Population Explosion in India
Population Explosion in India
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Transcripts - Population Explosion in India
Population Explosion: Current
status and Strategies of Govt.
of India to address the issue
Presenter- Dr. Jitendra
Moderator- Dr. G. S. Meena
Plan of presentation
• Historical background
• Demographic transition
• India : present scenario
• Predictors of rapid population growth
• Family planning- methods , Indian situation
• Govt. strategies- NPP 2000, JSK etc
• SWOT analysis
What is population ?
• All organisms that both belong to the same group or
species and live in the same geographical area.
• In sociology, population refers to a collection of human
Population explosion – “a pyramiding of numbers of a
biological population” .
The population change is calculated by the formula:
Population change = (Births + Immigration) – (Deaths
• Its Boon for a developed country
• But, its Curse for developing country
• 1798: Essay on the Principle of Population as it Affects the Future
Improvement of Society .
– Population growth tends to outstrip the means of
– Food increases arithmetically while population
India pop. Density (2011) – 382/km(sq.)
11 1 1
2.4% world’s land area
• Change from stable population with high fertility and
mortality to a new stability in population due to low fertility
Phase BR-DR Trend
First phase fall in death rate Population growth
Second phase fall in birth rate less steep
than fall in death rates
Third phase death rates plateau,
replacement level Birth
Fourth phase fall in birth rate to below
Fifth phase further fall in birth rate Population decline
Countries go through five stages of population growth
These are shown by the Demographic transition model (DTM)
Poorer, less developed countries are in the earlier stages of the DTM, whilst
richer more developed countries are in the later stages.
• Our world population is rapidly growing.
– Today: Over 7 billion people and on the rise…..
• Increased immigration / lack of migration (urbanization)
• Lack of education and contraceptive use
• Medical advancement etc.
• Global Warming – Natural
disasters, sea level rising
• Lack of natural resources
• Lack of freshwater
• Services like Healthcare and education cant
cope with the rapid increase in population , so
not everyone has access to them.
• Children have to work to help support their
large families , so they miss out on education.
• There aren't enough houses for everyone, so
people are forced to live in makeshift houses
in Overcrowded settlements. This leads to
health problems because the houses aren't
always connected to sewers or they don’t have
access to clean water.
• There are Food shortages if the country cant
grow or import enough food for the population.
• Most of the population is made up of
Young people so the government
focuses on policies that are important
to young people e.g. education and
provision of things such as childcare.
• There are fewer older people so the
government doesn’t have to focus on
policies that are important to Older
people e.g. pensions.
• The government has to make Policies
to bring population growth under
control so the social and economic
impacts of rapid population growth
don’t get any worse.
• There aren't enough jobs for the number of
people in the country so Unemployment
• There is increased Poverty because more
people are born into families that are already
India Present Situation
• High proportion of its population in
agriculture (62%), and reside in rural
• High CBR: 22.1/1000 (2010)
• Low CDR: 7.2/1000
• TFR- 2.55
• Current Population of India in 2012 -
1,220,200,000 (1.22 billion)
• Age structure 0 to 25 years - 51% of India's
current population (2010)
• 940 females per 1000 males in 2011
• With the population growth rate at 1.58%,
India is predicted to have more than 1.53
billion people by the end of 2030
High Birth Rate Low Death Rate Migration
Predictors of rapid population growth
High Birth rate
The current rate of population growth in India is 1.58% and
the total fertility rate is 2.55. (2013)
Unmet need for family planning- < 20ys (27.1%), 20-24
Around 50 % of population lie in reproductive age bracket.
Early puberty (12-14yrs)
Low female literacy rate (65.5%)
“More than 300 million Indians earn less than RS.50/-
everyday and about 130 million people are jobless.”
Low standards of living
The vicious cycle
High Birth rate
Religious beliefs, Traditions and Cultural Norms:
In Islam, one of the leading religions of India, children are
considered to be gifts of God, and so the more children a woman
has, the more she is respected in her family and society.
A lot of families prefer having a son rather than a daughter. As a
result, a lot of families have more children than they actually
want or can afford, resulting in increased poverty, lack of
resources, and most importantly, an increased population.
