Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 2 Modern World Governments – Fall 2012Power Point Presentation – November 6th & No...
COURSE LECTURE TOPICSThis Week’s Lecture Covers:•Nigeria Current Policy Challenges The Effects Of History Environ...
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #11 (2) Nigeria In Africa And In The World Prospects For Development•United States •Current P...
COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #11 (3)•American Exceptionalism? oManifest Destiny oCosmopolitanism
COUNTRY BIO: NIGERIA (1)
COUNTRY BIO: NIGERIA (2)• Population: 130 million • Religion:• Territory: 356,668 sq. miles ...
BACKGROUND (1)• Nigeria = megastate in the African context• Major country – One-fifth of the people in Africa – The worl...
BACKGROUND (2)• Traditions – Large scale emirates in north – Small kingdoms and village-level republics in the South ...
CLIMATE ZONES
PROJECTED POPULATION
CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (1)• Nigeria – question of the future of the country• Divisions have intensified in recent years...
CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (2)• 1999: Nigeria returned to formal civilian rule when Olusegun Obasanjo was elected presiden...
THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY• Effects of precolonial events – Early empires of Nigeria – Igbo – Hausa – Fulani – Hausa-Fula...
THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY: COLONIAL INTERLUDE (1)• 1900-1960• Lugard- architect of colonial Nigeria• Conference of B...
THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY: COLONIAL INTERLUDE (2)• Entity in 1914 – Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos ...
THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY• Nigerian Independence – October 1, 1960 • Two year honeymoon period • Conflict: tore apar...
CHIEF EXECUTIVES
CREATION OF STATES
ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIAL & LIMITATIONS (1)• Agricultural production• Sale of primary commodities• Disease• Populati...
ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIAL & LIMITATIONS (2)• Urbanization• Petroleum – Niger delta basin (8% of the country) – Biafra – M...
POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (1)• Ethnic identity – Hausa-Fulani • Mostly northern half of Nigeria...
POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (2)• Nigerian nationalism – Three major sources • Freed slaves from N.A. ot...
POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (3)• Political role of women – Position of women varies immensely – In general...
POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION• The family – Polygamy – Kinship/sense of identity• Schools• Mass media – One third of peopl...
POLITICAL RECRUITMENT• Northerners have dominated the leadership of the country under military and civilian rule.• Milita...
ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION
ELECTION RESULTS
POLITICAL STRUCTURE (1)• Constitution of 1999 – Election of 1993 – Succession of military regimes• Federalism – Three l...
POLITICAL STRUCTURE (2)• Parliamentary vs. presidential government – Nigerian pluralism; lack of trust by subcultures...
POLITICAL STRUCTURE (3)• Judiciary – Federal and state courts are integrated into a single system of trial and appeal ...
INTEREST ARTICULATION• Ethnic and religious associations – MOSOP• Associational groups – Often by sector – Universit...
POLITICAL PARTICIPATION• Great range in activity – Voting – Civil war – Violence; thugs• Rise in honest and responsi...
PARTIES AND ELECTIONS• 1993- party activities banned in Nigeria – Exception: artificially created five party system ...
EVOLUTION OF PARTIES
POLICY FORMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION• Extractive performance – Fiscal system – Revenues from oil• Distributive performa...
ECONOMIC & HUMAN
EXCHANGE RATE
NIGERIA IN AFRICA AND THE WORLD• Has the population and resources to be a regional power• Economic Communit...
PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT• Frustration• Few have gotten rich; many poor• But Nigeria has moved toward becoming a service-...
COUNTRY BIO: UNITED STATES (1)
COUNTRY BIO: UNITED STATES (2)• Population: • Language: – 300 million ...
CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES• Impact of September 11, 2001 – New war unlike any other in history – Overshadows other po...
BIRTHPLACES
THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (1)• History – “first new nation”; but relatively old democracy – Civ...
THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (2)• Population – Third most populous country in the world – Immigrants ...
THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (3)• Economy – GNP in 2003: $11 trillion – Economic dominance at an en...
THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM• Federalism – Divides power in the following principle ways: • Powers specifically assign...
AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM• Separation of powers – Most important difference between our presidential democracy and most...
POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (1)• Melting pot or patchwork quilt? – Melting pot: blends all of the diffe...
POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (2)• Main elements of the traditional American political culture – More A...
POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (3)• Political socialization – Begins with children as young as 3 or 4 an...
TRUST IN GOVERNMENT
SOURCES OF INFORMATION
PARTICIPATION & RECRUITMENT• Participation by voting – Voting turnout – Voting registration – Direct initiative – Popu...
TURNOUT
PARTICIPATION
RECRUITMENT OF LEADERS• American leaders are drawn disproportionately from the middle and upper ranges of wealth and stat...
INTEREST ARTICULATION: PRESSURE GROUPS & PACS• PACs and campaign contributions• The most important PACS can be classif...
AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES• A two-party system• The “Americanization” of electioneering• Differences between the two parti...
PARTY SHARES
PARTY IDENTIFIERS
POLICYMAKING IN AMERICA• Constitutional framework – Regarded deadlocks as highly preferable to any government action...
CONGRESSIONAL VOTES
PARTY CONTROL
SPLIT-TICKET VOTING
POLICY PERFORMANCE• Tax policies• Distributive performance• Regulatory performance – Social insurance – Social insuran...
TAX SOURCES
FEDERAL SPENDING
EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM• The idea in history – Great social experiment• How true is it? – Similar features – Unusual fe...
AMERICA VERSUS OTHER NATIONS
of 72

Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #11

Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Spring 2013 - Power Point Presentation #11 - © 2013 Tabakian, Inc.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political Science 2 – Comparative Politics - Power Point #11

  • 1. Dr. Tabakian’s Political Science 2 Modern World Governments – Fall 2012Power Point Presentation – November 6th & November 8th
  • 2. COURSE LECTURE TOPICSThis Week’s Lecture Covers:•Nigeria Current Policy Challenges The Effects Of History Environmental Potential And Limitations Political Culture And Subcultures Political Socialization Political Recruitment Political Structure Interest Articulation Political Participation Parties And Elections Policy Formation And Implementation
  • 3. COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #11 (2) Nigeria In Africa And In The World Prospects For Development•United States •Current Policy Challenges •The United States Among The World’s Nations •The Constitutional System •Political Culture And Socialization •Political Participation And Recruitment •Recruitment Of Leaders •Interest Articulation: Pressure Groups And PACs •Special Characteristics Of American Political Parties •Policy Performance
  • 4. COURSE LECTURE: WEEK #11 (3)•American Exceptionalism? oManifest Destiny oCosmopolitanism
  • 5. COUNTRY BIO: NIGERIA (1)
  • 6. COUNTRY BIO: NIGERIA (2)• Population: 130 million • Religion:• Territory: 356,668 sq. miles – Muslim: 50%• Year of Independence: 1960 – Christian: 40%• Year of Current Constitution: 1979 – Indigenous beliefs: 10% Constitution still partially in force; draft 1995 Constitution published and revised in 1999 (the 1999 Constitution)• Head of State: President Omaru Yar’Adua• Head of Government: President Omaru Yar’Adua• Language: English (official), Hausa,Yoruba, Igbo, (and 250 other ethnic groups)
  • 7. BACKGROUND (1)• Nigeria = megastate in the African context• Major country – One-fifth of the people in Africa – The world’s largest black population – Petroleum – Standing military force of substance – Forty-five universities
  • 8. BACKGROUND (2)• Traditions – Large scale emirates in north – Small kingdoms and village-level republics in the South – Culture divided by ethnicity and by religion (Muslim and Christian)• Groping toward a renewal of democracy• Sick giant – Economy in shambles – Provision of public services has broken down
  • 9. CLIMATE ZONES
  • 10. PROJECTED POPULATION
  • 11. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (1)• Nigeria – question of the future of the country• Divisions have intensified in recent years. – Break up into a weak federation or independent states• Nigeria has existed for only 47 years.
