Jagjit Khosla
“In disease control, disease agent is permitted to persist in the
community at a level where it ceases to be a public heal...
• Interruption of transmission of disease from a large geographic
regions or areas
Disease Elimination
• Termination of al...
Objectives
To detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks
To help initiate an effective response in time
To detect...
Components
Integration and decentralisation of surveillance activities
Strengthening of public health laboratories
Human r...
• Data collected on weekly (Monday-Sunday) basis
• It includes :
• No. of cases of 20 diseases/syndromes & state specific ...
PHC / CHC
Sub- Centres
District
Surveillance
Unit
State
Surveillance
Unit
Central
Surveillance
Unit
Distt. Hospital,
Medic...
Integrated
Disease
Surveillance
Project
Integrated Disease Surveillance Project
Entomology Unit
Training Centres
Video Con...
• Agent enters the host
• Incubation period starts
• Patient asymptomatic
Primary Prevention
Primary Prevention
Health Promotion
• Health Education
• Environmental
modifications
• Nutritional
interventions
• Lifesty...
Secondary Prevention
Early Diagnosis
and Treatment
• Measles surveillance
• Measles vaccine
• Measles immunoglobulin
• Isolation of cases till 7 days after onset of rash
• Live attenuated
• freeze dried vaccine
• Lyophilised
• Human Diploid Cell vaccine
• Edmonston Zagreb strain
• Heat sensi...
Lyophilised
vaccine
Diluent
Reconstituted
Vaccine
Reconstituted vaccine kept on ice – discarded after 4hrs
• Indian National Immunisation Schedule (Also WHO EPI)
 Single dose of Measles vaccine at 9 months
• Indian academy of Pa...
• 0.5 ml subcutaneous injection
• Right upper arm
Immunity develops 11-12 days after vaccination
Mild “measles” illness after 5-10 days
Attenuated virus multiplies in blood...
Adverse Effects
• Toxic Shock Syndrome –
• If vaccine is contaminated
• If reconstituted vaccine is used after 4 hours
• O...
• Post Exposure prophylaxis to contacts within 2 days
of exposure
• Single dose 0.25 ml per Kg body weight or
0.5 ml per K...
Early case reporting
and management
Integrated vector
management
Supporting
interventions
Long Term
Strategies
Fever alert surveillance
Strengthening of referral services
Sentinel surveillance sites with laboratory support
Involvemen...
Aedes aegypti
Mosquito breeding areasTemephos, Fention
Gambusia Poecilia reticulata
Aerosol space spraying (Pyrethrum extract 2%)FoggingInsecticide treated bed netsMosquito repellents
• Human resource development
• Behaviour change communication
• Inter-sectoral convergence
• Supervision and Monitoring
• ...
Control measures
• Notification
• Isolation of cases till 6 days after onset of rash
• Disinfection of articles soiled by ...
• Life attenuated vaccine
• OKA strain
• 0.5 ml subcutaneous
• Dosage :
if <13 years – single dose
if > 13 years – two dos...
Side effects
• Local pain and redness
• Localised maculopapular or
vesicular rash
Contraindications
• Pregnancy
• Immunoco...
• Postexposure prophylaxis within 3 days of exposure
• 12.5 units/Kg body weight i.m. upto max. 625 units
• Repeat dose af...
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
Prevention & control of exanthematous fever
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Prevention & control of exanthematous fever

It discusses disease control strategies used in Integrated disease surveillance project (IDSP) India along with types of disease prevention. It is followed by prevention strategies regarding Measles, Dengue and chickenpox
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prevention & control of exanthematous fever