India’s cultural norms is Universal Marriage and girl to get
married at an early age. In most of the rural areas and in some
urban areas as well, families prefer to get their girls Early
married at the age of 14 or 15.
High population growth
• The current high population growth rate is due to:
(1) the large size in the Reproductive age-group (estimated
(2) higher fertility due to Unmet need for contraception
(estimated contribution 20%); and
(3) High wanted fertility due to prevailing high IMR (estimated
contribution about 20%).
• Approximately 50 percent of the girls marry below the age of
18 years, resulting in a typical reproductive pattern of –
• “too early, too frequent, too many.”
• More children are preferred by poor parents as more
Map of countries by fertility rate:
India's fertility rate is lower than some countries in its neighborhood, but
significantly higher than CHINA, BURMA, IRAN & SRI LANKA.
Low Death rate
o The crude death rate in India in 1981 was approximately
12.5, and that decreased to approximately 7.4 deaths/1,000
o Also, the infant mortality rate in India decreased from 129
in 1981 to approximately 44.6 (2013).
o The average life expectancy of people in India has increased
from 52.9 in 1975-80 to 68.7 years (2013).
o Better public health, medical advances, improved living
The migration in India currently is -0.05
migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.), and is
However in large countries like- India, immigration
plays a very small role in the population change.
People from neighbouring countries like Bangladesh,
Pakistan and Nepal, migrate to India; at the same time
Indians migrate to other countries like the U.S.,
Australia, and the U.K.
Internal migration : Urbanisation
Why population control ??
• A quickly regenerating population
exacerbates shortages of food and
• the nation’s long-term growth will be
hampered by a less healthy therefore
less productive work force,
• greater demand for natural resource
• a higher level of environmental
degradation resulting from such
METHODS OF FAMILY
IUCD (copper T)
Scope of family planning
• Proper spacing and limitation of birth
• Advice on sterility
• Education for parenthood
• Sex education
• Screening for reproductive diseases
• Genetic counseling
• Premarital counseling, consultations
• Pregnancy test
• Marriage counseling
• Home economics and education
• Adoption services
India - Family
• India tried unsuccessfully in the 70s to use compulsory
sterilization one of the causes for Mrs Gandhi's defeat at the polls in 1977.
• In the 1980’s, India began focusing on the sterilization of
women. Today, this is the most widely practiced form of family
Basic premises of the Family Welfare Programme are:
1. • Acceptance of FW services is voluntary,
2. • Integrated Maternal and Child Health (MCH) & FP services
3. • Effective IEC to improve awareness
4. • Ensure easy and convenient access to FW services free of cost
Elements of success in family
1. Accessible services
3. Client centered care
4. Evidence based technical
5. Effective communication
6. Efficient logistics
7. Work for supportive
8. Coordination and
9. High performing staff
10.Adequate budget and
11.Evidence based decision
12.Strong leadership and
• In the (1965-2009) period, contraceptive
usage has more than tripled (from 13%
of married women in 1970 to 56% in
2011) and the fertility rate more than
halved (from 5.7 in 1966 to 2.7 in 2011).
• Seven Indian states have TFR dipped
below the 2.1 replacement rate level and
are no longer contributing to Indian
population growth - Andhra Pradesh, Goa,
Tamil Nadu, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala,
Punjab and Sikkim.
Current scenario India
• Meghalaya, at 20%, had the lowest usage of
contraception among all Indian states. Bihar
and Uttar Pradesh were the other two states
that reported usage below 30%.
• Four Indian states have fertility rates above
3.5 - Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Meghalaya and
Nagaland. Of these, Bihar has a fertility rate
of 4.0, the highest of any Indian state.
Centre Dep't. of
WHY THERE IS A NEED FOR POPULATION
POLICY IN INDIA?
NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY-2000
DEMOGRAPHIC ACHIEVEMENTS OF INDIA BEFORE
• Reduced Crude Birth Rate from 40.8 (1951) to 26.4 (1998,SRS);
• Halved the Infant Mortality Rate from 146 per 1000 live births (1951) to
72 per 1000 live births (1998, SRS);
• Quadrupled the Couple Protection Rate from 10.4 percent (1971) to 44
• Reduced Crude Death Rate from 25 (1951) to 9.0 (1998, SRS);
• Added 25 years to life-expectancy from 37 years to 62 years;
• Achieved nearly universal awareness of the need for and methods of
• Reduced Total Fertility Rate from 6.0 (1951) to 3.3 (1997, SRS)
MILESTONES IN THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE NATIONAL
• The Sub committee on Population , appointed by the National Planning Committee,
considered ‘ Family Planning and limitation of children’ essential for the interest of
social economy, family happiness and national planning
• The Bhore Committee reported that control of disease and famine would cause a
serious problem of population growth.
• First Five Year Plan recognized ‘ population policy’as an ‘essential to planning’ and
‘family planning’ as a ‘step towards improvement in health of mothers and children’.
• Launching of the first National Family Planning Programme in India.
• Statement of 1st National Population Policy, by Shri K. Singh, Minister of Health
and Family planning, to deter population growth and events that contributed to it.
• A revised Population Policy Statement was tabled on Parliament. It emphasized the
voluntary nature of the family planning programme. The term ‘Family Welfare’
replaced the term ‘Family Planning’.
• The National Health Policy emphasized “securing the small family norm, through
voluntary efforts and moving towards the goal of population stabilization”
• NDC , in 1993 proposed the formulation of a National Population Policy to take
• “a long term holistic view of development, population growth and environmental
protection”,“to suggest policies and guidelines” “ a monitoring mechanism with short,
medium and long term goals”
• An expert group headed by Dr. M.S. Swaminathan –asked to prepare draft of a
National Population Policy to be discussed.
• Report on a ‘National Population Policy’ by the expert group circulated among
members, and comments sought from the state and central agencies
• On 50th anniversary of Indian independence , Prime Minister, I K Gujral promised to
announce a National Population Policy in near future.
• The GOM then finalized a draft, placed before the Cabinet, discussed on 19th November
NATIONAL POPULATION POLICY
OF INDIA- 2000
4 New Structures
12 Strategic Themes
14 National Socio-demographic Goals (2010)
16 Promotional and Motivational Measures
OBJECTIVES OF THE NATIONAL POPULATION
• IMMEDIATE OBJECTIVE :
1. To address the unmet needs for contraception,
2. Imporove Health care infrastructure and health personnel
3. To provide integrated service delivery for basic reproductive
and child health care.
• MEDIUM TERM OBJECTIVE:
1. To bring the TFR to replacement level by 2010 through
vigorous implementation of intersectoral operational
• LONG TERM OBJECTIVE:
1. Achieve a stable population by 2045 at a level consistent with
requirement of sustainable economic growth, social
development and environmental protection.
NATIONAL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC GOALS
Address the unmet needs for basic RCH services.
Make school education up to age 14 years free and compulsory, and reduce
drop outs rate from primary and secondary school levels to below 20 percent for
both boys and girls.
Promote delayed marriage for girls, at age not less than 18,and preferable after
Achieve universal access to information/ counseling services for fertility
regulation and contraceptive with wide basket of choices
Promote small family norm to achieve replacement level of Total Fertility Rate
Bring about convergence in implementation of related social sector programmes so
that family welfare become people centered programmed
Diverse health care providers, Collaboration with the commitments from private
agencies and NGOs and Involvement of Indian system of medicine in delivery of
Contraceptive technology and research in RCH
Providing health care and support for the older population
Information, Education and Communication .
NATIONAL SOCIO-DEMOGRAPHIC GOALS
MAJOR STRATEGIC THEMES FOR THE NPP-
1. Decentralized planning and programme implementation
2. Availability of services delivery at village levels
3. Empowering women for improved health and nutrition
4. Child survival and child health
5. Meeting the unmet needs for Family Welfare Services
6. Greater emphasis for underserved population group
Strategy shift in family planning
1970- Do ya Teen bas
1980- Hum do Humare do
PROMOTIONALAND MOTIVATIONAL MEASURES
FOR ADOPTION OF THE SMALL FAMILY NORM:
• Panchayats and Zila Parishads are rewarded and honoured for exemplary
• Balilka Samridhi Yojana (Department of Women and Child Development) provide
cash incentive of Rs.500 at the birth of the girl child of birth order 1 or 2.
