HEMAIIING RID I NEPi| .’S SECRET CAVES I lviESOAi’viERICAN REEF
N_GM. COM OCTOBER 2012
45‘ ‘
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kids love chemistry
Getting the next generations excited about chemistry is important
for humankind’s future. That's why...
VOL. 222 a NO. 4
NATIONAL
GEOGRAPHIC
So/ no plant leaves lmvc
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October 2012
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National geographic usa october 2012

National geographic usa october 2012
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Transcripts - National geographic usa october 2012

  • 1. HEMAIIING RID I NEPi| .’S SECRET CAVES I lviESOAi’viERICAN REEF N_GM. COM OCTOBER 2012 45‘ ‘ , , . . , '. _ ‘,5’- ' . »‘‘«V ‘w ‘‘ ‘ "C. ‘- v‘. ’. I 4 F’ _ -- _; '_». /.5 . - -' v A I n)“ 9 . . 3' )' ’ ‘-x" ‘ '5 A ‘ I ~ 9 ‘I"(»' v‘_. '.— (Vt -'3"-rx: .~v~. —._ A __ av‘) xxri’ . ‘ 1, I3 __ r « , /(D' My , ; 5: , 5,‘ *. )~‘1_‘ 4 I ‘ -_ V. INVESTIGATIVE REPORT ELEPHANIS WERE KILLED LAST YEAR
  • 2. kids love chemistry Getting the next generations excited about chemistry is important for humankind’s future. That's why we've created “Kids’ Lab” in more than 30 countries, where the young ones can learn about chemistry and science in a fun, hands-on way. Little students and test tubes finally getting along? At BASF, we create chemistry. wvvw. basf. com/ chemistry . ,~. K I _. . . ¥', 1 ( 3 / l ‘ E i I . ;- / ‘rx . . / ’ V_ _ V / ' / ‘~A . l »_ _ ‘ 1 i . S I . :‘ I ‘ __ (g I (, it Hi ll ‘ll lsl . l. 2' ‘L , r ' ‘ V‘ I ‘ I ' t» , _‘_I _é' T, __, O’ ~_. y Q r~ '‘ t _ I t. I: . J / - n_ ‘ «.15. r ; . . ~l» IJ ‘Iii: fl’u: mnoi= _Il huuipnmv
  • 3. VOL. 222 a NO. 4 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC So/ no plant leaves lmvc L7t’t‘UItlt’ specialists in deadly tricks. page 69 28 62 72 DAVID ALAN HAFIVEV You can buy nearly anything from a vendor along the 50—p| us miles of Rio beaches: Popsicle, ball, cover-up emblazoned with the city's statue of Christ the Redeemer. October 2012 Ivory Worship A National Geographic investigation reveals how the religious art market fuels ivory smuggling. By Bryan Chrisly Photographs by Brent Stirton The Glory of Leaves Sleek or prickly, waxy or spiny, pure green or silvery white. . . why do they look the way they do? By Rob Dunn A New Face for Rio With the Olympics coming in 2016, the city is spending millions to fix up its hillside slums. By Antonio Regalado Photos by David Alan Harvey 92 Amazing Mesoamerican Reef 114 136 In this world, mangrove forests, sea grass beds, and coral reefs strike a delicate balance. By Kenneth Brower Photographs by Brian Skerry The Sky Caves of Nepal Explorers scramble up cliffs to find out who created these ancient dwellings. By Michael Finkel Photographs by Cory Richards My Neighbor, Mr. Badger The people moved away from their cottages in a rural Finnish town. And the animals moved in. By Carolyn Butler Photographs by Kai Fagerstrdm OFFICIAL JOURNAL OF THE NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC SOCIETY
  • 4. O’) 10 16 19 144 145 October 2012 Editor’s Note ‘ V». _T _r7 Letters ‘ ' Explorers lonrnal ‘ ‘i ‘ _ / ", ."‘; _E"l iiisiiiiis» sea-» . . / i. Your Shot NEXT Baboons Recognize Words But it is not yet clear if they can learn the meaning behind "banana. " Feathered Dino ‘ It weighed a ton. It was kin to 7'. rex. And it had a coat of down. Elephant Toys > -. x $4., '. - If a pachyderm twists the . l_": -r; "5’ ' V, ‘ bolts on the pyramids at right, *‘ , , ¥ 2 _ . 7 N? itgetsatreat. -’ ‘-as ‘Q’ "“”¢"‘ A’ 3 Chinese Driving Test Among the questions: How should you jump from an overturning car? Eau de Whale > Ambergris emerges from a sperm . _ . whale‘s belly, enters high-end perfumes. .‘ g V ‘i. Birth of Amasia In 100 million years Earth's shifting landmasses may form a new continent. NG Connect The Moment Flashback On the Cover The ivory market reaches from Africa to Asia ln Kenya (left) a ranger removes tusks from an elephant killed illegally, the aim is to keep the ivory off the black market in China (right) a carver works with ivory inset photo: by Brent Slirton mckgroii/ iii photo Liy i'vli: h:n= .‘ Nichol”. Subscriptions For SL. lbSCllpllOl’lS, gift memberships. or changes of address. Contact Customer Service atiigmservic_e. com or call 1-800-NGS-LiNE(6/17-5463). Outside the U S and Canada please call +1—813~979—6845 ii. .>_. i l . . l‘ l . .i .7 l ll DIGITAL EDITIDNS 'r<_ 1,-, *r"»‘x , l » /54', ‘ D L7 :3; i P / ,1’ l -. ‘ «(J i. Ivory Video in. See video from Bryan Christys investigation. Mesoamerican Reef V i d e o Swim amid a school of spawning snappers. it IT’, "P ll 2. . _ ’ . —I—-1 _ . . / .‘< 2/-’ J-"'*ffi'. Mustang Caves Video + 3-D Animation Erplore a model of a cliffside burial cave. . ~ . ~ 4 “. l‘. I.l‘ "i i I PHOTOS. FROM TOP BRENT STIRTON, JEFF WILDERMUTH. MARK THIESSEN. NGM STAFF l‘r’. il| tL} >L‘il 1!)-. Z~' PE; C'CEi<lTiFlED PAPER Please recycle
  • 5. CHASE O SAPPHIRE PREFERRED j—- T WHY NOT FALL IN LOVE WITH A MENU YOU D_ “flow HAVEN'T ALREADY MEMORIZED? CHASE SAPPHIRE PREFERRED“ | Chasesapphire. com/ Preferred CHASE 0 INTRO ANNUAL FEE OF 50 THE FIRST YEAR. THEN $95 - ’ = -‘ s'5Z4%variatrc- Casted-lanesand: iei‘: lreltadiartesA3R sI924loi. 'arah| e Penalty»: -"'FcilZ~’l<H": iaranle ". 'ai«: i:| rAl‘° ’i‘rIi’l[; E‘l-‘lil I Al‘1LE-. lee Sn i'ili0C. l[iCi‘, ‘ ‘E‘: "‘lilE"TiSi year Alter’. :, $9’: VllDll‘lLll‘l ln'. erestCl*arqe"lme lialarte | ra1s‘Er >9 "ic'lhe Fi'l'lC-. ll‘i cut the anoint 2' tciiii ddvc’ILE‘ but not less than $‘D. I0'[‘It]'l lrahsattor lee lions C'cc t LdlCiS 5'9 issted by this Bank l. ;»‘. , ml ‘is. al-ease vlSlI Cwaseiappwire. :orri‘Prelerred. iou ll'lt| S§1a‘i'E a V5 tll:9rma1ert "lone address ‘l: ‘l"l| i‘ ppr ’e to'n, i"»‘re"erred lor crimq and reivars ilelails the market based 01 the l"’| l“l: ”‘ liaze. lllTl[l7 has A in‘ ‘Oil ijiii oi each Irahsactim. hul hc: less than C631 I>'<(l‘v‘&'lLL‘- let- Suhiect to credit apcro-la lo htta 1 iii 'lTl«3l|0‘l ch my marge: ‘.0 these lerrra after '. 'lE l'T&l6 the 50 United Siates 0' the lJis: 'itl of iiciuirh a -ieslhri ons and irritations apply see frase.
  • 6. EDITOR'S NOTE Blood Ivory In an exclusive luxury-goods shop in Beijing, I watch a Chinese couple admire an elaborate ivory carving selling for hundreds of thousands of dollars. They see the exquisitely made object as an affirmation of personal wealth. I see carnage and death. I can smell the death too. About 15 years ago, on assignment in Zimbabwe, I photographed a group of rotting African elephant carcasses—the tragic remains of a family massacred for ivory. Every year at least 25,000 elephants are killed by poachers for their tusks to feed the hunger of ivory collectors and the market for religious objects. The The slaughter is massive and accelerating. slaughter is massive and accelerating. The very existence of these magnificent beasts is at risk. The fate of elephants has become an obses- sion for investigative reporter Bryan Christy. He has been digging into this story for more than two years. His findings are shocking. Elephant poaching declined after the 1989 ban on ivory sales, but that trend has now reversed. As Bryan explains in this issue, the reasons for this reversal are many, but the conclusion is singular: The killing must stop. Blood ivory can no longer be a badge of wealth or religious belief. The cost is too high. Kr THIS 44-INCH-LONG CHINESE PHOENIX. CARVED IN THE 19205. IS ONE OF A PAIR OF TUSKS THAT SOLD IN THE US FOR $24,600 , .AI‘ PHOTO I M CHAIT
  • 7. ©7n ‘ 2 Canon lnr litanonxom Greater Prairie-chicken (Tympanuchus cupido) Size: Head and body length, 40 — 45 cm (16 — 18.8 inches); wingspan, 56 - 66 cm (22 — 26 inches) Weight: Males, 0.9 — 1.2 kg (2 — 2.6 lbs), females, 075 ~ 0.95 kg (1.7 — 2.1 lbs) Habitat: Primarily UNITEIJ STATES II II I ll ll: Room to boom. Male greater prairie-chickens establish booming grounds during breeding season, where they announce their prowess through vocalizations produced via their bright orange neck sacs. To impress females, they also strut and "flutter jump, " flapping their wings and jumping with a whoop, cackle or whine. Females, who usually visit more than one booming ground prior to mating, lay clutches of about a dozen eggs K I . /J ‘V in w ~' .3 ‘ii. I mixed and tall-grass prairie Surviving number: Estimated at 460,000 mature individuals . . T V I‘ 19". L‘. _ EV‘, r+ "I N ‘fin, l_ _ii All I , . , . . . in bowl-shaped nests lined with dry grass and feathers. But as their native prairies are converted to crop land, they are feeling the squeeze. Populations have fallen by 90% in the last 40 years. As we see it, we can help make the world a better place. Raising awareness of endangered species is just one of the ways we at Canon are taking action—for the good of the planet we call home. Visit canon. com/ environment to learn more.
