark thanks to ajeI| yfish's green fluorescent protein, this cat has a monkey gene that may help it resist the feline form of AIDS. 29
  • 36. NEXT . An Atlas V rocket Landing on Mars . carrying Curiosity on its 350-million-mile journey to Mars. ---------------- -- The heat shield pops off, and the sky crane is released. Retro rockets fire. The parachute - Sixty feet above the surface, the sky deploys, crane lowers the rover on tethers. slowing the Clamps sever the tethers upon descent. touchdown, and the crane flies off. CURIOSITY, A NEW ROVING ROBOT, is due to land on science gadgets, the latest visitor is bigger and Mars in August, and this time NASA has left the five times as heavy, so engineers needed a way to air bags at home. The rover’s predecessors, Spirit safely deliver a much larger package. Enter the sky and Opportunity, bounced onto the red planet in crane, a new approach for NASA that-if success- 2004 encased in cushioning. Packed with more fu| —could become standard for landing big bots on
  • 37. LAUNCH V November 26,2011 ‘ ‘ O I EARTH “_’ U“ § ' I ‘ ; LANDING Cruise stage ‘ _ ' ' August 6 (UT), i 2012 Upon reaching Mars, -------------- -- -> The voyage takes nearly nine months. About the size of a small SUV, the rover Curiosity will search Gale crater for past or present conditions favorable for sustaining life. Maximum speed: _ 470 feet an hour. ’ Cameras Weather J sensors Mineral- identification camera Chemical- composition spectrometer other worlds. The crane’s retro rockets allow for a gentle landing, and it will stay tethered to Curiosity until the rover’s wheels are on stable ground. If all goes as planned, Curiosity will set down next to a three-mile-high mountain in Gale crater with rock the cruise stage separates, and the aeroshell begins its descent. Aeroshell — Rock-vaporizing laser and chemical-identification camera Radiation Organic— Sensor compound detector .9 Hydrated-mineral V, detector » / layers rich in clays and sulfates, minerals known to form only in the presence of liquid water, a key ingredient for life. Scientists hope these layers will yield a story of a planet with conditions that were—or are—hospitab| e to life. —Victoria Jaggard OLIVER UBERTI, NGM STAFF. ART: NICK KALOTERAKIS. NG MAPS. SOURCE: NASA
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  • 39. Of the 193 states recognized by the UN, 22 have I rmlilil*il‘ilirrrrrrr flags with animals. Eight depict eagles. Moving Toward Integration Brown University sociologist John Logan has pored over the melting pot in microcosm for 40 years. Last year he sifted through U. S. census data from 1980 to 2010 and identified 20 traditionally multiethnic metropolitan centers, including Los Angeles, Newark, and Houston. He discovered in the stats that communities with a high level of integration of four key groups are on the rise. These “global neighborhoods” start out as predominantly white communities that Hispanics and Asians move into, followed by blacks. What surprised Logan was that this specific pattern of integration showed much greater stability than expected. More than 60 percent of the global neighborhoods remained mixed after 30 years, he notes. These areas, based on census tracts, are on average nearly half white and about a quarter Hispanic, with the rest evenly split between blacks and Asians. On the flip side, minority-only tracts have proved increasingly entrenched, and white flight into the suburbs continues. Altogether, the push—pu| l of 1980 integration and segregation makes for an uneasy balance. —Johnna Rizzo _ , .. .'/ /-uw _ _, ,,, ..4. ,1 W «nu/ «~ Iv‘ ' Ix’. ’ i. :': :.. ;ui7.'ixii Gauging Head Injuries Since 2000 some 220,000 U. S. troops have suffered traumatic brain injuries, often from exposure to explosions. To fathom—and treat- such wounds, blast data are key. So last year the U. S. military and private—sector partners developed and deployed devices that assess explosion severity. In field testing, soldiers wear the watch- size dosimeter on their chests (above), shoulders, and heads. The gauges measure pressure and acceleration, letting medics press a button and evaluate risk in color-coded, traffic light style: red for serious, yellow for moderate, green for insignificant. —Jeremy Berlin 2010 Los Angeles County City of Los Angclei; In greater Los Angeles, ‘jglobal neighborhoods” of whites, blacks, 511"! " Hispanics, and v AREA M; );: :_: .m Global neighborhood census tracts . . -. ENLARGED Aszans are expanding. PHOTO: DEFENSE ADVANCED RESEARCH PROJECTS AGENCY. NGM MAPS. SOURCES: JOHN R. LOGAN, BROWN UNIVERSITV; CHARLES ZHANG, TEXAS A&M UNIVERSITV GRAPHIC: ALVARO VALINO. SOURCE: UNITED NATIONS
