Juan José AlavaJuan José Alava PhDPhD
School of Resource & Environmental ManagementSchool of Resource & Environmental Mana...
Source:Source: http://earth.google.comhttp://earth.google.com
Galapagos: Natural HistoryGalapagos: Natural History
• 13 Oceanic volcanic Islands (Galapagos13 Oceanic volcanic Islands (...
(Image: MODIS NASA GSFC).
(Photo- M. Hall, 23 Oct.2005)
Sierra Negra VolcanoSierra Negra Volcano
eruptioneruption
Volcanic...
Galapagos Islands (Galapagos Archipelago)Galapagos Islands (Galapagos Archipelago)
San CristóbalSan Cristóbal
FloreanFlore...
• Complex oceanographic featuresComplex oceanographic features
• Variable Sea Surface TemperatureVariable Sea Surface Temp...
Oceanographic currentsOceanographic currents
Source: Satellite Photo: NASA-GSFC 2001. November 5, 1999. (Banks, 2002)
PRYMARY PRODUCTIVITYPRYMARY PRODUCTIVITY
(Banks,
2002)
Primary productivity distributional patternsPrimary productivity distributional patterns
(Banks, 2002)
Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
Charles DarwinCharles Darwin
British NaturalistBritish Naturalist
1809 -18821809 -1882
H.M.S. Beagle (1831–
1835)
“II have...
Photo Credit: JJ Alava
http://www.sfu.ca/cstudies/science/darwin.htm
BiodiversityBiodiversity
• Native and endemic species
• 2,909 marine species (18.2% endemics)
• 174 fish species
• 47 macr...
Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
Photo Credit: JJ Alava
Photo Credit: JJ Alava
Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
((Amblyrhynchus cristatus)Amblyrhynchus cristatus)
Marine Iguanas
Photo Credit: JJ Alava
Galapagos Land IguanaGalapagos La...
Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
Giant Terrestrial TortoiseGiant Terrestrial Tortoise ((GeocheloneGeochelone
elephantopuselephantopus)) Photos’ Credits: JJ...
Killer whale observed at Fernandina Island (west Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) by Ben Haase in 2005.
(Picture Credit: Ben Ha...
Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus
wollebaeki)
Galapagos fur seal
(Arctocephalus
galapagoensis)
Marine Mammals: GalapagosMarine Mammals: Galapagos Pinnipeds (Otariids)Pi...
Galapagos: Conservation and
Management
• National Park (1959) = 97% terrestrial area (7900 km2
)
• Worldwide Natural Herit...
Pictures: J.J. Alava
Galapagos Biodiversity in Peril
Invasive species
Growing human population
Burgeoning tourism
Demographic Growth the Galapagos: 1979-2005Demographic Growth the Galapagos: 1979-2005
Source: INEC (Censuses:1974, 1982, ...
Source: Charles Darwin Foundation, Annual Report 2010
Geographic Opening of the Islands-
Continentalization of Galapagos I...
Coastal and Marine PollutionCoastal and Marine Pollution
• Chronic leaking of hydrocarbons (oil and
gasoline) from tourism...
Photo CreditPhoto Credit :: Heidi SnellHeidi Snell
Jessica Oil spillJessica Oil spill
Photo Credit : Heidi Snell
Wikelski et al., 2001 (Wikelski et al., 2001 ( ScienceScience))
Wikelski et al., 2002 (Wikelski et al., 2002 ( NatureNatur...
0
5
10
15
20
25
Hooks Nylon Propeller Net Plastic Others Rope
%interactionswithsealions
tourism 47%
fisheries 53%
Solid Wa...
0
5000
10000
15000
20000
25000
30000
35000
40000
45000
1977-1978 2001
Survey periods
Sealionpopulation
Z. wollebaeki
A. ga...
Coastal and Marine PollutionCoastal and Marine Pollution
• Sewage system from urbanized islands
• Overflow of septic tanks...