  • 8. gins Solar Storms Those researching space weather seem to have neglected to study geomagnetic reversals, which are the basis of seafloor spreading. One would hope that meteorologists, astronomers, and geologists would utilize information from other sciences. It would seem to be significant that we netic disruption that could be attendant with such a future solar storm would be staggering. I was wondering if there is any way to organize a graceful shutdown of the electrical grid in a large area if we had two days to prepare. I'm doubtful that humans could get past the political, bureaucratic, and security concerns, and I'm sure the crazies would be out in force if we could accomplish this. But how much money, effort, and tragedy could we save if we thought that far ahead? DANE WARNER Glendora, Califomia F F. E I) B A C K Reader responses ran hot and cold on our solar storms coverage. ‘‘I was immediately sunstruck by the . , 2% story‘ Wow. " M” ‘I! "Die MICHAEL H. FRIMPTER USGS Geologist, Retired Naples, Florida I have a friend who for some reason monitors Russian websites. For the past few months she’s been telling all of her friends about how huge solar storms can wipe out electricity and shut down entire cities. We just ignored her, thinking she wasjust being paranoid. And then I got this issue. Thanks to your maga- zine's coverage, she now has something to hold over us. BIANCA WILHELM Windermere, Florida June 2012 Your “Sun Struck” article, and other publications, declare it a mystery why the corona is so much hotter than the sun's surface—an anomaly that any heat source object should be hotter at a greater radius, rather than cooler. To me, the riddle has been answered. Solar flares and their magnetic reconnec- tion events are a nuclear fusion process known as the CNO cycle, an early hypothesis of [physicist] Hans Bethe's for the sun’s core yet never imagined at the sun's surface. NOEL EBERZ Naalehu, Hawaii Hong Kong Your article reminded me of my five—day visit in 1957. When our plane landed, we were surround- ed by groups of tailors—mlne were three supposed brothers, John, Robert, and Patrick. The material was picked out on day one, sewn and fitted on day two, boxed on day three, and fell apart when I got back to Okinawa on day six. BERNARD A. YABLIN Rochester, New York have eleclficiry-w, ;IjI, eh, ?”8a: M”, pa"“"9r/ :"". o "0;-9 4b s‘“ “mat most of the age ‘ "I was ° we . ‘ex -'FoieCa5‘''. ‘9 ‘"35 "0"? for a/ mausand years, possibly more new’ W909/e Itake the sun ' for Want ed II M is gnmt wg med the sun to live. The sun is bad. nu, » sun “I find if dubious, if not irresponsible. to continually link this subject to a pending doomsday scenario. " EMAIL ngsforum@ngm. com TWITTER @NatGeoMag WRITE National Geographic Magazine, PO Box 98199, Washington, DC 200908199. Include name, address, and daytime telephone. Letters may be edited for clarity and length. 6 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 OCTOBER 2012 GRAPHIC JUAN VELASCO, NGM STAFF
  • 9. //7 VV ‘ llr. . ‘ ' . . r in Podiatric Biomechanics. l d f so/ E//7/F/ cxiu r ENGINEERED r0 9 e Y DEFY em: vrrv -wuumyonpv ‘ - Designed to support your fitness & weight loss goals Introducing the G—Defy NEXTA Pro Line ' / lvJS0Fblt&1t‘itiTlJl iittuact 0 Maximize energy return 0 Feet stay cool with less odor 0 Improve posture Comfort Fit Insole 3X SHOCK ABSOBBING POWER 2X ENERGY IIETIIBN The best athletic footwear ever made! '| 'I'v a pair FREE‘ for 30 (I818! Free SIIIIIIIIII - Free Return: - Free Exchange: The NFW VS? Versoshockw sole has been completely redesigned by linpact Research Technology Group. AISOIIIS SHOCK REBOUND Orlgnaliy invented in 2004 Gravity Defyers exclusive - ON HEEL SYIIIKE PROPELS vou FORWARD ‘ y y B'e: ::? '::3:: dt: raV'ty Ease Discomfort Iflax| 'l)| ]P Fnpigy R. m.. ,. VersoShockT"il sole technology was designed to eliminate . _ , , d-scoirifort and provide iriaxirriuin energy return; so you my pauems and Thousands 0He5[W70n"H,5 aw/ ab/ E on/ MW VVE” want to walk more, run more. lltltit’) higher and stay on me”d5--- I W53’ your teet longer. The G—Defy NEXT/ , featuring the NEW them mysem“ VS2 VersoShock”“‘ sole. has taken the original to its l: ltt| tS — creating the ultimate in comfort and athletic perfonnance. E23: Dr. Arnold Ross, DPM Professor 8. National Lecturer - Board Certified The NEXT A is your new extended warranty plan for your body. its the gift of life and longevity. and we are bacl<. ~ng it up with our risk free guarantee. It's like nothing you've experienced before. Enioy every step as the NEW VS2 VersoShock”l sole absorbs shock and transforms it snto forward motion — effortlessiyl Gel un. Get out. Get III. 601 Gravity Myer! / / Sourze Gravity Delyev Cuflomnt Surveys NEXIA FOR NIEN i_= oR worvieixr 512935 i—. -ji‘‘ii :1 ti, i - i—‘i l/ l if you decide to VlVlW.6l| EFY. l20MIMIM| '|| lJ1 1 [800] 529-0039 keepthem 7 ti ‘ ‘if 7 cannon c. de: "|""n‘"
  • 10. Lu"! Y“ '* ,7 , ‘.. " xi it t . . i - ' §: T " W’ K'’'A / / , _ T I ‘,5 ‘g £ 5"’ xi , l 4, ~ / ‘I ‘ ll V‘ 7‘ ‘i’ t 22/ ‘ ~ ‘ ‘i . *~‘ yl__ _ . _V _ J ' sd’ - J’ C-. .i 3-' / : :1 , ‘~ ‘*7 "' V / IV, » 1 V. H K ‘(aw I ‘M . ,/ y ' ‘ I ‘K E‘ . at L‘ a w . / ff ’ ‘V * N“ , : y ; ~ _. ., ... e; ., __‘, _§ ' —-—-O£ uja — I--H . ‘fix’ V. ; P ‘ - l ‘tn 7' J" .7 / ‘ : i, 1 i . g_I'nf’ l " .9 . _‘ I’ I. up “*4. s _ . V '. / I‘. L) r - ’ - - i — - "' z 2 I -_ I Z, t, / ‘«. _ 1 .4 " L; ., -3 V ‘ . ... o .4 , ,-. .? / ’ Z / . , z _/ Z.
  • 11. EXPLORE. EXERT. AS YOU GET OLDER, REALLY GREAT. BUT DON'T FORGET TO VACCINATE. Now’s the time to help prevent Shingles with ZOSTAVAX” (Zoster Vaccine Live). ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that helps prevent Shingles in adults 50 years of age or older. Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. The virus stays in your body and can resurface at any time as Shing| es—a painful, blistering rash. And no matter how healthy you feel, your risk increases as you get older. The sooner you get vaccinated with ZOSTAVAX, the better your chances of protecting yourself from Shingles. In fact, the AC| P* of the CDC (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) recommends that appropriate adults 60 years of age and older get vaccinated to help prevent Shingles. Talk to your health care professional to see if ZOSTAVAX is right for you. ZOSTAVAX is given as a single shot. ZOSTAVAX cannot be used to treat Shingles, or the nerve pain that may follow Shingles, once you have it. For more information, visit ZOSTAVAX. com or call 1-877-9 SHINGLES. ABOUT ZOSTAVAX ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that is used for adults 50 years of age or older to prevent Shingles (also known as zoster). Important Safety Information - ZOSTAVAX does not protect everyone, so some people who get the vaccine may still get Shingles. - You should not get ZOSTAVAX if you are allergic to any of its ingredients, including gelatin or neomycin, have a weakened immune system, take high doses of steroids, or are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. You should not get ZOSTAVAX to prevent chickenpox. - Talk to your health care professional if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as PNEUMOVAXPZ3 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent) because it may be better to get these vaccines at least 4 weeks apart. - Possible side effects include redness, pain, itching, swelling, hard lump, warmth, or bruising at the injection site, as well as headache. - ZOSTAVAX contains a weakened chickenpox virus. Tell your health care professional if you will be in close contact with newborn infants, someone who may be pregnant and has not had chickenpox or been vaccinated against chickenpox, or someone who has problems with their immune system. Your health care professional can tell you what situations you may need to avoid. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www. fda. gov/ medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088. Please read the Patient Information on the adjacent page for more detailed information. *AC| P=Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices Before you get Shingles, get vaccinated. 9 Merck Help’ Having trouble paying for your Merck medicine? Merck may be able to help. Visit www. merck. com/ merckhelps Copyright 02012 Merck Sharp & Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck 8: (0., Inc. All rights reserved. VACC-1016603—002S 05/12
  • 12. Patient Information about 9989115 ZOSTAVAX” (pronounced "ZOS tah vax") Generic name: Zoster Vaccine Live You should read this summary of information about ZOSTAVAX before you are vaccinated. If you have any questions about ZOSTAVAX after reading this page, you should ask your health care provider. This information does not take the place of talking about ZOSTAVAX with your doctor, nurse, or other health care provider. Only your health care provider can decide if ZOSTAVAX is right for you. _Mm®fi iumckz ZOSTAVAX is a vaccine that is used for adults 50 years of age or older to prevent shingles (also known as zoster). ZOSTAVAX contains a weakened chickenpox virus (varicella-zoster virus). ZOSTAVAX works by helping your immune system protect you from getting shingles. If you do get shingles even though you have been vaccinated, ZOSTAVAX may help prevent the nerve pain that can follow shingles in some people. ZOSTAVAX does not protect everyone, so some people who get the vaccine may still get shingles. ZOSTAVAX cannot be used to treat shingles, or the nerve pain that may follow shingles, once you have it. What do I need to know about m9 ca_uses_itZ Shingles is caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox. Once you have had chickenpox, the virus can stay in your nervous system for many years. For reasons that are not fully understood, the virus may become active again and give you shingles. Age and problems with the immune system may increase your chances of getting shingles. Shingles is a rash that is usually on one side of the body. The rash begins as a cluster of small red spots that often blister. The rash can be painful. Shingles rashes usually last up to 30 days and, for most people, the pain associated with the rash lessens as it heals. Copyright ©2006 Merck Sharp 8: Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck & Co. , Inc. All rights reserved. 9 You should not get ZOSTAVAX if you: 0 are allergic to any of its ingredients. 0 are allergic to gelatin or neomycin. 0 have a weakened immune system (for example, an immune deficiency, leukemia, lymphoma, or HIV/ AIDS). 0 take high doses of steroids by injection or by mouth. 0 are pregnant or plan to get pregnant. You should not get ZOSTAVAX to prevent chickenpox. Children should not get ZOSTAVAX. 9MM ZOSTAVAX is given as a single dose by injection under the skin. vmmMm 9 You should tell your health care provider if you: - have or have had any medical problems. 