  • 40. ». . ,1’ ' . ' ', z.I I’ , f - _ . ... _, Z . .4""' ‘ '-an / . 1. ’ I’, ,"‘
  • 41. SIMPLE GENETIC TWEAKS DECIDE THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN A GREAT DANE (LEFT) AND A BRUSSELS GRIFFON (ABOVE). (‘o ivi i>< mm / —TC l-I MI 0 R P l-I HOW TO BUILD A DOG Scientists have found the secret recipe behind the spectacular variety of dog shapes and sizes, and it could help unravel the complexity of human genetic disease. 35
  • 42. K I . “ ’ 4 3' T I e e _ * w z ‘. . " ~, . . - ,3 . ' ‘ I / , I . I " I , FRENCH BULLDOG 2| AUSTRALIAN SHEPHERD 26 BLOODHOUNDJG , GREAT PVRENEES 71 CHINESE SHARPEI 50 DOBERMAN PINSCHER I4 1. . I ~, ALL DOGS FROM THE 2DII DOEERMAN PINSCHER 14 PEMBROKE WELSN CORGI 21 CARDIGAN WELSH CORGI A4 IRISH SETTER 11 E V wssmmsren DOG sl-low. Pl AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB 2010 . POPULARITY RANKING LISTED ) _ men NAME or BREED r » 1 ‘ . . . / 1 I . V . I r . ' 51 . . DOG-UE DE BORDEAUX M POODLE 9 BLACK RUSSIAN TERRIER I35 I . . >$: - 4 ’ u I 4 A . 4 ’ / I " ‘ . Li — I- ‘ ENGLISH SPRINGER SPANIEL II AFGHAN HOUND 38 AUSTRALIAN TERRIER IN CHINESE CRESTED 51 ‘T V ’ . ‘ " « _ I ', - r r . I , ’ ' ~ . iv , 3, In , - ' . I T . ‘ x , ) . vi-L . .. ' “ 2} ‘ 1?) CHESAPEAKE BAY RETRIEVER I0 VORKSI-llRE TERRIER I PUG IA BORDER COLLIE I1 BELGIAN MALINOIS ‘I6 GERMAN SHORTNAIRED POINTER II . “ , 1 . . J . _ / ‘ Pfl 4 ' I/5’: l
  • 43. GREATER SWISS MOUNTAIN DUO 58 POMERANIAN 15 . PUG ll BLOODHOUND 43 MASTIFF 2! AUSTRALIAN SNEPHERD 28 GERMAN SHDRTHAIRED POINTER is - susssx SPANIEL 155 r , / . F I ‘ A . ‘ I 4 I ~ . I. I ' 7‘-. »,% ' , I film“ . , ) GREAT DANE ‘I1 RNODESIAN RIDGEBACK M ‘ . » . - ' / ' l’ . ’ . I / A ~— ’. I "9. . , r . “-" (. ,' 7. “I ENGLISH SEITER 101 IRISH SEWER 17 GORDON SETTER OI . ITALIAN GREVHOUND I7 _ a. » . .. _k: _ '5 4 A , , § ‘p cnow cuow on DACHSHUND 9 bonus DE BORDEAUX ea PAPILLON as - _ , _ . /- r , _ ‘ r: ..~ 1 ~ I v ' - AUSTRALIAN TERRIER I23 ' SAINT BERNARD 45 SALUKI 115 ICELANDIC SNEEFDOB I: BICHON FRISE :1 LAERADOR RETRIEVER I AFGHAN HCJUND Id _. » . . . .. I
  • 44. 4 n Along with the patchwork of breeds pictured on the previous pages, Manny, an Afghan hound (right), and Razbery, an English setter (left), represent the best of the best: entrants in the Westminster Kennel Club's 135th annual dog show. The centuries of breeding that produced such striking diversity also created isolated genetic populations that are helping scientists understand human diseases. "We're the people doing the genet- ics, ” says one researcher. “But breeders have done all the fieldwork. "
  • 45. If? ’ 7"? ’ I’ / _ ) I F /4)’ I , ’ 4/ "r"’ . V x. I . r z 4 ’ ’ x g. ‘ /1 . ’( I / ( / ‘ .1 / , . ~ ‘I - / I , / .- . — . _
  • 46. BY EVAN RATLIFF - PHOTOGRAPHS BY ROBERT CLARK BICHON FRISE, 37TH ON THE AKC'S POPULARITY RANKING OF BREEDS It’s an unusually balmy mid-February afternoon in New York City, but the lobby of the Hotel Pennsylvania is teeming with fur coats. The wearers are attendees of what is undoubt- edly the world’s elite canine mixer, one that takes place each year on the eve of the West- minster Kennel Club dog show. Tomorrow the nation’s top dogs from 173 breeds will compete for glory across the street at Madison Square Garden. But today is more akin to a four—legged meet—and—greet, as owners shuffle through the check—in line at the competitions official lodg- ings. A basset hound aims a droopy eye across a luggage cart at a wired-up terrier. A pair of muscled Rhodesian ridgebacks, with matching leather leashes, pause for a brief hello with a fluffy Pyrenean shepherd. Outside the gift shop a Tibetan mastiff with paws the size of human hands goes nose to nose with a snuffling pug. The variety on display in the hotel lobby—a dizzying array of body sizes, ear shapes, nose Evan Ratlifi wrote on the origins of domestication in the March 2011 issue. Brooklyn-based Robert Clark’s last dog, a pit bull named Leo, now lives on a farm. 42 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC I FEBRUARY 2012 lengths, and barking habits—is what makes dog lovers such obstinate partisans. For reasons both practical and whimsical, man’s best friend has been artificially evolved into the most diverse animal on the planet—a staggering achievement, given