• Maternity Benefit Scheme (Department of Rural Development) provide cash
incentive to mothers who have their first child after 19 years of age, for birth of the
1 and 2 child only.
• Couples below the poverty line are rewarded for their active involvement in
Family Planning activities.
• Village- level self help groups & NGO ( janani, pathfinder, parivar seva
• Creches and child care centers in rural and urban slums.
• A wider and affordable choice of contraceptives made accessible.
• Facilities for safe abortion be strengthened under MTP act.
• Innovative social marketing schemes be promoted.
• Increased vocational training schemes for girls, leading to self-
employment be encouraged.
• Strict enforcement of the Child Marriage Restraint Act, 1976.
• Strict enforcement of the Pre-Natal Diagnostic Act, 1994.
• 9th Amendment Bill of 1992 disqualify a person for being a member of
either house of legislature of a state, if he/she has more than 2 children.
PROMOTIONALAND MOTIVATIONAL MEASURES
FOR ADOPTION OF THE SMALL FAMILY NORM:
MEASURES FOR ADOPTION OF THE SMALL
• A Family Welfare linked Health Insurance plan. – for acceptors
and indemnity cover(Rs 2 lac) for doctors in accredited facilities.
Compensation Death : < 7 days (Rs 2 lac), 8-30 (Rs 50,000), <60
days (Rs 25,000) in Failure (Rs 30,000)
• All India Hospital postpartum programme (AIHPP)
• Cash Incentives – for acceptors- tubectomy [Rs 600, 145(lap)],
vasectomy (Rs 1100), IUD (Rs 75). For motivators – tubectomy (Rs
150), vasectomy (Rs 200).
• State/ central govt. Employees get special increments after
sterilization with special leaves.
• Village self help groups to organize and
provide basic services for RCH care ,
with the on going ICDS scheme.
• Implement at village Anganwadi centre ,
a one-stop integrated and coordinated
service delivery package for basic
health care, family planning,
contraceptive counseling and supply
and MCH care.
• Provide wider basket of choices in
contraception through innovative social
marketing schemes to reach household
• Focus attention on men to promote the
small family norm.
PROPOSED ACTIVITIES AND INTERVENTIONS
1. Compulsory acceptance of two child norm for individual benefits in
government jobs . For subsidies , Condition for government jobs,
2. Performance of family welfare in their area to be part of officer’s
assessment at various levels.
3. Organization of FW camps with financial assistance from cooperative
societies, sugar factories & other industrial establishments.
4. Strict implementation of existing acts and policies such as child
marriage act, prenatal sex determination act, birth and death
5. Acceptance of small family norm as a condition for qualifying for
elections to various bodies such as Zilla Parishad, Panchayat Samiti,
Cooperative societies etc
National Commission on
Formulated on 11th May 2000, Reconstituted on Feb 2005
Chairman, Deputy Chairman, 2 vice Chairman, Secretary.
First Meeting-23rd July 2005- Survey of all District to identify
the weakness in Health Care Delivery System.
State Population Commission
Janasankhya Sthirata Kosh
Aims & objectives
• To review, monitor and give directions for the
implementation of the National Population Policy
• To promote synergy between demographic, educational,
environmental and developmental programmes.
• To promote intersectoral co-ordination in planning and
To facilitate goals, support projects, schemes, initiatives and to
introduce innovative ideas, both in government and voluntary
Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh
(Population Stabilisation Fund)
• Jansankhya Sthirata Kosh (JSK), also known as National Population
Stabilisation Fund, is an autonomous body under the Ministry of
Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), created in 2003 on the
recommendations of the National Commission of Population.
• It has been formed to ensure that population stabilization remains
an important area of focus in the national agenda. To enable this,
GOI has provided Rs. 100 crore as corpus fund to signify its
commitment to the activities of the Kosh.