0 take any medicines, including non-prescription medicines, and dietary supplements. 0 have any allergies, including allergies to neomycin or gelatin. I had an allergic reaction to another vaccine. 0 are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. 0 are breast-feeding. Tell your health care provider if you expect to be in close contact (including household contact) with newborn infants, someone who may be pregnant and has not had chickenpox or been vaccinated against chickenpox, or someone who has problems with their immune system. Your health care provider can tell you what situations you may need to avoid. vaccines? Talk to your health care provider if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as the flu vaccine. Talk to your health care provider if you plan to get ZOSTAVAX at the same time as PNEUMOVAX*‘23 (Pneumococcal Vaccine Polyvalent) because it may be better to get these vaccines at least 4 weeks apart. ZQSTAVAX? The most common side effects that people in the clinical studies reported after receiving the vaccine include: - redness, pain, itching, swelling, hard lump, warmth, or bruising where the shot was given. I headache The following additional side effects have been reported with ZOSTAVAX: 0 allergic reactions, which may be serious and may include difficulty in breathing or swallowing. If you have an allergic reaction, call your doctor right away. chickenpox fever hives at the injection site joint pain muscle pain nausea rash rash at the injection site swollen glands near the injection site (that may last a few days to a few weeks) Tell your health care provider if you have any new or unusual symptoms after you receive ZOSTAVAX. For a complete list of side effects, ask your health care provider. Call 1-800-986-8999 to report any exposure to ZOSTAVAX during pregnancy. ylthatacejhejngtedientuf ZOSTAVAX? Active Ingredient: a weakened form of the varicella-zoster virus. Inactive Ingredients: sucrose, hydrolyzed porcine gelatin, sodium chloride, monosodium L—glutamate, sodium phosphate dibasic, potassium phosphate monobasic, potassium chloride. This page summarizes important information about ZOSTAVAX. If you would like more information, talk to your health care provider or visit the website at www. ZOSTAVAX. com or call 1-800-622-4477. Rx only Issued June 2011 Distributed by: Merck Sharp 8i Dohme Corp. , a subsidiary of Merck & Co. , Inc. Whitehouse Station, NJ 08889, USA VACC—1016603—O025 05/12
  • 13. 2£5'8,§)(. ‘}H. C Give An Inspiring Gift '1 . n 2007 Pat Minnick, a professional artist, decided S ‘ to establish a charitable gift annuity to support National Geographic. ”I feel good knowing that National Geographic is doing so much to protect endangered wildlife, ” says Pat. ”The environmental problems we face are vast, but by joining with National Geographic and their history of remarkable accomplishments, I know we can pass on a more beautiful world. ” Pat now receives a guaranteed life income and is a direct part of the Society's efforts to inspire people to care about the planet. For more information about a charitable gift annuity or other ways to include National Geographic in your Pat Minnick included estate plans, please see below. National Geographic in her fi“‘“““" l"““"' SAMPLE ANNUITY RATES FOR oNE BENEFICIARY (Rates at other ages available upon request. ) Age 60=4.4% Age 70= 5.1% Age 80=6.8% Age 90+=9.0"/ o Rates are siibject to change. Please C()lll’(iCl’ us fbr the most crurent rates. TO MAKE YOUR BEQUEST CONTACT US: to National Geographic, please use the following Phone: (800) 226-4438 language: ‘To the National Geographic Society in Email: plannedgiftinfo(«)ngs. org Washington, D. C., I give °/ o of my estate. ” Web: www. nationalgeographic. org/ donate or you can name a fixed dollar amount‘ lhc . lElil0ll{ll (lcogmpliic Society is a 5l, ll| L‘)l3). tax-cxeiiipt oigziriizzitioii. A lease send me infonnation about a National (ieograpliic charitable gift annuityi Birthdate(s) Mllllllllllll i1g¢'5(l. l’t1_i'IiIcIIh‘ Iwgiri at tigu 00, . Pl: ~ Amt: $10,000 $50,000 $100,000 W“ Other (: liI1iII1IiII1;4i]l SI(), {)()U) “nan Send me information on including V3“ [05 Natllmal G‘-‘ogmlllllc S“’Cl°tY l'ationul Geograpliic in my will. 0ffiC€ of EStat€ Plallning l have already included l'ational Gcogiupliic 1 I45 17th Street NW. in 111)’ Will. I "zisliingtoti, D. C. 2()()36--1688 Photo: Nel Cepeda
  • 14. U NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Inspiring people to care about the planet The National Geographic Society is chartered in Washington, D. C., as a nonprofit scientific and educational organization “for the increase and diffusion of geographic knowledge. " NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC MJGAZNE YIIV IIIOIIAIV DOFV/ TAICII PHCLKIIII IIUXIIAVIOI HIZIINIDIMI. Chris Johns ocvurv znrron Victoria Pope cnenrrve onecron Bil Marr EXECUTIVE sorrows Dennis R. Dimick (Environment). Kurt Mutchler (Photography), Jamie Shreeve (Science) wwacruc sorrow Lesley B. Rogers nerurv nrnecvorr: Marc Silver. srurrr nevunruzur Inrron: Barbara Paulsen ruinous eonon: Oliver Payne union Enrrouz Lynn Adcison (Features), Robert Kunzig (Environment). Peter Miler (Expeditions). Enrron Ar LARGE: Cathy Newman. ravines Eorronsz Glenn Oeland. Jane Vessels eonoa ussrou mozcrs: Hannah Bloch. Asocurs axrons: Jeremy Berlin. Amanda 8. Fregl saaon wnrrsnsz Torn O'Neil. A. R. Williams. wmenz Peter Gwin. 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Sarah Laskin vrcs PRIDENT, PUBLIC nnoonru/5: Gregory A. McGnJder VICE PRESIDENT, srrursc-c INrrIA'rrvEs: Alexander Moen lrururr nuorrrrces sa. VICE Pnzsroarr. Thomas A. Sablo neveuoouurr sn. VICE vassrosnr: Jacqueline M. Holister rrrauunen: Barbara J. Oonslantz cures susruuururv emcee: Hans H. Wegner rumour uoenr-one column can: David Lyle PRESIDENT: Howard T. Owens was IAARKETNG OFFICER: Courtenay Monroe
  • 15. YOUR STORY HAS A SURPRISE BEGINNING DISCOVER THE SECRETS OF YOUR ANCESTRY, AND HELP TELL THE STORY OF US ALL. National Geographic's Genographic Project has been breaking new ground to uncover the mysteries of our collective past. Now, new scientific advances allow us to go deeper than i ever. Introducing Geno 2.0 — a revolutionary new DNA test that traces your history from the very beginning of your 3, ancestral lineage to your recent past. By participating, you'll 1‘ learn more about yourself than you ever thought possible — " and contribute to a broader, more detailed picture of our shared history. I JOIN THE MORE THAN A HALF A MILLION PEOPLE WHO HAVE ALREADY TAKEN PART IN THIS BREAKTHROUGH SCIENTIFIC PROJECT. LEARN MORE, AND ORDER YOUR GENO 2.0 KIT, AT GENOGRAPHIC. COM. THE GENOGRAPH IC E‘é‘5'é’iz'I‘IIiic I‘», ;; i; 3 v PROJECT ‘
  • 16. Sarah McNair-Landry MISSION To inspire youth to get outdoors and get active, promoting a healthy lifestyle and a love of nature I. 0 C A T I O N Arctic Ocean, Canada Founded in 1888, the National Geographic Society has added to our knowledge of earth. sea. and sky by supporting more than 10.000 explorations and research proiects. Readers’ membership dues make this support possible. Across the Ice Something woke me at four in the morning, and it's a good thing it did. A polar bear was about to attack the tent right above my head. As claws started to rip the fabric, I kicked and screamed. That woke my brother, Eric, who charged after the bear with a camp shovel. In the chaos I managed to find our shotgun, fire it in the air a couple times, and scare off the bear for good. Eric and I were attempting the first kite-skiing traverse of the frozen Northwest Passage. We had set Off in March 2011 from Tuktoyaktuk, in Canada’s Northwest Territories, and hoped to end on Baffin Island, Nunavut, where we had grown up. Our 8 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC - OCTOBER 2012 parents are adventure guides, so we spent weekends on dog- sleds learning to have fun in the cold. As teenagers we took up kite skiing——catching the strong polar winds with a kite to pull us over the ice and snow. Now we're showing how it can open new routes by moving expedi- tions quickly over long distances. On this trip the native Inuit tracked our progress through the radio interviews we did along the way. When we got to a town, they were always waiting for us. After 85 days and 2,050 miles, we pulled into Pond Inlet, on Baffin Island, where people welcomed us with a square dance. There was only one thing to do. We took off our skis and joined in. —Sarah McNair-Landry l= Iel4alr—Larirlry tows supply s~eds on foot after dangerous winds forced her off her skis PHOTOS‘ ERIC MCNAIR-LANDRV: ABEV FENTDN. WILL STEGER FOUNDATION (TOP)
  • 17. 2l'}l2 J-'; r‘r = Z-: "r~; ,;'i L? ’ A ll‘: ll". '; 'e'; »;' . r SW--"El CE: -Pviau '~: :;l: lei»: J‘ 'r, l»: r'm'l ; "'l‘r: -'; .lrlZr: i't‘. f .1“. .. . l,. llLi1l‘li: ’: For patients 12 years and older whose asthma is not well controlled on a long-term asthma medicine or whose disease severity warrants a l TE-EIITK 1-ii. G13;. EIT. , ’ r ‘ | T‘S MISUNDERSTOOD. ASTHMA DOESN'T COME AND GO. Inflammation, the root cause of asthma is always there, making your lungs more vulnerable to triggers. So, while it's important to avoid triggers, it's also important to treat this inflammation. SYMBICORT helps reduce the underlying inflammation. SYMBICORT helps keep airways open and improve lung function for better breathing all day and night. ‘ SYMBICORT does not replace a rescue inhaler for sudden symptoms. Once your asthma is well controlled, your doctor will decide if you can stop taking SYMBICORT without loss of control and may A ’ When taken twice daily. IMPORTANT INFORMATION ABOUT SYMBICORT important Safety Information About SYMBICORT for Asthma SYMBICORT contains formoterol, a long-acting beta, -adrenergic agonist (LABA). LABA medicines such as formoterol Increase the risk of death from asthma problems. It is not known whether budesonide, the other medicine in SYMBICORT, reduces the risk of death from asthma problems seen with forrnoterol. SYMBICORT should be used only if your health care provider decides that your asthma is not well controlled with a long-term asthma control medicine, such as an inhaled corticosteroid, or that your asthma is severe enough to begin treatment with SYMBICORT. If you are taking SYMBICORT, see your health care provider if your asthma does notimprove orgets worse. It is importantthatyour health care provider assess your asthma control on a regular basis. Your doctor will decide if it is possible for you to stop taking SYMBICORT and start taking a long-term asthma control medicine without loss of asthma control. Children and adolescents who take LABA medicines may have an increased risk of being hospitalized for asthma problems. SYMBICORT does not replace rescue inhalers for sudden asthma symptoms. Be sure to tell your health care provider about all your health conditions, including heart conditions or high blood