that most of the 350 to 400 dog breeds in existence have been around for only a couple hundred years. The breeders fast—forwarded the normal pace of evolution by combining traits from disparate dogs and accentuating them by breeding those offspring with the largest hints of the desired attributes. To create a dog well suited for cornering badgers, for instance, it is thought that German hunters in the 18th and 19th centuries brought together some combina- tion of hounds—the basset, a native of France, being the likely suspect—and terriers, produc- ing a new variation on the theme of dog with stubby legs and a rounded body that enabled it to chase its prey into the mouth of a burrow: hence the dachshund, or “badger dog” in Ger- man. (A rival, flimsier history of the breed has
  • 47. Bichon frise m4 a , VF ‘.4tl Irish water J V spaniel ,5»; ' “““" “" {r CURLY + LONG + FURNISHINGS . ‘ I. ' LONG + CURLY CURLY + WIRE + FURNISHINGS CURLY COAT A dog's coat , / Furnishings are is determined extended beards by these three and eyebrows, genes. Eight found in dogs other genes with the mutated govern color. RSPO2 gene LONG WIRE COAT (orange ). COAT AND/ OR FURNISHINGS LONG I WIRE + FURNISHINGS ‘ A. Q. §'. ' xi . . I if >321 Vjlb--7" LONG + FURNISHINGS ’x Golden retriever Australian terrier Bearded collie HAIR OF THE DOG Hundreds of genes interact to produce a physical trait in humans and most mammals. For dog traits, the magic number is usually three or fewer. The type of coat a dog wears depends on the three genes shown above. Mutations in these genes create a coat that's long, curly, wiry, or a combination. If none of the three genes are mutated, the dog will have the short, smooth coat of breeds like beagles and basset hounds—and the dog's ancestor, the gray wolf. JOHN TOMANIO, NGM STAFF. DOG ILLUSTRATIONS: DAN WILLIAMS SOURCE: ADAM EOVKO. CORNELL UNIVERSITV
  • 48. Researchers have identified a single gene mutation that causes the “hair| essness” of dogs like Sugar, a Chinese crested (right). The eye-shielding curls of Charlotte, a black-haired puli (above), are produced by the interaction of three genes.
  • 49. . rvlu/ pi
  • 50. LIKE ITS ANCESTOR THE GRAY WOLF, THE BASENJI, ONE OF THE MOST ANCIENT BREEDS, DOESN'T BARK. it dating back, in some form, to ancient Egypt. ) Pliable skin served as a defense mechanism, allowing the dog to endure sharp—toothed bites without significant damage. A long and sturdy tail helped hunters to retrieve it from an animal’s lair, badger in its mouth. The breeders gave no thought, of course, to the fact that while coaxing such weird new dogs into existence, they were also tinkering with the genes that determine canine anatomy in the first place. Scientists since have assumed that under- neath the morphological diversity of dogs lay an equivalent amount of genetic diversity. A recent explosion in canine genomic research, however, has led to a surprising, and opposite, conclusion: The vast mosaic of dog shapes, colors, and sizes is decided largely by changes in a mere handful of gene regions. The difference between the dachs- hund’s diminutive body and the Rottweiler’s mas- sive one hangs on the sequence of a single gene. The disparity between the dachshund’s stumpy legs—known oflicially as disproportionate dwarf- ism, or chondrodysplasia—and a greyhounds sleek ones is determined by another one. 46 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - FEBRUARY 2012 The same holds true across every breed and almost every physical trait. In a project called CanMap, a collaboration among Cornell Uni- versity, UCLA, and the National Institutes of Health, researchers gathered DNA from more than 900 dogs representing 80 breeds, as well as from wild canids such as gray wolves and coyotes. They found that body size, hair length, fur type, nose shape, ear positioning, coat col- or, and the other traits that together define a breed’s appearance are controlled by somewhere in the neighborhood of 50 genetic switches. The difference between floppy and erect ears is determined by a single gene region in canine chromosome 10, or CFA10. The wrinkled skin of a Chinese shar-pei traces to another region, called HAS2. The patch of ridged fur on Rhode- sian ridgebacks? That’s from a change in CFA18. Flip a few switches, and your dachshund be- comes a Doberman, at least in appearance. Flip again, and your Doberman is a Dalmatian. “The story that is emerging, ” says Robert Wayne, a biologist at UCLA, “is