Indicators to monitor theIndicators to monitor the
effect of nutrients within theeffect of nutrients within the
Black SeaB...
The Black Sea
..an endangered sea shared by
Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania,
Russia, Turkey & Ukraine
….a large basin
Inhabited...
GEF/UNDP Assistance to the Wider BlackGEF/UNDP Assistance to the Wider Black
Sea BasinSea Basin
The new GEF assistance is ...
Eutrophication - SummaryEutrophication - Summary
 Anthropogenic eutrophication is usually caused by nitrogen and/orAnthro...
What to measure?What to measure?
Biota
(Phytoplankton,
macrophytes, benthic
algae, invertebrates,
fish etc.)
Firmly bound
...
Strategic Goals for Nutrients in the Black SeaStrategic Goals for Nutrients in the Black Sea
1.1. A long term goal of nutr...
Areas of Impact of Nutrients in the Black SeaAreas of Impact of Nutrients in the Black Sea
 The central part of the north...
Criteria for the Choice of Environmental Status IndicatorsCriteria for the Choice of Environmental Status Indicators
CCons...
Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea
 Chemical concentrations and loadings ...
Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea
 Chemical loadings to the Black SeaChe...
Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea
 Physical measurements – turbidity rel...
The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators
 Biological parameters – micro-algaeBiol...
The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators
 Biological parameters – macro-algae and...
The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators
 Invertebrates – sediment infaunaInverte...
Implementation in the Black Sea RegionImplementation in the Black Sea Region
1.1. Proposal of ES indicators for consultati...
Where are we likely to encounter delayWhere are we likely to encounter delay
 Agreement of the scientific communityAgreem...
Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attention
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preynolds_blacksearecovery.ppt

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - preynolds_blacksearecovery.ppt

  • 1. Indicators to monitor theIndicators to monitor the effect of nutrients within theeffect of nutrients within the Black SeaBlack Sea THE GLOBAL ENVIRONMENT FACILITY
  • 2. The Black Sea ..an endangered sea shared by Bulgaria, Georgia, Romania, Russia, Turkey & Ukraine ….a large basin Inhabited by 160 million people from 17 countries
  • 3. GEF/UNDP Assistance to the Wider BlackGEF/UNDP Assistance to the Wider Black Sea BasinSea Basin The new GEF assistance is designed to address the three highestThe new GEF assistance is designed to address the three highest priority transboundary problems of the Black Sea (namelypriority transboundary problems of the Black Sea (namely eutrophication, discharge of toxic substances including oil, loss of criticaleutrophication, discharge of toxic substances including oil, loss of critical benthic habitats and wetlands) and to highlight emerging onesbenthic habitats and wetlands) and to highlight emerging ones Assistance is provided as three complementary components:Assistance is provided as three complementary components: Two Regional Projects for the Black Sea and the Danube River BasinTwo Regional Projects for the Black Sea and the Danube River Basin Black Sea project which will be implemented in two Phases betweenBlack Sea project which will be implemented in two Phases between (2002- 2004) and (2004- 2006);(2002- 2004) and (2004- 2006); A series of country-related investment projects executed through theA series of country-related investment projects executed through the World Bank-GEF Nutrient Investment Facility;World Bank-GEF Nutrient Investment Facility; Other GEF and donor interventions in the basin targeting reduction ofOther GEF and donor interventions in the basin targeting reduction of nutrients/toxic pollutants and restoration of critical habitats.nutrients/toxic pollutants and restoration of critical habitats.