Rachel Carson
(May 1907 — April 1964)
Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT):
“A Double-Edged Sword”
(Woodwell 1967, Scie...
Historical use of DDT in
USA
Permission and courtesy from Dr. Russell
Nicholson (Dept. Biological Sciences)
BY DDT
Chemicals can cause effects
Egg shell thinning
Early life stage mortality
Reproductive/ Sexual abnormalities
Immune suppre...
Expeditions and Sampling sites:
Sample size (n)
GSL pups = 41
Mullets = 6
Thread herrings = 4
2005 = 21pups
2008 = 20 pups
Animal captures and biopsy sampling
Selection of site rookery Animal capture
Biopsy sampling Sample labeling/preservationB...
Alava et al. (2011, MPB); Alava et al. (2011, Ambio)
DDT strikes back: Galapagos sea lions at risk
**
Legend: (a) Miranda-Filho et al., 2007; (b) Alava et al., (2011); (c) Ylitalo et al., 2008; (d) Mos et al., 2010; (e) Del
...
-2.00
-1.50
-1.00
-0.50
0.00
0.50
1.00
1.50
2.00
2.50
3.00
3.50
Mullet Thread herring Galapagos sea lion
LogPOPs(μg/kglipi...
Galapagos sea lions are exposed to Pollutants
Alava et al. (2011)
Jessica oil spill impact in Galapagos sea lions (Salaza...
Global pollution by POPs-an issue of concernGlobal pollution by POPs-an issue of concern
Galapagos,
Ecuador
Jurado et al.,...
http://brooklynbeforenow.blogspot.ca/2010
_09_01_archive.html
American presence in the 1940s in the Galapagos
1941-1946: O...
Policy, Management & Control of POPsPolicy, Management & Control of POPs
REACHREACH
(European Union)(European Union)
CEPAC...
ConclusionsConclusions
• POPs readily biomagnify in Galapagos sea lions (first evidence of
tropical biomagnification in oc...
Future generations: the hope of our blueFuture generations: the hope of our blue
planetplanet
Photo credit: J.J .Alava P. ...
GRACIAS!!!
Photo Credit: JJ Alava
““We cannot let anyone forget that above all,We cannot let anyone forget that above all,
Galapagos is a place of conservat...
POPs in the Galapagos Islands-Juan Jose Alava-Fall2012-ENSC100
POPs in the Galapagos Islands-Juan Jose Alava-Fall2012-ENSC100
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POPs in the Galapagos Islands-Juan Jose Alava-Fall2012-ENSC100

A description of the Galapagos Islands and the first assessment of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the Galapagos Marie Reserve with emphasis on DDT in endangered Galapagos sea lions.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Science      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - POPs in the Galapagos Islands-Juan Jose Alava-Fall2012-ENSC100

  • 1. Juan José AlavaJuan José Alava PhDPhD School of Resource & Environmental ManagementSchool of Resource & Environmental Management Faculty of EnvironmentFaculty of Environment, Simon Fraser UniversitySimon Fraser University Persistent Organic Pollutants in thePersistent Organic Pollutants in the Galapagos: The DDT caseGalapagos: The DDT case 2012 Photo Credit: JJ Alava
  • 2. Source:Source: http://earth.google.comhttp://earth.google.com
  • 3. Galapagos: Natural HistoryGalapagos: Natural History • 13 Oceanic volcanic Islands (Galapagos13 Oceanic volcanic Islands (Galapagos Archipelago)Archipelago) • Active volcanic islandsActive volcanic islands http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/images/imagerecords/4000/4514/galapagos_ast_2003_lrg.jpg •Volcanic origin (2.8–5.6 millions and 60 -300Volcanic origin (2.8–5.6 millions and 60 -300 thousands years ago).thousands years ago).