that the diversity in domestic dogs derives from a small genetic tool kit. ” Media reports about the gene for red hair, alcoholism, or breast cancer give the false im- pression that most traits are governed by just one or a few genes. In fact, the Tinkertoy genetics of dog morphology is a complete aberration. In nature, a physical trait or disease state is usually the product of a complex interaction of many genes, each one making a fractional contribution. Height in humans, for instance, is determined by the interaction of some 200 gene regions. So why are dogs so different? The answer, the researchers say, lies in their unusual evolution- ary history. Canines were the earliest domesti- cated animal, a process that started somewhere between 20,000 and 15,000 years ago, most likely when gray wolves began scavenging around human settlements. Dog experts differ on how active a role humans played in the next step, but eventually the relationship became a mutual one, as we began employing dogs for hunting, guarding, and companionship. Sheltered from the survival—of—the—fittest wilderness, those
  • 51. FAMILY TIES Analyzing the DNA of 85 dog breeds, scientists found that genetic similarities clustered them into four broad categories. The groupings reveal how breeders have recombined ancestral stock to create new breeds; a few still carry many wolflike genes. Researchers named the groups for a distinguishing trait in the breeds dominating the clusters, though not every dog necessarily shows that trait. The length of the colored bars in a breed‘s genetic profile shows how much of the dog's DNA falls into each category. WOLFLIKE With roots in Asia, Africa, and the Middle woLI= LII(E East, these breeds are genetically closest to wolves, suggesting they are the oldest domesti- cated breeds. HERDERS HERDERS Familiar herding breeds such as the Shetland sheepdog are joined by breeds never known for herding: the greyhound, pug, and borzoi. This suggests those breeds either were used in the creation of classic herd- ing dogs or descended from them. HUNTERS HUNTERS Most in this group were developed in recent centuries as hunting dogs. While the pharaoh hound and lbizan hound are said to descend from dogs seen on ancient Egyptian tombs, their placement here suggests they are re-creations bred to resemble ancient breeds. MASTIFFLIKE The German shepherd's appearance in this cluster, anchored by the mastiff, bulldog, and MASTIFFLIKE boxer, likely reflects its breeding as a military and police dog. Shiba inu Chow chow Akita Alaskan malamute Beeenjl Chinese shar-pei Siberian husky Afghan hound Saluki Tibetan terrier Lhasa apso Samoyed Pekingese Shin tzu lrieh wolfhound Saint Bernard Greyhound Belgian sheepdog Belgian Tervuren Borzoi Collie Shetland sheepdog Pug Whippet Standard poodle Bichon frise Keeshond Manchester terrier Norwegian elkhound Kuvasz Great Dane Welsh springer spaniel Komondor Doberman pinscher Standard schnauzer Italian greyhound Old English sheepdog American water spaniel Miniature schnauzer Australian terrier English cocker spaniel Irish setter West Highland white terrier Pointer Benet hound Cavalier King Charles spaniel Giant schnauzer Phereoh hound Golden retriever Beagle Bloodhound Airedale terrier Cocker spaniel American hairless terrier Cheeepeelre Bey retriever Cairn terrier Portuguese water dog German shorthaired pointer Border collie Bedlington terrier Clumber spaniel lbizan hound Rhodesian ridgeback Dachshund Australian shepherd Chihuahua Kerry blue terrier Schipperke Irish terrier Fiat-coated retriever Soft-coated wheeten terrier Pomeranian Labrador retriever Perro de presa canario Rottweiler Bullmastiif Newfoundland Gennan shepherd French bulldog Miniature bull terrier Bulldog Boxer Mastiff Bernese mountain dog Greater Swiss mountain dog I 211:1‘! J’ is 7% JOHN TOMANIO, LAWSON PARKER. NGM STAFF SOURCE: HEIDI G. PARKER. NATIONAL HUMAN GENOME RESEARCH INSTITUTE, NATIONAL INSTITUTES OF HEALTH
  • 52. Originally bred as guard dogs, Tibetan mastiffs like Midas, a Westminster finalist from Lubbock, Texas, can top 150 pounds. They are highly protective of their owners—an impulse that, along with most other dog behaviors, remains a genetic mystery.
  • 53. Oakley, a pug (foreground), and Little Dude, a Saint Bernard, stand witness to the immense morphologi- cal diversity of their species. If humans varied as much in height, the smallest would be two feet tall and the tallest would measure some 31 feet.