pressure, and all medicines you may be taking. Some patients taking SYMBICORT may experience increased blood pressure, heart rate, or change in heart rhythm. Do not use SYMBICORT more often than prescribed. While taking SYMBICORT, never use another medicine containing a LABA for any reason. Ask your health care provider or pharmacist if any of your other medicines are LABA medicines, as using too much LABA may cause chest pain, increase in blood pressure, fast and irregular heartbeat, headache, tremor, and nervousness. H gr’ ‘Subject to eligibility rules. Restrictions apply. For more information, call 1-866-SYMBICORT or go to MySymbicort. com lfyou’re without prescription coverage and can’t afford your medication, Astrazeneca may be able to help. For more information, please visit wwwastrazeneca-us. com FREE PR ESCR| PT|0is! OFF ER* Call1-800-687-3755 or visit MySymbicort. com prescribe a long-term asthma control medicine such as an inhaled corticosteroid. Ask your doctor about SYMBICORT. Patients taking SYMBICORT should call their health care provider or get emergency medical care: - if you experience serious allergic reactions including rash, hives, swelling ofthe face, mouth and tongue, and breathing problems. - if you think you are exposed to infections such as chicken pox or measles. or if you have any signs of infection. You may have a higher chance of infection. - if you experience an increase in wheezing right after taking SYMBICORT, eye problems including glaucoma and cataracts, decreases in bone mineral density, swelling of blood vessels (signs include a feeling of pins and needles or numbness of arms or legs, flu like symptoms, rash, pain and swelling ofthe sinuses), decrease in blood potassium and increase in blood sugar levels. If you are switching to SYMBICORT from an oral corticosteroid, follow your health care provider's instructions to avoid serious health risks when you stop using oral corticosteroids. Common side effects include nose and throat irritation, headache, upper respiratory tract infection, sore throat, sinusitis, stomach discomfort, flu, back pain, nasal congestion, vomiting, and thrush in the mouth and throat. Approved Uses for SYMBICORT for Asthma SYMBICORT is a medicine for the treatment of asthma for people 12 years and older whose doctor has determined that their asthma is not well controlled with a long term asthma control medicine such as an inhaled corticosteroid or whose asthma is severe enough to begin treatment with SYMBICORT. SYMBICORT is not a treatment for sudden asthma symptoms. Please see important Product Information on adjacent page and discuss with your doctor. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www. fdagov/ medwatch or call 1-800-FDA-1088. l (budesonlde/ iormoterol lumarate dihydrate) Inhalation Aerosol Astrazeneca
  • 18. IMPORTANT Please read this summary carefully and then ask your doctor about sYMBIc0R'l'. llo admttsorriont can provide al the hturmattoii needed to dotiinriinn ita rhilglsitphtloryouortakottioplaooolcarohl dlsomlons with you health care priwldor. nntuntumltit carlnttrlldorhasttiotrahiiiighowoightharisksandboiloiltsota prescription divu- WHAT IS THE MOST IMPORTANT INFORMATION I SHOULD KNOW ABOUT SYMBICORT? People with asttnna who take long-aotiig beta, -agonist (Utah) moiiciios, such as hirrnotnrol (one of the medicines in Svlillootil), have an hicroased risk of death from asttlna problems. It is not known whether budesonide. the other niorliin: in SVIIBIOORT. realoes the risk of death from asthma problems seen with torniotoroi. SVMBIEIIIT shoild be used onty if your health care provider decides that your asthma is not well controlled with a long-term asthma control meillcino. such as an Inhaloii corticosteroid. or that your asthrna is severe enough to begin treatment with svmiconr. Talk with your healtr care provider about thrs risk ard tre benefits oi treating your asthma with S'l. lBlCURi It you are taking SYMBICORT, see your health care provider it your asthma does not improve or gets worse I1|S rmponant that your healtr care provider assess your astrma control on a regular basis Your doctor VIIII decide it it is possible tor you to stop taking SYIyIBlCOFlT and start talurg a long term asthma control nredrcrre WFTIIOUI loss of asthma control. Get emergency medical care it I breathing problems norsen l]U| CI(l‘[, ard I you use your rescue rnraler medicine, but it does not relieve your breathing problems Ctrrldrer ard adolescents who take LABA medicines may be at increased risk of being Irospiirrlrzed for asthma prottierrs WHAT IS SYMBICORT? SYl-rlBlCORT LS ar rrhaled prescription medicine used tor asthma and chrorlc obstructive pulmonary dlSEaSE (COPE). ltoohtarns two lTl8CIlC| llEiSI I Budesorrde rrre same lTl€d| Ctl'lE lound ir Pulmrcort Flexhaler ”, ar inhaled corticosteroid] lrhaled conrcosterolds help to decrease rrtammatron rr the lungs lntlarnmaton in the lurgs can lead to asthma symptoms Formoterol lire same medicine tound ir Foradil” Aerolizer"l LABA lTl€IjlClfl3S are used in patients with COPD and asthma to help tre muscles ll'l the airways or your lungs stay relaxed to prevent asthma syrnptorns. such as wheezirg and shortness oi brealr. These symptoms can happen whet‘ the muscles in the airways lighten This makes it raid to breathe, which ir severe cases. can cause breathing to stop compleleiy it not treated rigrt away’ SYl-rlBlCORT is used or asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease as lolirrws Asthma SYMBICORT is used to oontrol syrrrptdrns or asthma ard prevent symptoms such as wheezing in adults ard children ages 12 and older. Chronic obstructive Pulmonary Disease COPD 5 a CI'l| ‘Dl'lC lung disease that includes chronic bronchitis, ernprysema, or botr SVi. lBiCC»RT r60r4.5 mod is used Iorg term two times eacr day. to relp improve lurg tunct-on for better oreatrrng in adults with COPD WHO SHIIJLD NOT USE SYMBICORT? Do rot use SVl. tBlCC-RT to treat sudden severe symptoms of asthma or COPD or it you are allergic to ary or the rrgredrents lI'i SYMBICORT. Visit www. MySymbioort. com Or. call 1-866-SYMBICORT WHAT SHOULD I TELL MY HEALTH CARE PROVIDER BEFORE USING SYMBIOORT? Tell your health care provider about all or your healtr corditlons. ircluding nyou: I have heart problems I have high blood pressure I have seizures I have thyroid problems I have diabetes I have liver rroblems I have osteoporosis I have an inmune system problem I have eye problems such as iiaeased pressure in the eye, glaucoma. or cataracts I are allerglcto any rnedlcinas I are exposed to chicken pot or measles I are piogiant or planning to become pregrant. It is not krovvn rt S‘i‘l. lEllCOFtr may rarm your unborn baby‘ I are lreast-Ioedlng Budisunrde, one oi the active ingrcdrerts in SVi. tBlCC-iii, passes into breast milk. You ard your reatth care provider should ilo: rdi: rl you will taki: SYNIBICORT while breast feeding Tell your health care provider about all ire medicines you take including piescrrpton and rohuiescriptron medicines vitamins. and Verbal supplements SYhlB| C0irT and oertarn other medicines may interact not each other and can cause serious side efiects Knorv all the medicines you take Keep a list and show it to your reallh care provider and pharrrracsl each time you get .1 new medicine HOW DO I USE SYMBICORT? Do not use SYl»rlB| CORl unless your reatth care provider has taught you and you understand everything Ask your healtr care provider or phannacrst it you have dry questions Lise SYl. lBIC(JliT elactly as piescnbr. -it Do not use SYMBICORT more often than prescribed. SYl. iBlCOFtT comes in two strengths tor‘ asthma SM 5 met; and 160M 5 mpg. Your health care provider V(lII prescribe the strergth that is best tor you svnrercotrr t6iJr’¢ 5 rncg lS the approved dosage for COPD I Svl. tBlCUirT should be taker every day as 2 pulls in the morning and 2 putts in the evening Rinse your moutr writ’ water and spit ire water out atter each dose (2 putts) of SYl. ll3lCUliT Tris 'l| II reip lesser ire charce of getting a turgus infection tihrushl rr tre mouth and throat Do not spray SYMBICORT in your eyes. if you acciderlally get SVMBICIJRT rr your eyes, rinse your eyes with water. It redness or rrnlation persists, call your health care provider Do not crange or stop any lTl8(IlClflES used to control or treat your breathrrg problems Your health care provider will charge your medicines a needed while you are using SYMBICORT 2 times each day. do not use other medicines that contain a lrnig-acting Mia, -agonist (LABA) for any reason. Ask your health we provider or phannaizlst it airy of your other marllclnes are LABA niodiciiies. Svi. tBlCOFtT does not relieve sudden symptoms Always have a rescue inhaler medicine with you to treat sudder symptoms ifyou do not rave ii rescue inhaler call your health care provider to rave one prescribed tor you INFORMATION ABOUT SYMBICORT call your health nae provider or get medical we rimt away it I your breathing problems worsen wrtw SYMBICORT I you need to rise your rescue inhaler medrcne more oten than usual I your rescue inhaler does not work as well to’ you at 'e| reving symptoms I you need to use 4 or rnoe malalrons u‘ your rescue inhaler medicine to 2 or more days in a roll I you use one whole omrer or your rescue inhaler medicine in 8 weeks’ iime I your peak ‘low meter resurs decrease ‘lflltr Il8<'1IT'r care provider‘ will tell you the numbers to‘. are 'rght ‘or you I your wrrptoms do not rnrp'o~e ate’ using SYl. l8|CUliT regulariy tor ‘ iieek WHAT MEDIOATIOIIS SHOULD I NOT TAKE WHEN USING SYMBICORT? While you are using SYMBICORT, do not use other medicines that contain a Iorg acting be-rri, agonist {LABA} tor any reason. such as I Serevent' Drskus” rsalmeterol xrnatoate inhalation powder] I Adrvarr Drskus" or Advarr" HFA . 'IlL1ICEiSCllll3 prdprpnatc and salmr. -teron I Fornroteroloontarnrng products such as Foradil Aerolizer, Erovana’, or Perl0rt)irirSt' WHAT ARE THE POSSIBLE SIDE EFFECTS WITH SYMBICORT? SYMBICORT can raise serious side effects I Increased risk oi preumonra and other lower respiratory tract lllIt! i.'. IlUl‘lS it you have COPIJ Call your health care provider it you notice any of these syiiiptorns increase in mucus production. charge l| 'l mucus color lever crrlls, increased rpugr, increased breathing problems I serous allergic reactions including rash, hives. S‘i€IIlfl§ oi the lace. mouth and tongue; and breatrrng problems Call your lieallr care provider or get emergency care it you get ary of these symptoms I Immure system ettects and a higrer chance for rntectons I Adrenal rirsutllcrenci/ —a condtion in which the adrenal glards do rot make enough steroid honnones I Cardiovascular and central rervous system eliects oi LABAS. sucr as crest pair. increased trlrxxt pressure, last or irregular liearttieat, lreirlor. or neryousness I Increased lvheezrrg rigrt alter taking SYly1BlCOFil I Eye problems, including glaucoma and cataracts You srould rave regular eye exams while usrrg SYMBICIJRT I Osteoporosis People at risk lor increased bone loss may have a greater rrdiri-iith SYhlElCORl I Sloped groyntr in mildew As a result. gosrth should be caelully monitored I Swelling of your blood vessels Tris can happen ir people with astrma I Decreases lr blood polzr§rr. m levels and ircreases in blood sugar levels WHAT ARE OOMMGI SIII EFECTS OF SYMBICORT? Patients with Asthma Sore throat. headaclie, ripper respiratory tract irtectior, thrush in the rnoult ard throat Patients with GOPD Thrush in the mdult and throat These are rot all lie side eifects with SYMBICORT Mk your heath care provider or pharmacist for more information NOTE: This summary provides important information about SVMBICOITI. For more rntorrriati'aii. please ask your doctor or health care provide. S‘rl. lSrCCRT is ; i registered traderiizinr at it: lk-rtraierr. -ca ; rpup of rorripzr as Utter Lrairils 'II€Il[K, ‘lld'. I are trademrks ClII1leirH5l>ei‘Ii‘ve UIWIEIS and are not trademarks oi ttie »'-strazrsrieca grulp cv ccmnarirrs The makers cflttiese brands are not aihrrcrted won and on rot erdoise r-straZerra: : or is Drcdwts ©2011 / -snraitviuca LP All rights Iu-smut Manutacruruillor Astraztricca LP wrirringioii D( r9350 ii‘, IIQTII‘, /t£ili3'. }E NB, Iirrrrkerqrre, irarce Prudirrt cr Fl'r£I‘(2e tier ‘irii 1., 19:13 fsymi‘ bicort' . lllldestxlide/ lnrntterdtnnahdiyrml lrhalatron Aerosol