  • 1. Jagjit Khosla
  • 2. “In disease control, disease agent is permitted to persist in the community at a level where it ceases to be a public health problem according to the tolerance of the local population” Aims : • Reducing the incidence of disease • Reducing duration of disease and risk of transmission • Reducing the effects of infection • Reducing the financial burden to community
  • 3. • Interruption of transmission of disease from a large geographic regions or areas Disease Elimination • Termination of all transmission of infection from whole world Disease Eradication • Performing and analysing routine measurements aimed at detecting changes in the environment or health status of population Monitoring • Continuous scrutiny of the factors that determine the occurrence and distribution of disease and other conditions of ill-health Surveillance
  • 4. Objectives To detect early warning signals of impending outbreaks To help initiate an effective response in time To detect disease trends over time and evaluate control strategies
  • 5. Components Integration and decentralisation of surveillance activities Strengthening of public health laboratories Human resource development Use of IT for collection, compiling, analysis and dissemination of data
  • 6. • Data collected on weekly (Monday-Sunday) basis • It includes : • No. of cases of 20 diseases/syndromes & state specific disease • Total OPD attendance • Action taken in case of unusual increase in cases • List and details of cases • 3-yearly surveys of risk factors of Non-communicable diseases S P L Suspected Cases Presumptive Cases Laboratory confirmed Cases
  • 7. PHC / CHC Sub- Centres District Surveillance Unit State Surveillance Unit Central Surveillance Unit Distt. Hospital, Medical colleges, Public health laboratories, Private labs and hospitals, Pvt. Practictioners, and other hospitals
  • 8. Integrated Disease Surveillance Project Integrated Disease Surveillance Project Entomology Unit Training Centres Video Conferencing 24 X 7 Call Centre IDSP Portal Outbreak Surveillance and Response Media Scanning and Verification Cell Broadband Connectivity
  • 9. • Agent enters the host • Incubation period starts • Patient asymptomatic
  • 10. Primary Prevention
  • 11. Primary Prevention Health Promotion • Health Education • Environmental modifications • Nutritional interventions • Lifestyle and behavioural changes Specific Protection • Immunization
  • 12. Secondary Prevention Early Diagnosis and Treatment
  • 13. • Measles surveillance • Measles vaccine • Measles immunoglobulin • Isolation of cases till 7 days after onset of rash
  • 14. • Live attenuated • freeze dried vaccine • Lyophilised • Human Diploid Cell vaccine • Edmonston Zagreb strain • Heat sensitive – stored frozen at 2-8 0C
  • 15. Lyophilised vaccine Diluent Reconstituted Vaccine Reconstituted vaccine kept on ice – discarded after 4hrs
  • 16. • Indian National Immunisation Schedule (Also WHO EPI)  Single dose of Measles vaccine at 9 months • Indian academy of Paediatrics  One dose of Measles vaccine at 9 months  One dose of MMR at 15 months • Can be given between 6 to 9 months age if  Measles outbreak occurs in community  Malnourished children at high risk of complications Second dose need to be given at 9 month age (4 weeks apart)
  • 17. • 0.5 ml subcutaneous injection
  • 18. • Right upper arm
  • 19. Immunity develops 11-12 days after vaccination Mild “measles” illness after 5-10 days Attenuated virus multiplies in blood Injection given
  • 20. Adverse Effects • Toxic Shock Syndrome – • If vaccine is contaminated • If reconstituted vaccine is used after 4 hours • Others – Local reaction, mild measles • Rare – Febrile seizures, anaphylaxis, Encephalopathy Contraindications • Pregnancy • Acute illnesses • Immunodeficiency • Immunocompromised state • Use of steroids High grade Fever Vomiting Severe diarrhoea Hypotension Diffuse Erythema Desquamation Toxic Shock Syndrome
  • 21. • Post Exposure prophylaxis to contacts within 2 days of exposure • Single dose 0.25 ml per Kg body weight or 0.5 ml per Kg if immunocompromised • Followed by Live attenuated measles vaccine 8-12 weeks later
  • 22. Early case reporting and management Integrated vector management Supporting interventions Long Term Strategies
  • 23. Fever alert surveillance Strengthening of referral services Sentinel surveillance sites with laboratory support Involvement of private sector in sentinel surveillance Case management Epidemic preparedness and rapid response Early Case Management Early Case Reporting
  • 24. Aedes aegypti
  • 25. Mosquito breeding areasTemephos, Fention Gambusia Poecilia reticulata
  • 26. Aerosol space spraying (Pyrethrum extract 2%)FoggingInsecticide treated bed netsMosquito repellents
  • 27. • Human resource development • Behaviour change communication • Inter-sectoral convergence • Supervision and Monitoring • Legislative Support
  • 28. Control measures • Notification • Isolation of cases till 6 days after onset of rash • Disinfection of articles soiled by nose, throat discharges Prevention • Varicella vaccine • Varicella Zoster Immunoglobulin
  • 29. • Life attenuated vaccine • OKA strain • 0.5 ml subcutaneous • Dosage : if <13 years – single dose if > 13 years – two doses 4-8 weeks apart • Aspirin should not be given for 6 weeks after vaccination to prevent Reye syndrome • Post-exposure prophylaxis • MMRV
  • 30. Side effects • Local pain and redness • Localised maculopapular or vesicular rash Contraindications • Pregnancy • Immunocompromised • Immunodeficient • Steroid therapy • Age less than 1 year
  • 31. • Postexposure prophylaxis within 3 days of exposure • 12.5 units/Kg body weight i.m. upto max. 625 units • Repeat dose after 3 weeks Indications • Immunosuppressive therapy • Immunodeficiency • Pregnant women • Newborns • Infants of Low birth weight

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