  • 54. semidomesticated dogs thrived even though they harbored deleterious genetic mutations- stumpy legs, for instance—that would have been weeded out in smaller wild populations. Thousands of years later, breeders would seize on that diverse raw material when they began creating modern breeds. They tended to grab traits they desired from across multiple breeds—or tried to rapidly replicate mutations in the same one—in order to get the dog they wanted. They also favored novelty, since the more distinct a line of dogs appeared, the more likely it was to garner official recognition as a new breed. Such artificial selection tended to favor single genes with a large impact, allowing traits to be fixed more rapidly than groups of smaller—impact genes ever could. “It’s kind of like when you set your remote control to control your TV, your stereo, and your cable, ” says Carlos Bustamante, a CanMap ge- neticist now at Stanford University. “You hit the on-off switch, and it does them all. ” This revelation has implications the scientists are just beginning to unravel—most important, for the understanding of genetic disorders in hu- mans. Already, more than a hundred dog diseases have been mapped to mutations in particular genes, many of them with human counterparts. Those diseases may have a whole array of muta- tions leading to a risk of disease in dogs, as they do in us. But because dogs have been genetically segregated into breeds developed from just a few original individuals, each breed has a much smaller set of errant genes—often only one or two—underlying the disease. For instance, Cor- nell researchers studying the degenerative eye disease retinitis pigmentosa—shared by humans and dogs—found 20 different canine genes caus- ing the disorder. But a different gene was the culprit in schnauzers than in poodles, giving re- searchers some specific leads for where to start looking in humans. Meanwhile a recent study of a rare type of epilepsy in dachshunds found what appears to be a unique genetic signature, which could shed new light on the disorder in us as well. In short, while the Victorian breeders were crafting dogs to suit their tastes, they were also creating genetically isolated populations, little knowing how useful they might be to scientists in the future. The possibilities are especially abun- dant for cancer, certain types of which can show up as often as 60 percent of the time in some dog breeds but only once in every 10,000 humans. “We are the people who are doing the genet- ics, ” says Elaine Ostrander, who studies dog evolution and disease at the National Human Genome Research Institute at NIH. “But breeders are the people who have done all the fieldwork. ” One category of trait that has so far proved resistant to the CanMap analysis is behavior. Only a single mutant behavioral gene has been identified to date: the dog version of the gene for obsessive-compulsive disorder in humans, 2000 2010 AKC rank 1 1 Labrador retriever 3 2 German shepherd 3 Yorkshire terrier 4 Beagle 5 Golden retriever 6 Bulldog 8 Dachshund 9 10 10 Shih tzu TOP DOGS The most popular breeds in 2000 and 2010 by American Kennel Club registrations which can cause Doberman pinschers to obses- sively suck on their fur to the point of bleeding. More common characteristics such as loyalty, tenaciousness, or the instinct to herd clearly have genetic underpinnings. But they can also be affected by factors ranging from a dog’s nu- trition to the presence of children in the house, making them difficult to quantify rigorously enough to study. Nevertheless, “we’ve probably got as good a shot, if not better, of understand- ing behavior in dogs over other animals, ” says Stanford’s Bustamante. After all, he points out, there are millions of dog lovers out there willing and eager to help with the fieldwork. El NGM ART SOURCE: AMERICAN KENNEL CLUB
  • 55. For most of their evolutionary history, all dogs resembled these semiwild village dogs living among the Batammariba in Togo, West Africa.