  • 4. (Image: MODIS NASA GSFC). (Photo- M. Hall, 23 Oct.2005) Sierra Negra VolcanoSierra Negra Volcano eruptioneruption Volcanic ActivityVolcanic Activity
  • 5. Galapagos Islands (Galapagos Archipelago)Galapagos Islands (Galapagos Archipelago) San CristóbalSan Cristóbal FloreanFlorean aa EspañolEspañol aa IsabelaIsabela SantaSanta CruzCruz FernandinaFernandina SantiagSantiag oo MerchenaMerchena Santa FeSanta Fe PintaPinta GenovesaGenovesa GalapagosGalapagos Archipelago*Archipelago* *Galapagos Islands were discovered in March 10th 1535 by Fray Thomas de Berlanga by accident.
  • 6. • Complex oceanographic featuresComplex oceanographic features • Variable Sea Surface TemperatureVariable Sea Surface Temperature • High Primary ProductivityHigh Primary Productivity Galapagos: Natural HistoryGalapagos: Natural History Photo Credit: JJ Alava
  • 7. Oceanographic currentsOceanographic currents
  • 8. Source: Satellite Photo: NASA-GSFC 2001. November 5, 1999. (Banks, 2002) PRYMARY PRODUCTIVITYPRYMARY PRODUCTIVITY
  • 9. (Banks, 2002) Primary productivity distributional patternsPrimary productivity distributional patterns
  • 10. (Banks, 2002) Sea Surface Temperature (SST)Sea Surface Temperature (SST)
  • 11. Charles DarwinCharles Darwin British NaturalistBritish Naturalist 1809 -18821809 -1882 H.M.S. Beagle (1831– 1835) “II have called this principle, by whichhave called this principle, by which each slight variation, if useful, is preserved,each slight variation, if useful, is preserved, by the term Natural Selection.”by the term Natural Selection.”        —Charles Darwin from “On The Origin of Species” (1859) Evolution and BiodiversityEvolution and Biodiversity
  • 12. Photo Credit: JJ Alava http://www.sfu.ca/cstudies/science/darwin.htm
  • 13. BiodiversityBiodiversity • Native and endemic species • 2,909 marine species (18.2% endemics) • 174 fish species • 47 macro-invertebrate species • 88 marine/shore bird species (5 endemics) • 26 terrestrial birds (84% endemics-13 Darwin’s finches) • 1 endemic species of marine iguana • 2 endemic species of terrestrial iguanas • 12-14? endemic species of Galapagos tortoises • 23 cetacean species • 2 endemic pinniped species • 23 endemic genera of insects • 560-600 vascular plants (175-180 endemics)
  • 14. Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 15. Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 16. Photo Credit: JJ Alava
  • 17. Photo Credit: JJ Alava Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 18. ((Amblyrhynchus cristatus)Amblyrhynchus cristatus) Marine Iguanas Photo Credit: JJ Alava Galapagos Land IguanaGalapagos Land Iguana ((Conolophus subcristatusConolophus subcristatus)) ““GalapagosGalapagos dragons”dragons”
  • 19. Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 20. Giant Terrestrial TortoiseGiant Terrestrial Tortoise ((GeocheloneGeochelone elephantopuselephantopus)) Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 21. Killer whale observed at Fernandina Island (west Galapagos Islands, Ecuador) by Ben Haase in 2005. (Picture Credit: Ben Haase).
