Natural design elements
Basics of natural elements like Minerals, Rocks, Gemstones,Shells & Fossils.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Natural design elements
Natural Design Elements
How this Natural Material forms?
Hot fluid or semi-fluid material below or within the earth's crust
from which lava and other igneous rock is formed on cooling.
Rocks progress from their initial formation to their wearing down by wind, rain and ice
(weathering), removal and transportation (erosion) and deposition (sedimentation), from
which new rocks can be formed, continuing the cycle.
What is Mineral ?
Minerals are the fundamental components of
the earth beneath our feet. There are something
3000 different minerals, with forms ranging from
well formed crystals of shiny, transparent quartz
to amorphous, crumbly yellow limonite.
A mineral is defined as a naturally formed, solid,
inorganic substance with a composition that is
either fixed or that varies within a defined range,
and a characteristic atomic structure.
Some minerals have been valued throughout
history for their beauty, durability and rarity .
This is known as Gemstones.
What is Rocks ?
Rocks, essentially , are “ collection” of different minerals in solid form,
although some consist of just one mineral, such as limestone and
sandstone. There are three types of rocks :-
Sedimentary rocks are generally fine- grained or composed of
fragments of older rocks from which these were derived, such as pebbles,
sand ,angular fragments of older rocks, broken shells, rounded mineral
grains and alteration minerals such as clays. Many sedimentary rocks also
Igneous rocks, on the other hand are non –stratified intrusions or
extrusions. They can be extremely coarse- grained ,fine or glassy. They are
composed of minerals that have crystallized from molten rock.
Metamorphic rocks are sedimentary or igneous rocks that have
been altered by heat and/or pressure. As they are derived from previously
existing igneous, sedimentary or even metamorphic rock, their
appearance is variable.
Famous Sedimentary rocks
Sand stone Coal
Sedimentary Rocks Textures
Clastic consisting of broken and weathered
fragments of pre-existing rocks and /or minerals
and /or shell fragments.
Crystalline consisting of crystals that have been
precipitated from solution, which are locked
together like the pieces of three – dimensional
Organic mainly composed of well – preserved
organic debris, such as plants, shells or bones.
Famous Igneous rocks
Igneous Rocks Textures
Granular consisting of crystal grains that are
enough to be easily seen by the naked eye, the
grains varying in size.
Glassy composed of volcanic glass, sometimes
the glass may be streaky.
Aplanatic made up of tiny crystals, which can
only be identified using a microscope or
powerful hand lens, they give the rock flow
Metamorphic Rocks Textures
Slaty finely crystalline rock in which minerals,
such as mica, are aligned parallel to one another,
which means that the rock splits readily along
the mica cleavage planes.
Hornfels compact, finely grained rock that
shatters into sharply angular fragments.
Banded components occur in well - defined
Famous Metamorphic rocks
What is Gemstones ?
Some minerals have been valued throughout history for
their beauty, durability and rarity . These are
Gemstones, fashioned to be worn as jewelry, used to
decorate objects, exquisitely carved to be admired, or
collected to impress. If they are rarely found, they
become classed as precious stones. The total value of
gemstones, in general depends on several criteria.
These are :-
9. Special Properties
Shells are produced by animals belonging to
the phylum Mollusca. Mollusca are found in a
wide variety of habitats, from the deepest
ocean basins to the highest mountain tops, and
there is great diversity of forms not only
among classes but also among species of the
What is Shell ?
What is Fossil ?
Fossils are the preserved remains or traces of
animals, plants, and other organisms from the