  • 56. Dog breeds were created by human beings. The village dog created itself. T| —|E FOREVER By Evan Ratliff LABRADORS MAY BE the most popular breed of dog, but the most populous kind is no breed at all. That distinction goes to the humble vil- lage dog scratching out a semiwild living in and around human settlements. While a postdoc at Cornell University a few years ago, Adam Boyko became curious about the little—studied village vagrants. Though dogs were first domesticated 20,000 to 15,000 years ago, most breeds go back only a few hundred years. Perhaps village dog DNA might shed light on the long, early history of domestication, when canines were hanging around humans yet not under our domain. But how to get samples? As it happened, around the same time Boyko’s brother Ryan had married, and he and wife Co- rin were looking for a cheap honeymoon off the beaten track. The three Boykos decided to merge their two quests. Adam—now at Cornell’s College of Veterinary Medicine—obtained a grant, then enlisted Ryan and Corin to spend their honey- moon traveling around Egypt, Uganda, and Na- mibia, befriending villagers and local vets. They collected DNA from more than 300 village dogs. When the samples were analyzed, most of the village dogs turned out to be as closely related to wolves as they were to fully domesticated dogs. Rather than being mixed—breed mutts that had gone feral in historical times, the village dogs had been eking out an existence on the hu- man fringe for millennia. Their genomes thus reflected a state of early domestication, before artificial selection and inbreeding directed by humans had taken over. “When you are looking at village dogs, ” Adam Boyko says, “you have something more akin to natural selection, albeit ALIDA LATHAM, DANITA DELIMONT DOG in an environment that’s managed by humans. ” Unexpectedly, the study also helped to chal- lenge the reigning View on the place where dogs first appeared. Fossil evidence had already pinned the transition from wolf to dog some- where in Europe or Asia, and a 2002 study had shown that East Asian village dogs were more genetically diverse—an indication that wolves had first been domesticated in East Asia. But the Boykos’ 2009 work found that the African village dogs were just as diverse as the East Asian ones. Some also carried a genetic signature shared with Middle Eastern gray wolves, supporting re- search by Robert Wayne and Bridgett vonHoldt of UCLA that points to the Middle East as the likely cradle of dogs. The Boykos continue to expand their sample collection, with another expedition planned for Africa. And they’ve also begun using the same techniques to solve a related mystery: the strange disappearance of native dogs in South America. We know from the historical record that Native Americans had dogs. But previous population surveys in the Americas turned up only dogs with European heritage. “How do you ship so many dogs across the world that they completely replace the native dogs? ” Boyko wonders, sus- pecting that in fact there may still be village dogs with native DNA in the remotest areas of the continent. So in August the three Boykos packed their bags and headed into the jungles of Peru, searching for the lost American dog. I] I Society Grant Ongoing fieldwork on the native American dog DNA is funded in part by your National Geographic Society membership. 53
  • 57. /K @eo e lies a fault that in centuries past has ggered large earthquakes—and tsunamis that swamped the coast. These houses at Cannon Beach sit just inside an evacuation zone based on a worst-case scenario. As the world's coasts get more crowded, geologists are finding that tsunamis occur more often than once thought. JOHN STANMEYER . ‘ , » l x . J", J 7 5.: WHERE AN_[‘W. F§EN. ~gVILL. IHE 3 NEXT TsuWArIIIII’HI1". >‘""‘. «"
  • 58. I I . :i r-=
  • 59. JAR N 1. ' . ,' - / . . Morejthan 1,500 people died last March ‘ in'Rlkuzentakata, one of several towns eradi- cated by the tsunami. “As the buildings were estroyed, black, dusty smoke was thrown up, " syrvivor told an Al JazeeLa reporter. "Then the tsunangjgswalloweduptfie’smoke. " ‘4 ‘Y»MoN Suzuki J . I I I