  • 19. No Mr Mr. Nice Watch Forget sleek and subtle, the Starter Colossus Hybrid is one tough timepiece. . . now for less than $50! ever underestimate your competition. just ask Demetrius, the unfortunate Greek general who set out to conquer Rhodes in 305 BC. He assumed that a massive force of 40,000 men, a fleet of Aegean pirates and an arsenal of wall-smashing war machines would be enough to crush the tiny Greek island. He was wrong. The Rhodians were tougher than he thought. And so is this watch. If you've always believed that the biggest, baddest watches had to cost big, had money, the $49 Stauer Colossus Hybrid Chronograph is here to change your mind. A monument to toughness. The people of Rhodes were ready for Demetrius and repelled his attack. To celebrate, they built the Colossus of Rhodes, a 107-foot bronze and iron giant that towered over the harbor like a ten—story trophy. It warned future invaders that "Rhodes is tougher than you think. ” You give the same message when you wear the Stauer Colossus. The timepiece that works twice as hard. In designing the Colossus Hybrid Chronograph, our instructions to the watchmaker were clear: build it as tough as a battleship and fill it full of surprises. Make it a hybrid, because it should work twice as hard as a regular watch. And make it look like a million bucks, because when you put it on, you should get excited about rolling up your sleeves. Mission accomplished. A toolbox on your wrist. it will keep you on schedule, but the Colossus Hybrid is about much more than time. The imposing case features a rotating gun metal bezel that frames the silver, black and yellow face. You'll find a bat- talion of digital displays on the dial arranged behind a pair of luminescent hands and a bold yellow second hand. What Stauer Clients Are Saying About Our Hybrid Watches tttti ”Great watch. .. an impressive piece straight out of the box. ” C. mom COLORADO , 3 . ‘Y < " Suggesttd‘ I W 071 your’ , . Time Only ’ ’; ;b Powered by a precise quartz movement, the watch is doubly accurate in analog and digital mode. .= nd it's packed with plenty of handy extras including a bright green lil. back-light for enhanced nighttime visibility, a tachymeter along the outer dial and a full complement of alarms and split-second countdown timers. The Colossus Hybrid secures with a folded steel bracelet that highlights a row of striking dark center links. it's a rugged watch that's more than ready for your daily grind. Your Satisfaction is Guaranteed. Wear the Stauer Colossus‘ Hybrid for 30 days and if you are not 100% thrilled with your purchase, return it for a full refund of your purchase price. But once you get a taste of more watch for less money, it's likely you'll be back for more. .. and we'll be waiting. flAKl: LS. EE£$; -Easy-to-read analog/ digital modes -Back-lighting and luminescent hands - Tachymeter, countdown timers and alarms <Fo| ded stainless steel bracelet fits a 6 3/4"—9" wrist Offer Limited to First 5000 Respondents Colossus Hybrid Digital/ Analog Watch—$39S Now $49 +S&P Save $346 Call More to take azlwmtage of this limited oflér. 1 -888-27 7-8380 Please mention this code when you call. 14101 Sourhcross Drive 1('. , Dept. CH"41 1-03 Burnsville, Minnesota 55537 www_. stauer. c(_)_m_ Stauer has a Better Business Bureau Rating of A+ Smart Luxuries—Surprising Prices , wfistfor $49 ( . ._, Fora limited V-
  • 20. L. .-L
  • 21. i Germany High above Bavaria's Zugspitze mountain, Swiss tightrope artist Freddy Nock nears the end of his 2011 quest to walk a two-inch-thick, 3,264—foot-long cable without a balancing pole. He succeeded, as pho- tographers looked on. PHOTO, MICHAELA REHLE. REUTERS — 11
  • 22. India Suspended in a hammock. a boy slumbers peacefully in the noontime heat of a summer day. His family relaxes nearby on a roadside in Uttar Pradesh. PHOTO, PARIVARTAN SHARMA. REUTERS p
  • 23. re-— _
  • 24. 4______ _ «, .== ——'* India At twilight on flood- waters from the Brahmaputra River, a fisherman maneuvers a net on bamboo poles to catch fish for local consumption. The site lies near the city of Guwahati, a key river port in northeast India. PHOTO. EPAICORBIS k Order prints of National Geographic photos online at PrIntsNGS. com. . . . ———. -1-. ———‘. ... ... .’__—-. « é
  • 25. vs‘-a£): i.as&'—x‘J. "’, :13‘-. '~; g‘. -(I. :;¢~’. ‘ " “-*4-~'4 o. |.. .
  • 26. 1;, ,‘ . . I?Ill-“ ! lFlli iiiiirz lite iii‘ if : .ll. l.'l. lf-¥% at-li. i.l, =l. i‘ at all ? i.l. l!ll'i= i_, .. "Will-iii ll , l_= li. l,t. l.l, =li. first §l. llll! lg‘i. li, l Wilt; illlllllll‘ um ‘liliiillliil What is Pradaxa® (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) capsules? PRADA)(A is a prescription blood-thinning medicine used to reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in people with atrial fibrillation not caused by a heart valve problem. IMPORTANT SAFETY IN FORMATION PRADAXA can cause bleeding which can be serious and sometimes lead to death. Don't take PRADAXA if you currently have abnormal bleeding or if you have ever had an allergic reaction to it. ’‘ Boehringer lllll lngeiheim tieiitai-ilngxoiiiroiu-ll Your risk of bleeding with PRADAXA may be higher if you: are 75 years old or older, have kidney problems, have stomach or intestine bleeding that is recent or keeps coming back or you have a stomach ulcer, take other medicines that increase your risk of bleeding, like aspirin products, non-steroidal anti—inflammatorydrugslN$A| Dsl and blood thinners, have kidney problems and take dronedarone lMullaq®l or ketoconazole tablets lNizoral®l. Call your doctor or seek immediate medical care if you have any of the following signs or symptoms of bleeding: any unexpected, severe, or uncontrollable bleeding; or bleeding that lasts a long time, unusual or unexpected bruising, coughing up or vomiting blood; or vomit that looks like coffee grounds, pink or brown urine;
  • 27. red or black stools (looks like tar), unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain, headaches and feeling dizzy or weak. It is important to tell your doctor about all medicines, vitamins and supplements you take. Some of your other medicines may affect the way PRADAXA works. Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed by your doctor. Don't stop taking PRADAXA without talking to your doctor as your risk of stroke may increase. Tell your doctor if you are planning to have any surgery, or medical or dental procedure, because you may have to stop taking PRADAXA for a short time. n , :. ill will “Ii-iw; ill: '| r‘i! =g; |IllniIi hrs: -ilflllusi-*_Il‘ «: ~jIll= ivfl = jii. ’r-ill ill*ii’lll«iiilvm wit !1r"li= . ‘uni «’:4‘jII| »-1:: -.“, l "v ‘I hrs: -‘Ii"‘ 'l". llvl= -_')r'«'l? 'll= n'Ii, :1.: !:i!1:: I:: ll~l. -: - r’i»1h ‘ll air-“item In: rsivflrr : : vmul ill a -*illIl'li: I.il Mull i"i"; ‘il_llAvi'. .A‘~ / :-l-‘. _lIr-(: -I-‘l -fly’-i, i_(= lift-it-_ 379*’/ -t . m-mgr: lhciii w: ,im. Iiiini Hint l= lt‘. l|l"ill'? lIl vrm-. _o, |r= i»: jii= Lti v. viii= ni iin| ;i»: :ir= rdl to glllllfllllii Fla: '. '1o| li~sI{lIi 'Mhri.1; l: ]lr. xvio' l= kii: . .1“u-w/ ;u‘l l~. ;v. vr; ii l; w;il; . «ii --zcmlml ! lIllll, (§-' '. 'l-. lri-. |h'l| t- it-< , l*—Lgt! i,l-_| ]r 1-it-x-x-1| fr-. mfL~. . >‘. t-l -i_h=4.‘r-. .i r" I-—M. m-l. i.t-i. -.i-. . Ask your doctor about *r‘: ./1, O/1'; /rs dabigatran etexilate ‘ CAPSULES isomg‘ PRADAXA can cause indigestion, stomach upset or burning, and stomach pain. You are encouraged to report negative side effects of prescription drugs to the FDA. Visit www. fda. gov/ medwatch or call l-800-FDA-i088. Please see more detailed Medication Guide on next page. Pr ic-’c? 'x dabigatran etexilate, *7 CAPSULES l50 mg For more information or help paying for your medication, call l-877-PRADAXA or visit pradaxacom. PX235700CON$
  • 28. Pradaxcr MEDICATION GUIDE r I PRADAXA (pra dax’ a) dahlgalran elexllale (dabigatran etexilate mesylate) CAPSULES 150mg cap5u| es Read this Medication Guide before you start taking PRADAXA and each time you get a refill. There may be new information. This Medication Guide does not take the place of talking with your doctor about your medical condition or your treatment. what is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? - PRADAXA can cause bleeding which can be serious, and sometimes lead to death. This is because PRADAXA is a blood thinner medicine that lowers the chance of blood clots forming in your body. - You may have a higher risk of bleeding if you take PRADAXA and: 0 are over 75 years old 0 have kidney problems 0 have stomach or intestine bleeding that is recent or keeps coming back, or you have a stomach ulcer 0 take other medicines that increase your risk of bleeding, including: 0 aspirin or aspirin containing products 0 long-term (chronic) use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAlDs) warfarin sodium (Coumadin®, Jantoven®) a medicine that contains heparin clopidogrel (Plavix®) 0 prasugrel (Effient®) - have certain kidney problems and also take the medicines dronedarone (Multaq®) or ketoconazole tablets (Nizoral®). OOO Tell your doctor if you take any of these medicines. Ask your doctor or pharmacist if you are not sure if your medicine is one listed above. - PRADAXA can increase your risk of bleeding because it lessens the ability of your blood to clot. while you take PRADAXA: 0 you may bruise more easily 0 it may take longer for any bleeding to stop. call your doctor or get medical help right away if you have any of these signs or symptoms of