Jo Gakonga
What has grammar
teaching ever done for us?
Why does
teaching
grammar get a
bad press?
Illustrations from Jan, J.M. & Ollúa, R. (1950) El Inglés Práctico;
Comercio, Exámenes y Viajes, Buenos Aires: Academias P...
Do we need to
teach grammar
at all?
Catherine Walter
IATEFL Plenary 2011
Should we be planning to teach grammar?
http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2011/sites/...
Do we need to
‘teach’
anything?
Krashen's Input Hypothesis (1977)
"Language acquisition does not
require extensive use of conscious
grammatical rules”
Stephen Krashen
"Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in
the target language in which speakers are
concerned not with the form of t...
"The best methods are therefore those that
supply 'comprehensible input' containing
messages that students really want to ...
"The best methods are therefore those that
supply 'comprehensible input' containing
messages that students really want to ...
Monitor theory
Introduced in 1965 to give English
speaking Canadian children a
chance to learn French
“Practice" is replaced by "creative
construction”. Learners encouraged to
experiment with linguistic forms.
Errors are not seen as bad
Canadian immersion studies
(Swain 1985; Genesee 1987).
The result?
Immersion students often perform as
well as native French-speaking students
on tests of reading and listening
comprehensio...
However, they seldom achieve the same
high levels of competence in speaking
and writing as they achieve in
comprehension.
Three problems:
Grammar is less complex and less redundant
than that of native speakers.
Their grammar is influenced by E...
BUT…..
Of significance for
ESOL learners
Common ground
Significant amounts of exposure
A real need to communicate
(Paucity of opportunity to speak?)
Common ground
So, explicit
teaching is
necessary….
Should we forget
grammar and only
teach vocabulary?
Vocabulary is arguably more important
Should we forget
grammar and only
teach vocabulary?
Michael Hoey – Lexical Priming
Should we forget
grammar and only
teach vocabulary?
Lexical Approach – Michael Lewis
Should we forget
grammar and only
teach vocabulary?
..but do they get enough exposure?
Evidence to
support grammar
teaching?
meta-analysis
Norris and
Ortega (2000)
meta-analysis
Gass and
Selinker (2008)
meta-analysis
Spada and
Tomita (2010)
Other reasons to
teach grammar?
Conscious
knowledge of
grammar is seen
to help at
Ellis 1994 different stages.
Pretty much all course
books based on it
Learners’ expectations
Seen as very traditional but…
Different / less traditional approaches
all include grammar
Task Based Learning
Jane and Dave Willis
Learners do task and rehearse their
language to present to group
Learners present what they have
practised
Teacher gives ...
Task Based Learning
Language
Output
input
Proponents of task-based
teaching all argue for a
place for pre-planned
grammar instruction in a
TBI framework.
Skehan, 2...
Dogme
Luke Meddings and Scott Thornberry
Suggests emergent language but still doesn’t
suggest no language teaching
Dogme
Luke Meddings and Scott Thornberry
Possible problems – coverage and teacher skill
Do we need to
teach grammar?
YES
What I am
NOT saying…..
If we teach
grammar, how
should we do it?
If we teach
grammar, how
should we do it?
Getting creative with
grammar teaching
Thank you!
Jo Gakonga
of 52

NALA 2013 - What has grammar teaching ever done for us?

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NALA 2013 - What has grammar teaching ever done for us?

  • 1. Jo Gakonga
  • 2. What has grammar teaching ever done for us?
  • 3. Why does teaching grammar get a bad press?
  • 4. Illustrations from Jan, J.M. & Ollúa, R. (1950) El Inglés Práctico; Comercio, Exámenes y Viajes, Buenos Aires: Academias Pitman.
  • 5. Do we need to teach grammar at all?
  • 6. Catherine Walter IATEFL Plenary 2011 Should we be planning to teach grammar? http://iatefl.britishcouncil.org/2011/sites/iatefl/files/session /documents/walter_grammar_iatefl2011_handout.pdf
  • 7. Do we need to ‘teach’ anything?
  • 8. Krashen's Input Hypothesis (1977)
  • 9. "Language acquisition does not require extensive use of conscious grammatical rules” Stephen Krashen
  • 10. "Acquisition requires meaningful interaction in the target language in which speakers are concerned not with the form of their utterances but with the messages they are conveying and understanding."
  • 11. "The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' containing messages that students really want to hear.”
  • 12. "The best methods are therefore those that supply 'comprehensible input' containing messages that students really want to hear.” i+1
  • 13. Monitor theory
  • 14. Introduced in 1965 to give English speaking Canadian children a chance to learn French
  • 15. “Practice" is replaced by "creative construction”. Learners encouraged to experiment with linguistic forms.
  • 16. Errors are not seen as bad
  • 17. Canadian immersion studies (Swain 1985; Genesee 1987).
  • 18. The result?
  • 19. Immersion students often perform as well as native French-speaking students on tests of reading and listening comprehension in French.
  • 20. However, they seldom achieve the same high levels of competence in speaking and writing as they achieve in comprehension.
  • 21. Three problems: Grammar is less complex and less redundant than that of native speakers. Their grammar is influenced by English grammar. Their use of language is often non-idiomatic
  • 22. BUT…..
  • 23. Of significance for ESOL learners
  • 24. Common ground
  • 25. Significant amounts of exposure A real need to communicate (Paucity of opportunity to speak?) Common ground
  • 26. So, explicit teaching is necessary….
  • 27. Should we forget grammar and only teach vocabulary? Vocabulary is arguably more important
  • 28. Should we forget grammar and only teach vocabulary? Michael Hoey – Lexical Priming
  • 29. Should we forget grammar and only teach vocabulary? Lexical Approach – Michael Lewis
  • 30. Should we forget grammar and only teach vocabulary? ..but do they get enough exposure?
  • 31. Evidence to support grammar teaching?
  • 32. meta-analysis Norris and Ortega (2000)
  • 33. meta-analysis Gass and Selinker (2008)
  • 34. meta-analysis Spada and Tomita (2010)
  • 35. Other reasons to teach grammar?
  • 36. Conscious knowledge of grammar is seen to help at Ellis 1994 different stages.
  • 37. Pretty much all course books based on it
  • 38. Learners’ expectations
  • 39. Seen as very traditional but…
  • 40. Different / less traditional approaches all include grammar
  • 41. Task Based Learning Jane and Dave Willis
  • 42. Learners do task and rehearse their language to present to group Learners present what they have practised Teacher gives input on the ‘gap’.
  • 43. Task Based Learning Language Output input
  • 44. Proponents of task-based teaching all argue for a place for pre-planned grammar instruction in a TBI framework. Skehan, 2003; Willis & Willis, 2007; Ellis, 2006
  • 45. Dogme Luke Meddings and Scott Thornberry Suggests emergent language but still doesn’t suggest no language teaching
  • 46. Dogme Luke Meddings and Scott Thornberry Possible problems – coverage and teacher skill
  • 47. Do we need to teach grammar? YES
  • 48. What I am NOT saying…..
  • 49. If we teach grammar, how should we do it?
  • 50. If we teach grammar, how should we do it?
  • 51. Getting creative with grammar teaching
  • 52. Thank you! Jo Gakonga