  • 60. Eye on tsunamis Tsunamis aren't moon driven tides or wind driven waves at the sea surface. They're caused by violent movements of rock—seafloor earthquakes usual| y—that can put a whole ocean in motion Since the first one on record, along Syria's coast in about 2000 B C, a few thousand tsunamis have collectively killed more than 500,000 people. Nearly half those deaths occurred in a single catastrophe in the Indian Ocean in 2004; as coastal populations have boomed, tsunamis have grown more lethal. Their Japanese name—ii means “harbor wave"—is perhaps a hit too quiet. Most large tsunamis arise around the rim of the Pacific and Indian Oceans, along seafloor faults called subduction zones, where colliding tectonic plates trigger large earthquakes. Waves spread in opposite directions from the fault. Within minutes the first waves crash onto nearby land, as in Japan in 2011; within hours they cross the ocean. Even thousands of miles away, a harbor may not be safe. COASTAL COLLISION 1 At subduction zones a dense oceanic plate 3 Before the first wave arrives. water often 2 When the plates lurch free in a quake, dives under a continen— the seafloor may buckle, recedes from the shore, tal one. Strain builds up lifting the sea—triggering draining harbors and where they get stuck. a tsunami exposing the seabed . 'I 4 The first wave is not the last. Towering waves may batter a nearby coast for hours, racing miles inland I. .v i'' 'I' I (I 0 (‘EA N I 0' ’ . _ . _ IiIilr. i,‘-I s - x. if ‘ I g. o INLAND WAVES / Landslides and Wu, ° . I ' ' volcanic eruption "" ”‘ " # canlaunchtsunai ' e In lakes and rivers PORTUGAL, 1755 '. ' Fcirly minutes after an estimated magnitude 8 7 , __L A ' earthquake, a tsunami mi - the capital city of Lisbon, 9 killing thousands who had lied shaking buildings. ' I . 9 . ,,, 0 I . I) I / N U ( I’ . I N INDIAN OCEAN, I A magnitude 9.i earthquake oil in Indonesian island of Sumatra lifted, 1.000-mile sirelct of seabed as muc as 20iee1,20 min later a tsunami rn than 100 feet higf Sumatra PREPAREDNESS HI Japan had prepared—but not for a large as the one that struck the Tot The waves crashed over tall seawalls they penetrated more than two rr Many people ignored warni
  • 61. ARCTIC OCEAN JAPAN, 1011 . AmagnItude9earth- i . . / t 3 I / , . -- . quake, Japans largest - -. . , ever. set oflatsunami ‘p‘-- +; ‘ ‘ - that ravaged hundreds ‘ . ' of mllesofcoast north 4 N 0 ii 7 H - of Tokyo. A 45-foot CAXC/ ID/ A . ' wave struck the 5115021 r i M I K I L A - Fukushima Dailchi +30 _ _ nuclear power plant. WARNING sys-I-EM__. +?e oC"5“"t CRY + + A network oi 53 detector . 5 buoys, most In the '~ “,5 Pacific, now tracks the ‘u . . ' T V ‘ , ‘ V , _ rnovementoltsunamis, + ‘ A I L A N I ' ( ' alerting people on distant 0 C E A N shores. Many buoys were § added after the 2004 + + Indian Ocean tsunami. $. —— ‘ '~. . +~ * t ~ t'iiri'IiIri-iiii + '. ‘ Si-ii ' PA C I I’ I C ' TSUNAMI TRIGGER + _. L , _ . U C E A N (since 2000 EC. ) Eda Aceh " SUBDUCTION ZONE ' Lampuuk Q DETECTION BUOY + . + s 0 ll r H , — —TSUNAMITRlGGERS " M ’ ‘ ’ ‘ ' The red dots represent a earthquakes or other tsunami-producing 3 . + eventslnthehistorical - I A U 5 I I: /I I I A . record. The geologic . h ‘e / record otters evidence ot _ utes . many prehistoric ones CHILE, 1939 are / + A magnitude 9.5 earth- ihn quake herein 1960 was the largest ever recorded. About 1,000 people died in ChIle—and a day after ! the quake, a tsunami killed -. at least 139 in Japan. / 10,000 miles Irom the epicenter. A 35-foot wave / ' _ , devastated Hilo, Hawaii. inunizwnou Mme. - ‘ MODELED MARCH INUNDATION 2011 by a tsunami - similar to I ‘ Japan's ‘ _‘ Japan I United States ts LIMITS ‘ ”(’; ‘(§: :]'VC l P*‘<‘{“< i NOT IF BUT WHEN tsunami as ' och“, l The Cascadia subduction zone, off the Pacific ioku coast. OREGON . Northwest, could produce an earthquake r; at Sendai , , , ,,, , 0 , ,,, , ‘ comparable to the Tohoku one. Cannon iiles inland. QT‘ llnmi ‘ i ' J Beach is one of many small towns that might ngs to flee. _? __ . be inundated by the resulting tsunami. ART anuu cunisrv mes WILLIAM E MCNULTV, NGM snrmzo SICKLEV ARI souac: onseou STATE UNIVERSITV MAP SOURCES NATIONAL GEOPHVSICAL mu CENTERIWORLD emi csmsa mencrwec) GLOBAL HISTORICAL TSUNAMI DATABASE, IAN moan. onacon espnrxrmem oF GEOLOGY mo MINERAL INDUSTRIES cam»: AEROSPACE czursn. cams: For: SATELLITE BASED CRISIS INFORMATION
  • 62. r , -:
  • 63. Black with muck scoured from the harbor, the first tsunami wave pours over a seawall in Miyako, carrying vans and boats. Japan's defenses were no match for waves far higher than scientists had predicted. JIJI PRESS/ AFP/ GETTY IMAGES . I . _li _. .. ..‘. l.. _.. "52 -- , ... .., I - - “"- - ~. " J -C-9-éu--'~” %: —~"V-‘* *'; —-—i , I r. . L. 9- i"[l‘i: l‘ ‘I ~~~': :'--‘“‘‘ ‘“ 4“ ' A _-l . ,,l ‘(K T. ‘ gl I Jl ‘J u7i; T§J"i -. ... - 'l: §."'; ]"_"‘l‘} . . IL- ‘txlllt Q ' “~‘ _ , _ 11:3:-§& ’ p. ‘ ' ‘ - ' -- ' __ _ “ - ' " ‘*'--. ~ . ' “V. - . . . _. W ___‘ _‘ _ ~_ _ ‘ _ _ ‘ _ ‘ _ . V. ..» ‘-T-‘ . -— -a—’~ _ — ".7 “--, _-—, ~-v ~~. — - -. ‘ '_ ‘ '---~. ._. 'Z ‘ - — - - ' ~— . .- __ _ _‘: ‘ - j _; - ‘g _ h'‘( g _ __ ‘ . _ g -_ 7:, .‘ ‘. _ *~_ g ‘ a T‘ 4