• JSK’s work is managed by a Governing Board, the members of
which include both government and non-government
• The main areas of JSK’s advocacy efforts are addressing social
norms on son preference, age at marriage and birth of first
child, spacing between children, as well as ensuring state
prioritization of family planning and reproductive health.
• Under the National Rural Health Mission, a new
comprehensive strategy, called the Reproductive
Maternal Newborn and Child Health plus Adolescent
Health (RMNCH+A), has been launched recently.
• Family planning is an integral and cross-cutting
component of this strategy that covers adolescent,
maternal and child health.
• In order to operationalise this strategy, GOI has launched
many schemes to strengthen the family planning
component, such as the delivery of contraceptives by
ASHAs at the doorstep, for which the ASHAs receive
compensation for promoting spacing methods too.
• FPAI, FP foundation, Population council of India,
Indian red cross, IMA, Rotary club, Lions club,
Christian missionaries and Pvt. Hospitals.
• International planned parenthood foundation,
UNFPA,USAID, The population council, Ford
foundation, Path finder fund, WHO, UNICEF and
GOI new strategies family planning
a. Sterilization services
b. ‘Quality Assurance Committees’ (QACs) in states and
districts to ensure quality of services
c. Increasing Male Participation In Planned Parenthood,
including ‘No Scalpel Vasectomy’ (NSV):
d. Promotion of IUD-380-A as a long-term and short-term
e. Operationalising ‘Fixed Day Static’ (FDS) services
f. Promotion of emergency contraceptive pills
g. Promotion of Post Partum Family Planning
h. Strengthening contraceptive logistics
Impact Of Family Welfare
Nearly 98% of women and 99% of men in
the age group of 15 and 49 have a good
knowledge about one or more methods of
contraception. Adolescents seem to be well
aware of the modern methods of contraception.
Over 97% of women and 95% of men are
knowledgeable about female sterilization,
which is the most popular modern permanent
method of family planning. While only 79%
of women and 80% of men have heard about
93% of men have awareness about the usage
of condoms while only 74% of women are
aware of the same.
Around 80% of men and women have a fair
knowledge about contraceptive pills.
Family Planning Performance
• The year 2010-11 ended with 34.9 million
family planning acceptors at national level
• 5.0 million Sterilizations,
• 5.6 million IUD insertions,
• 16.0 million condom users,
• 8.3 million O.P. users
• family planning : Assam, Bihar, Gujarat,
Jharkhand, Uttar Pradesh, Arunachal Pradesh,
Delhi, Goa, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Sikkim, D&N
Haveli reported better performance than
• Number of Births Prevented: Implementation
of various Family Planning measures prevented
16.335 million births in the country during
2010-11 as compared to 16.605 million in 2009-
10. The cumulative total of births avoided in
the country up to 2010-11 was 442.75 million.
Source:Family Welfare Statistics in India - 2011 & CensusIndia.gov
Availability of services delivery at village levels through ASHA,
Greater emphasis for underserved population and high risk group
Collaboration with the commitments from private agencies and
New Contraceptive technology and research
1. 49% of the increase in projected population in India
will be contributed by the six major states of North India
(UP, Bihar, MP, Rajasthan, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand) ,
2. Contraceptive prevalence rate (for any modern
contraceptive) India average is 46.2% .
3. Non availability of trained service providers at peripheral
health facility to provide regular quality FP services.
4. Lack of motivation of the staff to provide Family planning
5. Less focus on Post partum family planning services.
1. Health care centers are inaccessible to rural areas and poor
2. Urban areas lack of organized public health services delivery
3. Pre-acceptance and post-acceptance check-ups are infrequent
4. Early sterilizations.
5. Unavailability of sufficient supply of contraceptives at the
6. Early marriage and teenage pregnancy
Improve access to FP services
Improve quality of FP services
Diversify contraceptive choices
Make FP an integral part of MCH strategy
Use FP as a powerful poverty reduction strategy
Enhance awareness, dispel fears/ disinformation (IEC)
Promote Intersectoral Convergence
Appreciate FP as a health, development and rights issue.
Strong political will and advocacy at the highest levels, e.g. Chief
Ministers, parliamentarians, religious leaders and opinion leaders, for
achieving population stabilization.