  • 12. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES (2)• 1999: Nigeria returned to formal civilian rule when Olusegun Obasanjo was elected president.• Test: How can a potentially wealthy country fail to provide basic human needs, education, potable water, reliable transportation and communications, and engage in politics without corruption?• Still ranked as one of the poorest and most corrupt countries
  • 13. THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY• Effects of precolonial events – Early empires of Nigeria – Igbo – Hausa – Fulani – Hausa-Fulani – Yoruba
  • 14. THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY: COLONIAL INTERLUDE (1)• 1900-1960• Lugard- architect of colonial Nigeria• Conference of Berlin in1884-1885 – Divided Africa into spheres of influence/seize control of the continent rather than trade only
  • 15. THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY: COLONIAL INTERLUDE (2)• Entity in 1914 – Northern and Southern Protectorates and Lagos were brought under single colonial administration – Unifying action largely symbolic – Ruled separately – Indirect rule – Southern and Northern conflict – Incompatible objectives• Modern constitutional development
  • 16. THE EFFECTS OF HISTORY• Nigerian Independence – October 1, 1960 • Two year honeymoon period • Conflict: tore apart the ruling coalition in the Western region • National census – 1965 law and order broke down in Western Region over election-related fraud and violence – Military ended the First Republic in a January 1966 coup – Is there a role for obas and emirs in modern Nigeria?
  • 17. CHIEF EXECUTIVES
  • 18. CREATION OF STATES
  • 19. ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIAL & LIMITATIONS (1)• Agricultural production• Sale of primary commodities• Disease• Population growth
  • 20. ENVIRONMENTAL POTENTIAL & LIMITATIONS (2)• Urbanization• Petroleum – Niger delta basin (8% of the country) – Biafra – MEND• Distribution of natural resources – Political effects• The international environment
  • 21. POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (1)• Ethnic identity – Hausa-Fulani • Mostly northern half of Nigeria – Igbo (Ilbo) • Southeastern part of Nigeria • Responsive to western culture – Yoruba • Lagos • Oba and lineage chiefs and the British • Fragmenting effect of multiple ethnic identities• Religion – Christianity, Islam, and traditional religious institutions
  • 22. POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (2)• Nigerian nationalism – Three major sources • Freed slaves from N.A. others of African descent from the Caribbean • Nigerians who fought for the British in WWII – Frustration with lack of recognition for service • Nigerians who studied in U.K. and U.S.• Democratic norms and values
  • 23. POLITICAL CULTURE AND SUBCULTURE (3)• Political role of women – Position of women varies immensely – In general Nigerian women vote in similar numbers as men but are underrepresented in government.• Political corruption – EFCC
  • 24. POLITICAL SOCIALIZATION• The family – Polygamy – Kinship/sense of identity• Schools• Mass media – One third of people are illiterate• The State• Contact with urban life• Religion – Nearly 80% of Nigerians say they belong to religious associations.
  • 25. POLITICAL RECRUITMENT• Northerners have dominated the leadership of the country under military and civilian rule.• Military power• Role of Nigerian universities• Civil service• No recruitment of “strangers”• Federal character of appointments of military personnel• Ethnic politics still dominate
  • 26. ETHNIC DISTRIBUTION
  • 27. ELECTION RESULTS
  • 28. POLITICAL STRUCTURE (1)• Constitution of 1999 – Election of 1993 – Succession of military regimes• Federalism – Three level federalism
  • 29. POLITICAL STRUCTURE (2)• Parliamentary vs. presidential government – Nigerian pluralism; lack of trust by subcultures – No institutional structure can overcome this roadblock.