  • 4. Eutrophication - SummaryEutrophication - Summary  Anthropogenic eutrophication is usually caused by nitrogen and/orAnthropogenic eutrophication is usually caused by nitrogen and/or phosphate compounds either dumped at sea, discharged throughphosphate compounds either dumped at sea, discharged through pipes, or lost to the marine environment via the atmosphere or runpipes, or lost to the marine environment via the atmosphere or run off from land.off from land.  Nutrients act as "food" for phytoplankton (plant cells in the waterNutrients act as "food" for phytoplankton (plant cells in the water column), capable of multiplying at an enormous rate, given sufficientcolumn), capable of multiplying at an enormous rate, given sufficient food and light. This in turn causes a change in the planktonfood and light. This in turn causes a change in the plankton population, a general increase in water turbidity and greaterpopulation, a general increase in water turbidity and greater fluctuations in oxygen levels.fluctuations in oxygen levels.  As light is prevented from penetrating down, other organisms suchAs light is prevented from penetrating down, other organisms such as sea weeds (algae) and sea grass can be adversely effected.as sea weeds (algae) and sea grass can be adversely effected.  Finally with little water movement and a high plankton mass,Finally with little water movement and a high plankton mass, deoxygenation and mass death of organisms in the affected areadeoxygenation and mass death of organisms in the affected area may be observedmay be observed
  • 5. What to measure?What to measure? Biota (Phytoplankton, macrophytes, benthic algae, invertebrates, fish etc.) Firmly bound particulate P Mineral-forming reactions Desorption Firmly bound sediment P Desorption P inputs Slow diffusion Settlement/ resuspension Uptake Release Wash-out Uptake Microbial decomposition Water column Sediment Export from river reach Diffusion and flushing Decomposition Diffusion Porewater P Labile sediment P Labile particulate P Soluble P Sediment organic matter Uptake/ decomposition Bioturbation Sediment infauna Sorption/ desorption
  • 6. Strategic Goals for Nutrients in the Black SeaStrategic Goals for Nutrients in the Black Sea 1.1. A long term goal of nutrient reduction to a level whichA long term goal of nutrient reduction to a level which will allow the ecosystem to recover (1960s level);will allow the ecosystem to recover (1960s level); 2.2. An intermediate goal not to exceed levels of nutrientsAn intermediate goal not to exceed levels of nutrients above levels encountered in 1997;above levels encountered in 1997; 3.3. To reach agreement on a common methodology for aTo reach agreement on a common methodology for a monitoring approach;monitoring approach; 4.4. To further assess the nutrient input loads and theTo further assess the nutrient input loads and the ecological status of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azovecological status of the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov
  • 7. Areas of Impact of Nutrients in the Black SeaAreas of Impact of Nutrients in the Black Sea  The central part of the north-western shelfThe central part of the north-western shelf  biomass reduction of 10 million tons in Phyllophorabiomass reduction of 10 million tons in Phyllophora fieldfield fromfrom 1950 to 19901950 to 1990  Seasonal hypoxic zones in front of largest riversSeasonal hypoxic zones in front of largest rivers  biological loss ofbiological loss of 200 t per square kilometre of seabed.200 t per square kilometre of seabed.  disappearance of large amounts of surface-living organisms ofdisappearance of large amounts of surface-living organisms of both of marine and fresh-water originboth of marine and fresh-water origin  Rocky shoresRocky shores  disappearance ofdisappearance of epiphyte algae, invertebrates and fish.epiphyte algae, invertebrates and fish.  Sandy beachesSandy beaches  decrease of polychaetes and bivalvesdecrease of polychaetes and bivalves  The open coastal watersThe open coastal waters  increase in mass species of phytoplanktonincrease in mass species of phytoplankton  Coastal wetlandsCoastal wetlands  decrease of species and increase of hypoxiadecrease of species and increase of hypoxia
  • 8. Criteria for the Choice of Environmental Status IndicatorsCriteria for the Choice of Environmental Status Indicators CConsensusonsensus-- does everybody agree that “less is better”, or vice versa?does everybody agree that “less is better”, or vice versa? RResponsiveness -esponsiveness - will we see comparable figures in the next 5 years? Howwill we see comparable figures in the next 5 years? How quickly will changes be detected?quickly will changes be detected? IIndependence of assumptions -ndependence of assumptions - could the value change drastically bycould the value change drastically by fumbling with some assumptions?fumbling with some assumptions? TTransparency -ransparency - can a layperson understand what’s happening? does thecan a layperson understand what’s happening? does the indicator hide or reveal facts?indicator hide or reveal facts? EExperiencexperience -- Is the technical capacity available in the region? Is there aIs the technical capacity available in the region? Is there a significant variability in the historical measurements/significant variability in the historical measurements/ RResponsibility -esponsibility - does the indicator point at those who should be helddoes the indicator point at those who should be held responsible?responsible? IInternational standard –nternational standard – has the scientific community at least ring-tested thehas the scientific community at least ring-tested the methodologymethodology AAnalytical soundness -nalytical soundness - does the indicator measure the problem, or ratherdoes the indicator measure the problem, or rather something else?something else?