Fixed day static services at all facilities round the year by ensuring
availability of trained service provider (Minilap, NSV, IUCD).
Revitalising Postpartum Family Planning services for all institutional
Community Based Distribution of Contraceptives (Condoms, OCPs,
EC Pills) through ASHAs and at VHNDs.
Increasing basket of choices in contraceptives e.g. injectables, male
Train more MBBS doctors in Minilap to augment service providers pool –
focus on States with high unmet need. Involve AYUSH doctors in FP
initiative – incentivize them.
Integrate FP training into pre service education for doctors including
AYUSH, ANMs, GNMs and pharmacists.
Decentralizing procurement of contraceptives to ensure regular, adequate
and need based supply.
Strengthening monitoring and providing performance based incentives
Private sector involvement for increasing provider base e.g. voucher &
electronic transfer of incentive money; re-evaluating their incentive
Renewed emphasis on IEC/BCC for generating demand for FP. Involving
ICTCs for educating and counselling adolescents on reproductive health
Launch the Adolescent initiative – make reproductive and sexual
health, and pre- marriage and contraception counseling important
Make FP progress an important conditionality for NRHM releases
(e.g. upto 10%).
Sensitization meetings of all the stakeholders.
For 12th Plan, get FP included in Education, WCD,YA , HRD
policies and plans.
Constitute a National Steering Group under HFM with HRD, WCD,
and YA as members for effective convergence; and State Steering
Committees under CMs.
Uneducated Women: Success of family planning – depends on
women – need to be educated – to decide – number of children –
aware of available family planning programs. But in India –
educating women – very difficult – due to – family problems –
religious and social norms
Religious influences: As told before – in Islam – children are
considered – gift of god – don’t believe – birth control measures. In
Catholics – abortion – considered a sin – don’t follow family
Deficient IEC: Most population – rural areas – family planning – not
advertised – also religious and social norms – more in rural areas –
as a result – above mentioned problems – more intense – in addition
– lack of family planning facilities.
Slower rates of population growth will benefit all aspects of
• Widely differing rates of population growth in different
parts of the country ( state dependency )
• High cost and expenditure : The expenditure of the
Department of Family Welfare was about Rs 6 per eligible
couple protected in 1974-75 which increased to Rs 718 in
2010-11 at the current prices. Average real expenditure per
new acceptor is Rs 2789 (2010-11)
• National population Commission is largely dysfunctional
and subsumed with MOHFW and Today, family planning
efforts are just one of the many activities under the
reproductive and child health component of the National
Rural Health Mission
• Butler C. 1994. Overpopulation, overconsumption, and economics. Lancet, 343: 582-
• National Health Policy Document, New Delhi, 2000. Govt. of India. Ministry of Health
and Family Welfare.
• Eleventh Five Year Plan 2007-2012. Planning Commission,Govt. of India, New Delhi.
• Agarwal S. Public Health and Community Medicine Related Policies in India. Textbook
of Public Health and Community Medicine, Dept of Community Medicine, AFMC, Pune
in collaboration with WHO, India office, New Delhi; 1st edition,2009
• Rapid population growth. Consequences and policy implications vol II UNFPA
• Park’s Text book preventive and social medicine. 21st ed.
• India and Family Planning: An Overview, Department of Family and Community
Health, World Health Organization, retrieved 2009-11-25.
• Strategy Paper on Family Welfare – Gupta. A, Nair. L
• THANK YOU !!
China One Child Policy
• 1979 “one child” policy enacted
– For urban areas
• Material benefits
– if have 1 child
• Social & official pressure
– If have more than 1 child
• 71% Chinese are rural
– Multiple children are common
• Fertility rate has declined
– But also declined in other Asian
countries without coersion
• Human rights violation?
monetary incentive if they decide to
postpone plans for a child for at least two
years after marriage. The government is
offering Rs5000 or $106, a significant sum
in India’s rural areas, if they agree to its
rules. Dubbed ‘honeymoon packages,’ the
program was first launched in Satara,
Maharashtra, a state in Western India, with
already more than 2000 couples reported to
have enrolled for the program, according
to The New York Times.