  • 30. POLITICAL STRUCTURE (3)• Judiciary – Federal and state courts are integrated into a single system of trial and appeal courts. – Independent judiciary survived, even throughout military regimes – Traditional authorities maintain their greatest influence in their judicial role • Muslim Koranic Law • Sharia courts
  • 31. INTEREST ARTICULATION• Ethnic and religious associations – MOSOP• Associational groups – Often by sector – Universities• Non-associational groups – Kaduna mafia• Patron-client networks – Clientelism
  • 32. POLITICAL PARTICIPATION• Great range in activity – Voting – Civil war – Violence; thugs• Rise in honest and responsive institutions
  • 33. PARTIES AND ELECTIONS• 1993- party activities banned in Nigeria – Exception: artificially created five party system • No criticism of Abacha• History of parties – 1923 first modern party – 1944 nationalists – 1951 Constitution – Return to civil rule – Elections of 1979 and 1983 – 1998 and 1999 elections: nationwide organization required of parties – Elections of 2003• Ethnic solidarity and party loyalty
  • 34. EVOLUTION OF PARTIES
  • 35. POLICY FORMATION AND IMPLEMENTATION• Extractive performance – Fiscal system – Revenues from oil• Distributive performance – Potential to be rich, but remains poor – Education• Dealing with debt and structural adjustment• Regulative performance – The Census issue• Conclusions on performance – Public policy as the national cake
  • 36. ECONOMIC & HUMAN
  • 37. EXCHANGE RATE
  • 38. NIGERIA IN AFRICA AND THE WORLD• Has the population and resources to be a regional power• Economic Community of West African States – Free trade zones – Critic of international organizations’ monetary policy: World Bank, IMF• France- closer economic ties• U.S. and Britain – condemnation of military rulers
  • 39. PROSPECTS FOR DEVELOPMENT• Frustration• Few have gotten rich; many poor• But Nigeria has moved toward becoming a service-oriented country – Success in telephone and transportation – Success in water, housing and electricity
  • 40. COUNTRY BIO: UNITED STATES (1)
  • 41. COUNTRY BIO: UNITED STATES (2)• Population: • Language: – 300 million – English, Spanish (spoken by a sizable majority)• Territory: • Religion: – 3,475,031 sq. miles – Protestant 52%; Roman Catholic 24%,• Year of Independence: Muslim 1%, Mormon 1%, Jewish 1%, none 14% – 1776• Year of Current Constitution: – September 17, 1787; effective March 4, 1789• Head of State: – President George W. Bush• Head of Government: – President George W. Bush
  • 42. CURRENT POLICY CHALLENGES• Impact of September 11, 2001 – New war unlike any other in history – Overshadows other policy challenges• Domestic affairs – Economic and social status of African Americans – Immigration – War on drugs – Economic conditions • Oil prices, Social Security, and Medicare• Foreign policy – Main question: Should the U.S. conduct its foreign policy mainly solely through the structures and procedures of the UN or should the U.S. do what the U.S. president thinks is imperative even if the UN votes against it?