bleeding: 0 unexpected bleeding or bleeding that lasts a long time, such as: 0 unusual bleeding from the gums 0 nose bleeds that happen often 0 menstrual bleeding or vaginal bleeding that is heavier than nonnal - bleeding that is severe or you cannot control 0 pink or brown urine - red or black stools (looks like tar) 0 bruises that happen without a known cause or get larger - cough up blood or blood clots 0 vomit blood or your vomit looks like “coffee grounds" 0 unexpected pain, swelling, or joint pain - headaches, feeling dizzy or weak Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed. Do not stop taking PRADAXA without first talking to the doctor who prescribes it for you. Stopping PRADAXA may increase your risk of a stroke. PRADAXA may need to be stopped, it possible, for one or more days before any surgery, or medical or dental procedure. If you need to stop taking PRADAXA for any reason, talk to the doctor who prescribed PRADA)(A for you to find out when you should stop taking it. Your doctor will tell you when to start taking PRADAXA again after your surgery or procedure. See "What are the possible side effects of PRADAXA? " for more information about side effects. What is PRADAXA? PRADAXA is a prescription medicine used to reduce the risk of stroke and blood clots in people who have a medical condition called atrial fibrillation. With atrial fibrillation, part of the heart does not beat the way it should. This can lead to blood clots forming and increase your risk of a stroke. PRADAXA is a blood thinner medicine that lowers the chance of blood clots forming in your body. It is not known if PRADAXA is safe and works in children. who should not take PRADAXA? Do not take PRADAXA if you: - currently have certain types of abnormal bleeding. Talk to your doctor, before taking PRADAXA if you currently have unusual bleeding. 0 have had a serious allergic reaction to PRADAXA. Ask your doctor if you are not sure. What should I tell my doctor before taking PRADAXA? Before you take PRADAXA, tell your doctor if you: 0 have kidney problems 0 have ever had bleeding problems - have ever had stomach ulcers - have any other medical condition
  • 29. o are pregnant or plan to become pregnant. It is not known if PRADAXA will harm your unborn baby. 0 are breastfeeding or plan to breastfeed. It is not known if PRADAXA passes into your breast milk. Tell all of your doctors and dentists that you are taking PRADAXA. They should talk to the doctor who prescribed PRADAXA for you, before you have any surgery, or medical or dental procedure. Tell your doctor about all the medicines you take, including prescription and non—prescription medicines, vitamins, and herbal supplements. Some of your other medicines may affect the way PRADAXA works. Certain medicines may increase your risk of bleeding. See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? ” Especially tell your doctor if you take: - rifampin (Rifater, Rifamate, Rimactane, Rifadin) Know the medicines you take. Keep a list of them and show it to your doctor and pharmacist when you get a new medicine. How should I take PRADAXA? - Take PRADAXA exactly as prescribed by your doctor. - Do not take PRADAXA more often than your doctor tells you to. 0 You can take PRADAXA with or without food. 0 PRADAXA comes in a bottle or in a blister package. 0 Only open 1 bottle of PRADAXA at a time. Finish your opened bottle of PRADAXA before opening a new bottle. - After opening a bottle of PRADAXA, use within 4 months. See "How should I store PRADAXA? " - when it is time for you to take a dose of PRADAXA, only remove your prescribed dose of PRADAXA from your open bottle or blister package. - Tightly close your bottle of PRADAXA right away after you take your dose. - Swallow PRADAXA capsules whole. Do not break, chew, or empty the pellets from the capsule. 0 If you miss a dose of PRADAXA, take it as soon as you remember. If your next dose is less than 6 hours away, skip the missed dose. Do not take two doses of PRADAXA at the same time. 0 Your doctor will decide how long you should take PRADAXA. Do not stop taking PRADAXA without first talking with your doctor. Stopping PRADAXA may increase your risk of stroke. 0 Do not run out of PRADAXA. Refill your prescription before you run out. If you plan to have surgery, or a medical or a dental procedure, tell your doctor and dentist that you are taking PRADAXA. You may have to stop taking PRADAXA for a short time. See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? " - If you take too much PRADAXA, go to the nearest hospital emergency room or call your doctor. 0 Call your healthcare provider right away if you fall or injure yourself, especially if you hit your head. Your healthcare provider may need to check you. What are the possible side effects of PRADAXA? PRADAXA can cause serious side effects. 0 See “What is the most important information I should know about PRADAXA? " - Allergic Reactions. In some people, PRADAXA can cause symptoms of an allergic reaction, including hives, rash, and itching. Tell your doctor or get medical help right away if you get any of the following symptoms of a serious allergic reaction with PRADAXA: 0 chest pain or chest tightness 0 swelling of your face or tongue 0 trouble breathing or wheezing 0 feeling dizzy or faint Common side effects of PRADAXA include: - indigestion, upset stomach, or burning 0 stomach pain Tell your doctor if you have any side effect that bothers you or that does not go away. These are not all of the possible side effects of PRADAXA. For more information, ask your doctor or pharmacist. Call your doctor for medical advice about side effects. You may report side effects to FDA at 1-800—FDA—1088. How should I store PRADAXA? 0 Store PRADAXA at room temperature between 59°F to 86°F (15°C to 30°C). After opening the bottle, use PRADAXA within 4 months. Safely throw away any unused PRADAXA after 4 months. - Keep PRADAXA in the original bottle or blister package to keep it dry (protect the capsules from moisture). Do not put PRADAXA in pill boxes or pill organizers. - lightly close your bottle of PRADAXA right away after you take your dose. Keep PRADAXA and all medicines out of the reach of children.
  • 30. General information about PRADAXA Medicines are sometimes prescribed for purposes other than those listed in a Medication Guide. Do not use PRADAXA for a condition for which it was not prescribed. Do not give your PRADAXA to other people, even if they have the same symptoms. It may harm them. This Medication Guide summarizes the most important information about PRADAXA. If you would like more information, talk with your doctor. You can ask your pharmacist or doctor for information about PRADAXA that is written for health professionals. For more information, go to www. PRADAXA. com or call 1-800-542-6257 or (l'lY) 1-800-459-9906. What are the ingredients in PRADAXA? _»f' I", ("}7I: _.f Active ingredient: dabigatran etexilate mesylate Inactive ingredients: acacia, dimethicone, A hypromellose, hydroxypropyl cellulose, talc, and , A tartaric acid. The capsule shell is composed of t carrageenan, FD&C Blue No. 2 (150 mg strength I . l I t only), FD&C Yellow No. 6, hypromellose, potassium l chloride, titanium dioxide, and black edible ink. .41. v /4" iirl This Medication Guide has been approved by the US. Food and Drug ~"“I""9f"l7 : I Administration. I nlstribrrtedtryt Boehnngerlngelfieim Pliarmaceulicals, inc ‘ , ,_ , ., _ , Riligsllfl a, CT oom i. sA ‘ ‘ . .' f ~ . . -, a'_j" I417-"r . ,. . 1-), ~ I 1 ' = ‘- ‘A . .fi. .I‘~. »‘ ’A}‘. i.- ~ Illitlt. Revised'Janui~ry 2012 " Boehringer IIIII lngelheim PRADAXA’ is .1 registered trademark of B". XIII'lf§I? I llIgl! lhBlI'I Pliarma Grnbtl and Co KG raid used under lrcense The other brands lsled above are lradewiants of their respeclrve tr-vni-rs and are not lrademarks oi Boehringer lngelheim Dharmaceuticals, ‘or: The owners of these brands are not affiliated with and do not endorse Boehringa lngelheim Pharrnaceuticals, lni: .. or ll. S products. Copyright @7012 Bonhringer iigmlie iii Ptiprirviceulica 5. Inc. ALL Rl(jflI$ RESERVED PXl50000CONS Angry Birds books For the young and the young at heart are AVAILABLE WHEREVER BOOKS ARE SOLD Purchase helps support the mission of the National Geographic Society. which contributes to the understanding and protection of the animal kingdom. ..especially birds! NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 3‘ find us at Facebook. com/ NatGeoBooks
  • 31. NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC Grace Cleere included National Geographic in her estate plans. TO MAKE YOUR BEQUEST to National Geographic, please use the following language: ‘To the National Geographic Society in Washington, D. C., I give % of my estate. ” Or you can name a fixed dollar amount. YCSI Please send me information on how to include National Geo Inc in Ill)’ will! Inspire Future Generations communications expert for the government, Grace Cleere recently named National Geographic as a beneficiary in her will. ”I included a bequest intention to National Geographic because I believe in everything the organization represents, " says Cleere. "If we don't understand our world, we are bound to mistreat it. And if we are not curious about all living things on our planet, we are bound to lose them through thoughtlessness and indifference. National Geographic shines a spotlight on the critical issues of the day and proposes innovative solutions that are grounded in science. I feel good about my legacy knowing that National Geographic will leverage my gift so it can have the greatest impact. ” It is easy to include National Geographic in your will. For more information about how to include National Geographic in your estate plans, or to let us know that you have already done so, please Contact the Office of Estate Planning. CONTACT US: Phone: (800)226-4438 Email: plannedgiftinf0@ngs. org Web: www. nationalgeographic. org/ donate The National (ieograpliic Society is a Slllicllllj, tax-exeiiipt organization. Name Address I have al1‘e; id= included l'; ition; il Geogiapliic in iny will. Please send me information on a . 'ational Geographic charitable gill an nuily. Biitlidatctsl Miiiiiiiiiiii ti; ,'u -I5. 1’ii_i'iiiciil. x licggiii ill iigzu 65. S 10,0( )0 $S(), ()()(l $l(, l(), ()()(J Other (. liiii/ iiiiiiignftSliullllll . -llll2 Photo: Adam Buchanan Phone 0,0 -/ limail . »l; iil to: National Cleogiapliic Society Office of Estate Planning 1 H5 17th Street NW. Washington, l). C. 2(, l(, )3(j--l(j88
