“SMELL TURNS UP IN UNEXPECTED PLACES”
NYTimes, Science Section, October 14 2014
http://nyti.ms/1vnulsF
INTRODUCTION
“Over the last decade or so, scientists have discovered that odor receptors are not
solely confined to the no...
THE RESEARCH
• “A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human
Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Re...
OLFACTION
• Non-olfactory chemo-reception
• “The presence of scent receptors outside the nose may seem odd at first, but a...
OLFACTION
“Think of olfactory receptors as a lock-and-key system, with an odor molecule
the key to the receptor’s lock. On...
IMPLICATIONS
“ [Dr. Hatt] has since identified olfactory receptors in several other organs, including
the liver, heart, lu...
IN NATURE
• Non-olfactory Chemo-reception
• Insects (Evolutionary Pioneers
SAFETY
• Olfactory Epithelium (6x cell types, 10cm squared surface area,
• Mucous is a natural solvent
• How this data is ...
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Nano Safety PPT - olfaction

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nano Safety PPT - olfaction

  • 1. “SMELL TURNS UP IN UNEXPECTED PLACES” NYTimes, Science Section, October 14 2014 http://nyti.ms/1vnulsF
  • 2. INTRODUCTION “Over the last decade or so, scientists have discovered that odor receptors are not solely confined to the nose, but found throughout body — in the liver, the heart, the kidneys and even sperm — where they play a pivotal role in a host of physiological functions. Now, a team of biologists at Ruhr University Bochum in Germany has found that our skin is bristling with olfactory receptors. “More than 15 of the olfactory receptors that exist in the nose are also found in human skin cells,” said the lead researcher, Dr. Hanns Hatt.” ( Stone)
  • 3. THE RESEARCH • “A Synthetic Sandalwood Odorant Induces Wound-Healing Processes in Human Keratinocytes via the Olfactory Receptor OR2AT4” • Journal of Investigative Dermatology (2014) 134, 2823–2832; doi:10.1038/jid.2014.273; published online 7 August 2014 • “As the outermost barrier of the body, the skin is exposed to multiple environmental factors, including temperature, humidity, mechanical stress, and chemical stimuli such as odorants that are often used in cosmetic articles. • We cloned and functionally expressed the cutaneous OR, OR2AT4, and identified Sandalore, a synthetic sandalwood odorant, as an agonist of this receptor. • Moreover, the long-term stimulation of keratinocytes with Sandalore positively affected cell proliferation and migration, and regeneration of keratinocyte monolayers in an in vitro wound scratch assay.”
  • 4. OLFACTION • Non-olfactory chemo-reception • “The presence of scent receptors outside the nose may seem odd at first, but as Dr. Hatt and others have observed, odor receptors are among the most evolutionarily ancient chemical sensors in the body, capable of detecting a multitude of compounds, not solely those drifting through the air. • “If you think of olfactory receptors as specialized chemical detectors, instead of as receptors in your nose that detect smell, then it makes a lot of sense for them to be in other places,” said Jennifer Pluznick, an assistant professor of physiology at Johns Hopkins University who in 2009 found that olfactory receptors help control metabolic function and regulate blood pressure in the kidneys of mice). (Stone)
  • 5. OLFACTION “Think of olfactory receptors as a lock-and-key system, with an odor molecule the key to the receptor’s lock. Only certain molecules fit with certain receptors. When the right molecule comes along and alights on the matching receptor, it sets in motion an elaborate choreography of biochemical reactions. Inside the nose, this culminates in a nerve signal being sent to brain, which we perceive as odor. But the same apparatus can fulfill other biological functions as well.” (Stone)
  • 6. IMPLICATIONS “ [Dr. Hatt] has since identified olfactory receptors in several other organs, including the liver, heart, lungs, colon and brain. In fact, genetic evidence suggests that nearly every organ in the body contains olfactory receptors. “I’ve been arguing for the importance of these receptors for years,” said Dr. Hatt, who calls himself an ambassador of smell, and whose favorite aromas are basil, thyme and rosemary. “It was a hard fight.” But researchers have gradually awakened to the biological importance of these molecular sniffers and the promise they hold for the diagnosis and treatment of disease.” (Stone)
  • 7. IN NATURE • Non-olfactory Chemo-reception • Insects (Evolutionary Pioneers
  • 8. SAFETY • Olfactory Epithelium (6x cell types, 10cm squared surface area, • Mucous is a natural solvent • How this data is encoded in the brain, or even reach the brain, is unknown • But the chemical structure and receptors and odorants are usually known • Threshold? • “Molecules perceived at low concentrations are more lipid soluble” * • What odorants are antagonizing our biology that we do not perceive as ‘smell’? • Environment sources? (VOC’s and gases/compounds we don’t perceive) • Synthetic sources? And applications? (Sandalore like compounds)

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