  • 43. BIRTHPLACES
  • 44. THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (1)• History – “first new nation”; but relatively old democracy – Civil War – Fourteenth Amendment• Geography – Fourth largest nation in the world – Secure location allows for foreign policy of isolation • Not true in contemporary world
  • 45. THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (2)• Population – Third most populous country in the world – Immigrants in three historic waves – Far more immigrants than any other nation in history – The most ethnically and culturally diverse population in the world (only India comes close)
  • 46. THE UNITED STATES AMONG THE WORLD’S NATIONS (3)• Economy – GNP in 2003: $11 trillion – Economic dominance at an end? • World’s greatest debtor nation• America’s position in world politics – Until the end of the nineteenth century, the U.S. followed an isolationist foreign policy; Minor player in world politics – Changeover began with the Spanish-American War. – WWII – Cold War – Still the world’s most powerful nation, but a new national order is emerging
  • 47. THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM• Federalism – Divides power in the following principle ways: • Powers specifically assigned to the federal government • Powers reserved to the states by the Tenth Amendment • Powers that are shared by federal and state government • Powers that are forbidden to the federal government • Powers that are forbidden to the sate governments
  • 48. AMERICAN GOVERNMENT
  • 49. THE CONSTITUTIONAL SYSTEM• Separation of powers – Most important difference between our presidential democracy and most other democratic systems, which are generally parliamentary democracies – Persons heading each branch of the U.S. government are selected by different procedures for different terms. • House • Senate • President • Courts – Checks and balances• Judicial review – Defined as the power of a court to render a legislative or executive act null and void on the ground of unconstitutionality
  • 50. POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (1)• Melting pot or patchwork quilt? – Melting pot: blends all of the different cultures of immigrants into one uniquely American culture – Patchwork quilt: an array of the languages, history, customs, and values of each of the nation’s major ethnic groups, all respected, none dominant; rejects homogenization • Advocates bilingual education • Opposition has built to this movement
  • 51. POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (2)• Main elements of the traditional American political culture – More Americans tend to believe that government officials are trustworthy, but less inclined to believe that government is really run for the benefit of all people – More likely to say they are proud of their country and are willing to fight for it – But not as likely to trust their government to do the right thing – A paradox? Belief that ordinary Americans are good, solid, reliable folks with plenty of commons sense, and that American is a wonderful country. BUT, they feel that the government, which is not the same as the country, may not always be trustworthy given the nature of ambitious political leaders and elections, etc. – Litigious nature
  • 52. POLITICAL CULTURE & SOCIALIZATION (3)• Political socialization – Begins with children as young as 3 or 4 and continues on in life – Agents of political socialization • Family, primarily parents- most powerful role • School teachers • Friends and schoolmates • Work associates • Mass communication media – Privately owned media more important – Scarcity doctrine – Internet
  • 53. TRUST IN GOVERNMENT
  • 54. SOURCES OF INFORMATION
  • 55. PARTICIPATION & RECRUITMENT• Participation by voting – Voting turnout – Voting registration – Direct initiative – Popular referendum• Participation by other means
  • 56. TURNOUT
  • 57. PARTICIPATION
  • 58. RECRUITMENT OF LEADERS• American leaders are drawn disproportionately from the middle and upper ranges of wealth and status.• Administrative employees – Merit system• In general, recruitment in U.S. is like other countries except for our unique nomination process. – The unique direct primary • Closed primaries • Crossover primaries • Open primaries • Blanket primaries – Democratic Party v. Jones (2000)
  • 59. INTEREST ARTICULATION: PRESSURE GROUPS & PACS• PACs and campaign contributions• The most important PACS can be classified in one of three main categories: – Narrow material interest PACs – Single, nonmaterial interest PACs – Ideological PACS• Pressure groups and lobbying
  • 60. AMERICAN POLITICAL PARTIES• A two-party system• The “Americanization” of electioneering• Differences between the two parties – Partisan polarization• Decentralized organization – Hierarchies versus stratarchies – Presidential party – Congressional party• Low cohesion• Weak discipline• Divided party control of government – Divided party control – Ticket-splitting
  • 61. PARTY SHARES
  • 62. PARTY IDENTIFIERS
  • 63. POLICYMAKING IN AMERICA• Constitutional framework – Regarded deadlocks as highly preferable to any government action that rides roughshod over the interests and objections of any significant part of the community.• Traditional ways of avoiding deadlocks – Ordinary times process – Presidential-dictatorship escape valve • Not open indefinitely
  • 64. CONGRESSIONAL VOTES
  • 65. PARTY CONTROL
  • 66. SPLIT-TICKET VOTING
  • 67. POLICY PERFORMANCE• Tax policies• Distributive performance• Regulatory performance – Social insurance – Social insurance and welfare – Public assistance • Welfare reform – Education • Availability • Quality – Environmental protection
  • 68. TAX SOURCES
  • 69. FEDERAL SPENDING
  • 70. EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT
  • 71. AMERICAN EXCEPTIONALISM• The idea in history – Great social experiment• How true is it? – Similar features – Unusual features – Unique features
  • 72. AMERICA VERSUS OTHER NATIONS