  • 32. “W” O ‘ ‘S l This page features two photographs. one chosen by our editors and one chosen . IUIUI. by our readers via online voting For more information. go to ngni C0771’/ y(i)lI(fSVflOf F. / , , d EDlTORS'CHOICE Zhang Xuan Toronto, Canada On the shore of Canada’s Lake Ontario, Zhang enjoyed watching the elegant feathers of mute swans. While feeding, this one opened its wings and gave the photographer the shot he'd hoped for. “My original aim was to capture the swan facing me, ” he says, “but this angle was good. " READERS’ CHOICE K0 Cheng Taichung, Taiwan As a medical student in Taichung, Cheng visited Gaomei wetland, a pro- tected habitat where water sculpts the mud. The 27-year-old reflects, “Taking off one’s shoes and walking on the tidal flat is the most direct way for people who live in the concrete jungle to contact nature. " 16 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 OCTOBER 2012
  • 33. Prepare yourself for the feeling of more water. HZOKINETIC” SHOWERHEADS Delta H20kinetic"‘ Technology sculpts water into a unique wave pattem — giving you the feeling of more water. without using more water. Another way Delta is more than just a shower. For more information, visit deltafaucetcom/ h2okinetic see what Delta can do: El 2012 Masco Corporation of Indiana
  • 34. MEGASUMMIT FOSTERS KEY COMMITMENTS Marking the 20th anniversary of the first Earth Summit. in Rio de Janeiro, heads of state from nearly 200 countries as well as 50,000 activists came to Brazil for the sprawling Rio+2O United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development (June 20-22. 20l2). The agenda? To drive global initiatives to reduce carbon, increase clean energy, and address food and water shortages. Among his remarks. United Nations Secretary- General Ban Ki-moon said that with l.5 billion more people in the world today than in l992, we'll need 50 percent more food and 45 percent more energy in 2030 than we do now. The three—day event drew mixed reviews and produced a sizable outcome document entitled “The Future We Want. " But words translated into action with some of the world's largest companies agreeing to take deforestation out of food supply chains and proposing to roll out internal carbon fees on operations throughout the world. Another significant side meeting brought about commitments from development banks, now poised to lend billions of dollars to major cities to lessen congestion, pollution, and energy waste. FINITE RESOURCES, EXPANDING NEEDS Later that week. 6,000 miles northwest. the sustainability conversation continued when distinguished thought leaders and interested citizens convened at the fifth annual Aspen Environment Forum (June 22-25, 20l2) for dialogue surrounding the theme of “Living in the New Normal. " The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administrations recent declaration that the long-term average temperature in the U. S. has warmed by a half degree in the past decade set the baseline for discussions on how to adapt to the new environmental paradigm. The forum permitted insightful exchanges among experts such as Edward O. Wilson, Stewart Brand, Fred Krupp, and Sylvia Earle, among many others. In its goal to illuminate ways to preserve the Earth's finite resources, developments in urbanization were presented along with improvements in freshwater conservation, technologies, and energy- efficient alternatives. These and other solutions are helping us meet some of the greatest challenges of our time. BIG-PICTURE DEBAIES Botafoqo Bay, Rio de Jaheiro, Brazi (top). Elliot Gersoii. Executive Vice PFESIOEIII for Policy and Pub IE Programs, International Partners, The Aspen Institute at left; Edward O. Wilson, Uriverr sity Research Professor Emeritus, Harvard Unlvcrr slty at right (above right). Attendees on The Aspen institute Campus (riqhfl. advertisement SPOTLIGHT ON SUSTAINABILITY AND ADAPTATION / ale continues to support and encourage dialogue on critical sustainability issues. VALE Learn more at nationalgeographic. com/ sustainable-earth.
  • 35. SKYCAST Overhead this month in parts of the world , October 21 . ,°/ V Orionids meteor shower /1 1 T 7 T I“ 1131.3‘? "'i. .""'». .7'-.1 ‘Cl . C Reading this page starts with the ability to distinguish real words from garble by identifying letters and their relationship to one another. Baboons, a new study reveals, have that skill too——countering a common theory that reading requires prior knowledge of language. Researchers at France's Aix-Marseille University presented four- letter combinations to six Guinea baboons, which touched one of two shapes on a screen to indicate word or nonword. After some 10,000 attempts each, they could spot actual words with nearly 75 percent accuracy—and could even predict whether a new sequence was a word. The results suggest that human reading might involve recognizing letters purely as objects, rather than symbols associated with spoken language, says co-author Jonathan Grainger. The next step: seeing if baboons can connect words with meaning. —Luna Shyr ART SARAH KING Baboons learned to identify English words (in brown) from nonwords (blue) with up to 75 percent accuracy. 19
  • 36. Nfli A new tyrannosaur is the lat est feathered anim ever found. oownv DINOSAUR I Kin to the mighty T. rex, 30-foot-long carnivorous Yutyrannus huaIi—a mix of Mandarin and Latin that translates to “beautiful feathered tyrant”—is the first big dinosaur known to have feathers. Three near—compIete fossils of the dinosaur discovered in China's Liaoning Province are streaked with remnants of eight- inch fi| aments—an indication that the one-ton predator had a downy coat, like a supersize chick, says Corwin Sullivan, a paleontologist at the Chinese Academy of Sciences who's studying the new species. Unlike the stiff quills of modern birds meant for flight, Y huaIi’s soft down may have kept the animal toasty during a Cretaceous cold spell about 125 million years ago. Did big dinosaurs need feathers for warmth? Modern biology would suggest not, since large living animals retain heat better than small ones. But the Y huali find, added to numer- ous smaller feathered dinosaur species unearthed in the same rock formation, points to yes. “Now we have evidence, and it's quite a large tyrannosauroid that apparently did need insulation, " says Sullivan. “It changes the picture. " —Christine DeIl’Amore
  • 37. Skull Tails Skull Head—to-foot fossils of Y huall have Mgr «-43 . streaks along their length—remnants ' ' *-; v‘ r’? of feathers up to eight inches long. " ll ll Smaller than T. rex, Y. huall reached 30 feet head to tail. PHOTOS: ROBERT CLARK. GRAPHIC: MATTHEW TWOMELY‘ NGM SIAFF ART- XING LIDA
  • 38. D NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ADVENTURES 'lr: f":2.lI , "j’lv‘, ; u. ,, .-'3 J» Y , y_ lfl? ,l§lfi;3.; ll5l, y§A3L1,f»; IrL1‘éIi§; :'9W9l -1.-ilili ‘, t?ll'; 'l, C'i€El9'. §'-’ M "ram, fl‘: "~'Iv‘? -.e'o«: It3l ‘or. . . . 3 l k - l_, .. company of top guides on daily’ adventures that areboth py active and culturally rewarding. _. , T «gig, 2. . . __ . . Q, ‘ '. "’, " - “fl? ‘ 1 . * “_ . T ‘ 73.’; - Q» , ' ~ g ‘. , ‘ _ _, ‘. _‘—. ... _7 , ‘ ‘ 1? ‘—q-_-_: ‘—_. _ - - - % v Travel on an Adventure with National Geographic to one ofthese extraordinary destinations: Belize 0 Alaska 0 Patagonia 0 Tanzania 0 Grand Canyon 0 Peru 0 Iceland - Morocco - Croatia 0 Nepal 0 and more! Call toll-free 1-888-689-2557 or visit nationalgeographicadventures. com/ ngm NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC ADVENTURES Above: A / (rim/ (er puddles in the dew blue wui‘e/ '5 of Belize. UNIQUE TRIPS FOR THE ACl'lVE TRAVELER
  • 39. NEXT Elephant Toys Known affectionately as “the girls, ” Ruth and Emily have a lot of fun for two Asian elephants. Ages 54 and 48, they spend their days tinkering with an array of special toys at the Buttonwood Park Zoo in Massachusetts. No mere plastic playthings, these toys have been engineered to appeal to the pachy- derms’ social nature. psy- chology, and intelligence. The toymakers are students from the Massa- chusetts College of Art and Design, assigned to create elephant gadgets after research excursions to the zoo. “The class discovered that the elephants first want to play with a new object in the yard, then try to eat it, " says Professor Rick Brown. That’s why a crank-operated canister (right) is packed with popcorn; other toys have fruit tucked inside. Typically the elephants find and finish off the treats within a half hour, says zoo director William Langbauer. He reports that the girls haven't rejected any toy yet but sometimes use them in surprising ways. A steel box with the word “elephant” cut into it, for example, is meant to be a puzzle. Emily prefers to bang it like a drum. —Catherine Zuckerman Balls inside the Octo-log make noise when it's rolled. The 425-pound Pachy-sac. made of tire treads, is a favorite. r‘. ~g_ A‘. -3- 4‘ _ _ ~ , — 9 Twisting a bolt unlocks the treat-filled Pyramid Toy. Toys designed by art students are a hit with elephants at a Massa- chusetts zoo. PHOTOS CARY WOLINSKV
  • 40. | The South Poles winter temperature . ‘40_DF averages 36°F colder than the North Poles . « South Pole North Pole -76°F - 3 S With Chinese cities In Cangzhou, Chinese police choking on traffic-the number of cars has more than doubled since check counterfeit license 2007—governments are struggling to prevent permanent gridlock. Plat“ 05 P11" 0f '1 C“'"P'1i8" Beijing has chosen the radical solution of holding a lottery for 20,000 “3‘“"‘‘ ’7]“3“l Vehicle‘- license plates each month, with about 900,000 total applicants. That’s forcing Beijingers to take countermeasures. Some enroll family members to boost their odds; others buy cars registered in neighboring cities. Shanghai auctions plates to the tune of $10,000 each, while other cities are raising downtown parking fees or building subway lines. “Gridlock should be avoidable, ” says Shao Chunfu of Beijing Jiaotong University. “But given trends in China's development, I’m afraid it’s unavoidable, even in small cities. ” —lan Johnson PASSING THE TEST To combat the more than 60.000 traffic deaths each year. China requires new drivers to pass a tough test. They must score 90 percent or more on an exam drawn from hundreds of possible questions on topics like road judgment. etiquette, and civil law. —lJ Sample I-- When a vehicle overtums slowly and jumping out of the vehicle is possible, the driver question should jump _ . A. in the driving direction C. in the opposite direction of the overturn 388 m°| '9 d"| V|nQ‘leS‘ B. in the overturning direction D. to the overturning side questions on the iPad. PHOTO’ COLOR CHINA PHOTOIAF IMAGES GRAPHIC‘ SIWEN Ll SOURCE WOODS HOLE OCEANOGRAPHIC INSTITUTION
  • 41. l‘-‘ ‘. ._ -eeee 5-’ Ha»: F? %%¥ , . .4, , ,«, ts. ’u. H affflfitfi -Jiflfiiflfit Z: z(QUfll ZfiQuil "““""° NIGN'| 'l'| Mi sumw ‘ Mu-tlalllfnming ‘ Wamiu Barry Huey ‘ ‘ ' Nmrhkfwflfll A/ ’ INTRODUCING ZzzQUiI'"' SLEEP-AID. - BECAUSE SLEEP IS A BEAUTIFUL THINGTM - The non-habit Forming sleep-aid from the makers of NyQui| ‘.*’ lt’s not for colds. it's not for pain. It's just for sleeping soundly, so you can wake refreshed; 1 Use as directed For occasional sleeplessness. Read each label. - 3 Keep out of reach of children. . VICKS © Procter & Gamble, Inc. , 2012. ' .