  • 9. Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea  Chemical concentrations and loadings inChemical concentrations and loadings in water and sedimentwater and sediment  Physical measurements – turbidity relatedPhysical measurements – turbidity related  Biological parametersBiological parameters  micro-algae, macro-algae and higher plantsmicro-algae, macro-algae and higher plants  InvertebratesInvertebrates
  • 10. Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea  Chemical loadings to the Black SeaChemical loadings to the Black Sea  TP, SRP, TN, TIN, Silicate, BODTP, SRP, TN, TIN, Silicate, BOD • Frequency of measurements required is very high – weekly basisFrequency of measurements required is very high – weekly basis • Continuous flow dataContinuous flow data • Annual mean load with confidence limitsAnnual mean load with confidence limits • Total nutrient input important to determine the potential bioavailable loadTotal nutrient input important to determine the potential bioavailable load  Chemical concentrations in water columnChemical concentrations in water column  Bioavailable nutrients (SRP, TIN) and BODBioavailable nutrients (SRP, TIN) and BOD • Trend analysis must include confidence limitsTrend analysis must include confidence limits • Winter monitoring for nutrients to remove seasonalityWinter monitoring for nutrients to remove seasonality  Chemical concentrations in sedimentChemical concentrations in sediment  Bioavailable nutrients (SRP, TIN) and BOD in interstitial waterBioavailable nutrients (SRP, TIN) and BOD in interstitial water • Analysis at specific depths is important – diatoms versus macrophytesAnalysis at specific depths is important – diatoms versus macrophytes  Mineralisation, nitrification and denitrification ratesMineralisation, nitrification and denitrification rates
  • 11. Potential ES Indicators for the Black SeaPotential ES Indicators for the Black Sea  Physical measurements – turbidity relatedPhysical measurements – turbidity related  Secchi discSecchi disc • Measure of disappearance of discMeasure of disappearance of disc • Cheap and simpleCheap and simple  Suspended solidsSuspended solids • May be simple but prone to large variabilityMay be simple but prone to large variability  Measure of scattered or adsorbed lightMeasure of scattered or adsorbed light
  • 12. The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators  Biological parameters – micro-algaeBiological parameters – micro-algae  Primary productivityPrimary productivity • Measured asMeasured as tonne C/ha/yeartonne C/ha/year  Standing crop -micro-algal biomassStanding crop -micro-algal biomass • measured as Chlorophyll-a contentmeasured as Chlorophyll-a content • Sampling may miss bloomSampling may miss bloom  Community compositionCommunity composition • The development of an index or the identification of indicatorThe development of an index or the identification of indicator species may be best represented only on a single communityspecies may be best represented only on a single community
  • 13. The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators  Biological parameters – macro-algae and higher plantsBiological parameters – macro-algae and higher plants  Maximum depth of colonisationMaximum depth of colonisation • Offers three major advantages over conventional Secchi depth orOffers three major advantages over conventional Secchi depth or suspended solids monitoring:suspended solids monitoring:  It provides an integrated measure of turbidity over time - perhaps 6It provides an integrated measure of turbidity over time - perhaps 6 months-2 years.months-2 years.  It provides a genuine measure of the depth of the euphotic zone, notIt provides a genuine measure of the depth of the euphotic zone, not simply a measure of water clarity at a particular depth within the watersimply a measure of water clarity at a particular depth within the water column.column.  It is much more ecologically relevant.It is much more ecologically relevant.  Biomass and productivityBiomass and productivity • Possible problems with storm damage.Possible problems with storm damage. • number of samples required to detect a significant change innumber of samples required to detect a significant change in biomass over, say, 5 years,biomass over, say, 5 years,
  • 14. The Process of Adoption of ES IndicatorsThe Process of Adoption of ES Indicators  Invertebrates – sediment infaunaInvertebrates – sediment infauna  To be used for monitoring medium-long termTo be used for monitoring medium-long term (>5 years) recovery of the Black Sea.(>5 years) recovery of the Black Sea.  Must use harmonized monitoring protocolMust use harmonized monitoring protocol  The sediment should also be analysed forThe sediment should also be analysed for toxicants (organic and inorganic), particle sizetoxicants (organic and inorganic), particle size analysis and total organic carbon, in additionanalysis and total organic carbon, in addition to water column salinity.to water column salinity.
  • 15. Implementation in the Black Sea RegionImplementation in the Black Sea Region 1.1. Proposal of ES indicators for consultation with the Black SeaProposal of ES indicators for consultation with the Black Sea Commission’s Advisory groups – Key group: pollution monitoringCommission’s Advisory groups – Key group: pollution monitoring and assessmentand assessment 2.2. Consultation with the ICPDR and the Black Sea Commission JointConsultation with the ICPDR and the Black Sea Commission Joint Technical Working GroupTechnical Working Group 3.3. Integrate feedback on criteria and weightingIntegrate feedback on criteria and weighting 4.4. Prioritisation of indicatorsPrioritisation of indicators 5.5. Submission to the Black Sea Commission for reviewSubmission to the Black Sea Commission for review 6.6. Undertake pilot monitoring programmeUndertake pilot monitoring programme 1.1. - include training, QA/QC and inter-comparison exercise- include training, QA/QC and inter-comparison exercise 2.2. - agree sampling sites- agree sampling sites 7.7. Collect baseline dataCollect baseline data 8.8. Include ES indicators into the Black Sea Integrated PollutionInclude ES indicators into the Black Sea Integrated Pollution Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIPMAP)Monitoring and Assessment Programme (BSIPMAP)
  • 16. Where are we likely to encounter delayWhere are we likely to encounter delay  Agreement of the scientific communityAgreement of the scientific community  Combat with a proactive approachCombat with a proactive approach  Limit the input of non-relevant advisoryLimit the input of non-relevant advisory groupsgroups  Quality control – validity of dataQuality control – validity of data  SamplingSampling  AnalysisAnalysis  Procedures for assessment of dataProcedures for assessment of data
  • 17. Thank you for your attentionThank you for your attention

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