  • 64. By Tim Folger Jin Sam is the mayor of a town that no lnnner exists. Minamisanriku, a quiet fishing port north of Sendai in northeastern Iapan, disappeared last March 11. Sato nearly did too. The disas- ter started at 2:46 p. m., about 80 miles east in the Pacific, along a fault buried deep under the seafloor. A 280-mile-long block of Earth’s crust suddenly lurched to the east, parts of it by nearly 80 feet. Sato had just wrapped up a meeting at the town hall. “We were talking about the town’s tsunami defenses, ” he says. Another earthquake had jolted the region two days earlier—a pre- cursor, scientists now realize, to the March 11 temblor, which has turned out to be the largest in ]apan’s history. When the ground finally stopped heaving, after five excruciating minutes, Minamisanriku was still mostly intact. But the sea had just begun to heave. Sato and a few dozen others ran next door to the town’s three—story disaster-readiness center. Miki Endo, a 24-year-old woman work- ing on the second floor, started broadcasting a warning over the town’s loudspeakers: “Please head to higher ground! ” Sato and most of his group headed up to the roof. From there they watched the tsunami pour over the town’s 18—foot—high seawall. They listened to it crush or sweep away everything in its path. Wood-frame houses snapped; steel girders groaned. Then dark gray water surged over the top of their building. Endo’s broadcasts abruptly stopped. Some 16,000 people died that day, most of them along hundreds of miles of coast in the Tohoku region, and nearly 4,000 are still miss- ing. The tsunami eradicated several towns and 64 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC I FEBRUARY 2012 As waves battered the disaster-readiness center villages in Tohoku and left hundreds of thou- sands homeless. In Minamisanriku the killed or missing number about 900 of 17,700 inhabi- tants, including Miki Endo, whose body was not found until April 23. Sato survived by climbing a radio antenna on the roof and clinging to it. “I think I was underwater for three or four min- utes, ” he says. “It’s hard to say. ” Many of the 30 or so other people on the roof tried to hang on to the iron railings at its edge. The waves kept coming all night long, and for the first few hours they repeatedly inundated the three—story build- ing. In the morning only ten people remained on the roof. Iapan leads the world in preparing for earth- quakes and tsunamis. It has spent billions ret- rofitting old buildings and equipping new ones with shock absorbers. High seawalls shield many coastal towns, and well—marked tsunami evacua- tion routes lead to high ground or to tall, strong
  • 65. buildings. On March 11 government seismolo- gists had barely stopped hugging their computer monitors to keep them from crashing to the floor when their first tsunami warning went out. Together these measures saved many thou- sands of lives; Miki Endo alone may have saved thousands. The Tohoku earthquake itself—a mag- nitude 9—did much less damage than it would have in other countries. But between 16,000 and 20,000 died because of the tsunami—a death toll comparable to that caused by an earthquake and tsunami in the same region in 1896. Iapan’s defenses have improved tremendously since then, but its population has tripled. Its coasts are far more crowded. The same is true all over the world, in countries that are much less prepared. In the Indian Ocean, where the dead- liest tsunami in history killed nearly 230,000 people in 2004, most of them in Indonesia, a similar disaster has been forecast for sometime SHINICHI SATO. KYOD0/AP IMAGES (ALL) in Minamisanriku, ten peopIe—inc| uding Mayor Jin Sato—survived by clinging to handrails and a radio antenna. within the next 30 years. In the United States, where a tsunami devastated the Pacific North- west 300 years ago, when it was sparsely inhab- ited, geologists say another is inevitable. It’s likely there will be many Minamisanrikus in the decades ahead. Sato had survived a big tsunami before. In 1960, when he was eight, a 14-foot wave killed 41 people in Minamisanriku. The seawall was built after that, to a height of 5.5 meters, a little over 18 feet. “We thought we would be safe, ” Sato says. “Seismologists had told us to prepare for a tsunami that might be five and a half to six meters high. But this one was three times that height. ” Afterward, in the landscape of debris that had been his town, almost the only thing that remained intact was the seawall. TSUNAMIS STRIKE somewhere in the world al- most every year, and giant ones have arguably TSUNAMIS 65
  • 66. e , ' —_ ' . ca. '- ’I« r‘ . . I I. ~ ’ ‘ l '-— _ - . __j. _ . _ . _ . _ _, _ l -~« K - . . “‘ . “‘ 7 . ___ ‘ w - . .___. _— j: _ _. _. .. j __ T r-—3-. T: Q ? . ' 0 p w 7 ; ~- . I n " I . ' "— 03 J , ,3. ‘E-. ’ V '_". I m - } xi’ A . '’'i V ‘ Q n ' ‘ --~~. , _ . ._‘~g , . "9 '1 I ‘ _ _— ‘- _ ‘ l ‘. n ‘ 1» r A '~Some, tl'iing always draws people back to the sea—an_dto facsimiles thereof. At the Summer- land wave poolin Tokyo last August hundreds of fun seekers found relief from a hot afternoon and from months of tragic news. I MICHAEL YAMASHITA 1

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