  • 42. NEXT AREA ENLARGED Premaxilla (extra upper jawbone) E. Unfused sympleciic Eel of Another Era Age and beauty, it seems, may not be mutually exclusive. A comely eel displaying anatomical features not seen in its kin for 140 million years has prompted the rare creation of a new family of fish. Researchers dubbed the purplish, ribbonlike Protanguilla palau a living fossil-a descriptor for creatures (like the coelacanth) largely unaltered since ancient times. Discovered in 2009 in a reef cave off the Republic of Palau, the eel sports an extra upper jawbone, characteristic of its Cretaceous—period brethren. It also has fewer than 90 vertebrae, an even more primitive feature. Other traits raised doubts that it was a true eel until anatomical and molecular analysis confirmed the classification, says the Smithsonian Institution's G. David Johnson, lead author of the findings. —John Briley lllll ll lllllllilll ll l llll mistake. ” Larger partners Ancient structures (in red) make Protanguilla palau the most primitive eel of all. Collected specimens range from 1.7 to 7 inches long. ASIA men-‘rc PALAU U OCEAN AUSTRALIA l llll lllll. lllll llll llll The Beetle and the Bottle It seems a twisted love story—insect and inanimate object. But to a two-inch Australian jewel beetle, a discarded brown beer bottle looks like an extra-large female. Bemused, amorous males make what Darryl Gwynne of the University of Toronto calls a “mating are incredibly enticing—“superstimuli. " Gwynne says—because bigger females mean more eggs to fertilize. Most often, it’s a fatal attraction for persistent males. Beetles that approach from the top exhaust themselves and fry in the sun: those with a foot on the ground may end up a meal for ants. —Johnna Rizzo AFIT: RAUL MAF‘iTiN SOURCE‘ G DAVID JOHNSON, SMITHSONIAN NATIONAL MUSEUM OF NATURAL HISTORY NGM MAPS PHOYO: JIRI LOCHMAN. LOCHMAN YRANSPARENCIES
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  • 45. A three-toed sloth can cover a distance of 15 feet- j about nine times its body | ength—in one minute. Landmassive Amasia—named for the crash and subsequent connection of the Americas and Asia—will fuse in 100 million years. It won’t be a first. The Earth’s landmasses are constantly shifting, all together—a superconti- nent—then apart again, no faster than a finger- nail grows. The most recent convergence, Pan- gaea, formed 300 million years ago; Rodinia, 1.1 billion; Nuna, 1.8 billion. Most theories of Amasia’s creation show the Atlantic seafloor stretching or being swallowed, but geologist Ross Mitchell's model, using paleomagnetic data from ancient rocks, predicts the Arctic Ocean will close up instead, the superconti- nent sliding north into its place. Where the rebro- ken land goes from there is unknown. ‘‘It’s not Ambergris's scent varies from piece to piece—salty to animalish to earthy. Whiter chunks often smell sweet, some like vanilla. , , _ like an accordion, In and out, ” says Mitchell. —JR Eau de Whale Ambergris is the unlikeliest of perfume ingredients. The nuggets start forming as a slurry in the guts of sperm whales around stomach irritants like squid beaks, then are ejected into the ocean. (Once thought to be spewed, they're now believed to . . AMER/ C/l be excreted. ) The scent is said to be dunglike at first but grows musky after exposure to seawater and air. For centuries perfumers have cap- italized on the ability of ambergris, which is collected along shorelines, _ to amplify fragrances and fix them to the skin. But the sea mamma| ’s endangered status might limit supply, so nonanimal options are being explored. Among them: Molecular biologist Joerg Boh| mann’s team has found a way to reproduce a balsam fir compound that provides a perfume fixative, without cetacean input. —Johnna Rizzo from now, as it begins to form Amasia about 100 million years PHOTOS‘ DAVID LIITTSCHWAGER GRAPHIC: ALVARO VALINO SOURCE’ MARK CARWARDINE. NATURAL HISTORY MUSEUM ANIMAL RECORDS NGM MAPS SOURCE‘ VALE FALEOMAGNETICS LSROU9
  • 46. THOUSANDS OF ELEPHANTS DIE EACH YEAR SO THAT THEIR TUSKS CAN BE CARVED INTO RELIGIOUS OBIECTS. CAN THE SLAUGHTER BE STOPPED? " VOR 1.0 WORSHIP
  • 47. Some of the last big tuskers gather ln Tsavo, Kenya. A slngle large tusk sold on the local black market can bring $6.000, enough to support an unskilled Kenyan worker for ten years.
  • 48. ‘~' TV’ "'—-_. :«. .1—. n-2--_-- - —. .. _ _ -. ..: . . —- n'—' _ - V l l The largest Ivory cruclfix In the Philippines (left) hangs in a mu ' I ’ “ ‘ long, is carved from a single tusk. The piece dates to the early we LINIVERSIYV or sumo ‘owns uussuu (Lam
  • 49. seum in Manila. The body of Christ. 30 inches Asian Ivory craftsmanship to Spain and the New World. The home of a Filipino collector (above) Is lavish with 16005. when Spanish galleons began bringing ivory religious icons. ‘I don't see the elephant, " says another Filipino collector. "I see the Lord. “
  • 50. J l .4J 7» . >,, . . r. . ... . T . , . . . Fr . AN. /r l w J. . L I C . .« . _ . . / .r W .3. . .. T . . . ~ . . . , / , . .. . , // .. ,,z . 5. , . T . ._ / —. , . / V . / pp. .. . . r. / v . .. . in ii. .. K . , . . . . t A . . ax . . . . . / 4 I . , . , F
  • 51. /” / Bodies are what remain in Cameroon‘s Bouba Ndjidah National Park after one of the largest mass elephant slaughters in decades. Armed with grenades and AK-47s, poachers killed more than 300.
  • 52. fi
  • 53. .u--« C ; " ‘ x , .+ , -~ ~, / ; vi ,1-‘ xr' 1:, ’ . “ 4- ‘ . _ ; . ‘ - , 1 . - '1" I / ‘ . r ' o a ‘, '. ‘IV' §; 5'. .'( . ,. . ; . “ . ’ A worker in China's largest ivory—carving factory finishes a piece symbolizing prosperity. China legally bought 73 tons of ivory from Africa in 2008; since then, poaching and smuggling have both soared.
  • 54. BY BRYAN CHRISTY PHOTOGRAPHS BY BRENT STIRTON N IAN UARY 2012 A HUNDRED RAIDERS ON HORSEBACK CHARGED OUT OF CHAD INTO CAMEROON’S BOUBA NDIIDAH NATIONAL PARK, SLAUGHTERING HUNDREDS OF ELEPHANTS—entire families—in one of the worst concentrated killings since a global ivory trade ban was adopted in 1989. Carrying AK-47s and rocket-propelled grenades, they dispatched the elephants with a military precision reminiscent of a 2006 butchering outside _, i Chad’s Zakouma National Park. And then some stopped to pray to Allah. Seen from the ground, each of the bloated elephant carcasses is a monument to human greed. Elephant poaching levels are currently at their worst in a decade, and seizures of illegal ivory are at their highest level in years. From the air too the scattered bodies present a senseless crime scene—you can see which animals fled, which mothers tried to protect their young, how one terrified herd of 50 went down together, the latest of the tens of thousands of elephants killed across Africa each year. Seen from higher still, from the vantage of history, this killing field is not new at all. It is timeless, and it is now. THE PHILIPPINES CONNECTION In an overfilled church Monsignor Cristobal Garcia, one of the best known ivory collectors in the Philippines, leads an unusual rite honor- ing the nation’s most important religious icon, the Santo Nifio de Cebu (Holy Child of Cebu). The ceremony, which he conducts annually on Cebu, is called the Hubo, from a Cebuano word meaning “to undress. ” Several altar boys work together to disrobe a small wooden statue of Christ dressed as a king, a replica of an icon devotees believe Ferdinand Magellan brought to the island in 1521. They remove its small crown, red cape, and tiny boots, and strip off its surpris- ingly layered underwear. Then the monsignor takes the icon, while altar boys conceal it with a little white towel, and dunks it in several barrels of water, creating his church’s holy water for the year, to be sold outside. Garcia is a fleshy man with a lazy left eye and bad knees. In the mid-19805, according to a 2005 report in the Dallas Morning News and a related lawsuit, Garcia, while serving as a priest at St. Dominic’s of Los Angeles, California, 38 NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC 0 OCTOBER 2012 sexually abused an altar boy in his early teens and was dismissed. Back in the Philippines, he was promoted to monsignor and made chairman of Cebu’s Archdiocesan Commission on Worship. That made him head of protocol for the country’s largest Roman Catholic archdiocese, a flock of nearly four million people in a country of 75 mil- lion Roman Catholics, the world’s third largest Catholic population. Garcia is known beyond Cebu. Pope John Paul II blessed his Santo Nifio during Garcia's visit to the pope’s summer resi- dence, Castel Gandolfo, in 1990. Recently Garcia helped direct the installation of Cebu’s newest archbishop in a cathedral filled with Catholic leaders, including 400 priests and 70 bishops, among them the Vatican’s ambassador. Garcia is so well known that to find his church, the Society of the Angels of Peace, I need only roll down my window and ask, “Monsignor Cris? ” to be pointed toward his walled compound. Some Filipinos believe the Santo Nifio de Cebu is Christ himself. Sixteenth—century Spaniards declared the icon to be miraculous and used it to

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