  • 22. Galapagos sea lions (Zalophus wollebaeki)
  • 23. Galapagos fur seal (Arctocephalus galapagoensis) Marine Mammals: GalapagosMarine Mammals: Galapagos Pinnipeds (Otariids)Pinnipeds (Otariids) Photos’ Credits: JJ Alava
  • 24. Galapagos: Conservation and Management • National Park (1959) = 97% terrestrial area (7900 km2 ) • Worldwide Natural Heritage Site (UNESCO–1979) • Biosphere Reserve (UNESCO–1984) • Whale Sanctuary (1990) • Special Law of Galapagos (1998) • Galapagos Marine Reserve (1998):133,000km2 Photo Credit: JJ Alava
  • 25. Pictures: J.J. Alava Galapagos Biodiversity in Peril Invasive species Growing human population Burgeoning tourism
  • 26. Demographic Growth the Galapagos: 1979-2005Demographic Growth the Galapagos: 1979-2005 Source: INEC (Censuses:1974, 1982, 1990, 1998)/INGALA 2005 (cited by Taylor et al., 2006)Source: INEC (Censuses:1974, 1982, 1990, 1998)/INGALA 2005 (cited by Taylor et al., 2006)
  • 27. Source: Charles Darwin Foundation, Annual Report 2010 Geographic Opening of the Islands- Continentalization of Galapagos Islands’ ecosystems Galapagos Geographic Index (GGI): Pervasive ecological and social transformations caused in the Galapagos Islands due to a massive influx of human beings, materials, and fuel and energy inputs......
  • 28. Coastal and Marine PollutionCoastal and Marine Pollution • Chronic leaking of hydrocarbons (oil and gasoline) from tourism, fishery boats and tankers (transport/delivering operations) • Oil Spills (e.g., Jessica oil spill-2001) • Release of solid waste (e.g., plastic) from tourism and fishery vessels
  • 29. Photo CreditPhoto Credit :: Heidi SnellHeidi Snell Jessica Oil spillJessica Oil spill Photo Credit : Heidi Snell
  • 30. Wikelski et al., 2001 (Wikelski et al., 2001 ( ScienceScience)) Wikelski et al., 2002 (Wikelski et al., 2002 ( NatureNature))
  • 31. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Hooks Nylon Propeller Net Plastic Others Rope %interactionswithsealions tourism 47% fisheries 53% Solid Waste PollutionSolid Waste Pollution Alava and Salazar (2006) Percent frequency of interaction between Galápagos seaPercent frequency of interaction between Galápagos sea lions and objects related to both fisheries and tourismlions and objects related to both fisheries and tourism
  • 32. 0 5000 10000 15000 20000 25000 30000 35000 40000 45000 1977-1978 2001 Survey periods Sealionpopulation Z. wollebaeki A. galapagoensis 40% 15-20% Galapagos pinniped population trendGalapagos pinniped population trend Alava (2004). Sea Lions of the World: Conservation and Research in the 21st Century. 22nd Wakefield Fisheries Symposium. September 30–October 3, 2004. Anchorage, Alaska, USA. Alaska Sea Grant/NOAA.
  • 33. Coastal and Marine PollutionCoastal and Marine Pollution • Sewage system from urbanized islands • Overflow of septic tanks • Biological pollution (diseases) • Non-point sources: Run-off from agriculture field (use of pesticides and fertilizers) • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) PCBs from electric transformer and facilities? Organochlorine pesticides: DDT?
  • 34. Rachel Carson (May 1907 — April 1964) Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethane (DDT): “A Double-Edged Sword” (Woodwell 1967, Scientic American) Picture:JohnStanmeyer; NationalGeographic http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rachel_Carson Reproductive impairments (e.g. eggshell thinning) in raptors (Hickey and Anderson 1968; Blus 2003 ) Picture:VladimirJan Toxic Effects
  • 35. Historical use of DDT in USA Permission and courtesy from Dr. Russell Nicholson (Dept. Biological Sciences)
  • 36. BY DDT
  • 37. Chemicals can cause effects Egg shell thinning Early life stage mortality Reproductive/ Sexual abnormalities Immune suppression Central nervous system cognitive skills respiratory decease Tumors Cancer…. Chemicals can cause effects Egg shell thinning Early life stage mortality Reproductive/ Sexual abnormalities Immune suppression Central nervous system cognitive skills respiratory decease Tumors Cancer…. Chemicals can cause effects Egg shell thinning Early life stage mortality Reproductive/ Sexual abnormalities Immune suppression Central nervous system cognitive skills respiratory decease Tumors Cancer…. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) 150,000−310,000 tonnes/year150,000−310,000 tonnes/year:: used as additives for electronic devices, plastic, textiles, furniture and paints. Legacy PCBs versus emerging PBDEs (Nylund et al., 1992; WHO 1994; de Boer et al., 1998; de Wit 2002; Alaee et al., 2003; de Boer et al. 2009) (Source: Great Lakes Program Office, U.S. EPA, Chicago, Illinois.) http://www.epa.gov/greatl akes/atlas/glat-ch4.html PBDEs are POPs: (treta, penta, hexa and heptabromodiphenyl mixtures)
  • 38. Expeditions and Sampling sites: Sample size (n) GSL pups = 41 Mullets = 6 Thread herrings = 4 2005 = 21pups 2008 = 20 pups
  • 39. Animal captures and biopsy sampling Selection of site rookery Animal capture Biopsy sampling Sample labeling/preservationBiopsy collection
  • 40. Alava et al. (2011, MPB); Alava et al. (2011, Ambio) DDT strikes back: Galapagos sea lions at risk **
  • 41. Legend: (a) Miranda-Filho et al., 2007; (b) Alava et al., (2011); (c) Ylitalo et al., 2008; (d) Mos et al., 2010; (e) Del Toro et al., 2006; (f) Blasius and Goodmanlowe 2008. Except for California sea lions from Baja California (Mexico), used here as reference, all the individuals are pups. Error bars are standard errors (SE). DDT Global comparisons 280 μg/kg lipid 525 μg/kg lipid Alava et al. (2011, MPB)
  • 42. -2.00 -1.50 -1.00 -0.50 0.00 0.50 1.00 1.50 2.00 2.50 3.00 3.50 Mullet Thread herring Galapagos sea lion LogPOPs(μg/kglipid) mirex dieldrin β-HCH ∑Chlordanes ∑PCB p,p'-DDE ∑DDT * * * * * * * *Significant differences (ANOVA/Welch ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer-HSD, p < 0.05) POPs readily bioaccumulate in Galapagos sea lions (TL = 4.1) (TL = 3.1) (TL = 4.2) Alava et al. (2012, in press)
  • 43. Galapagos sea lions are exposed to Pollutants Alava et al. (2011) Jessica oil spill impact in Galapagos sea lions (Salazar 2001) Looming and potential threat of POPs in Galapagos sea lions (Alava & Salazar 2006) Evidence of levels of PCBs, PBDEs and DDTs in Galapagos sea lions (Alava et al. 2009, ET&C; Alava et al. 2011, MPB)
  • 44. Global pollution by POPs-an issue of concernGlobal pollution by POPs-an issue of concern Galapagos, Ecuador Jurado et al., (2005) British Columbia, Canada
  • 45. http://brooklynbeforenow.blogspot.ca/2010 _09_01_archive.html American presence in the 1940s in the Galapagos 1941-1946: Occupation by American military forces……. …and DDT was used by Americans to eliminate introduced rats in the Galapagos (but, was it successful?)……. Source: Woram, J. 2005, Charles Darwin Slept Here © Rockville Press, Inc. ISBN 0-9769336-0-8
  • 46. Policy, Management & Control of POPsPolicy, Management & Control of POPs REACHREACH (European Union)(European Union) CEPACEPA (Canada)(Canada) TSCATSCA (USA)(USA) Stockholm ConventionStockholm Convention (focused on Arctic Regions)(focused on Arctic Regions) POPs Persistence (P) Bioaccumulation (B) Toxicity (T) PBT criteriaPBT criteria “to protect human health and the environment from the harmful impacts of persistent organic pollutants…
  • 47. ConclusionsConclusions • POPs readily biomagnify in Galapagos sea lions (first evidence of tropical biomagnification in oceanic-equatorial islands) • Conservation implications for endangered/endemic wildlife and Management of POPs in tropical marine regions • Health Risks by POPs is low (< PCB immunotoxicity/endocrine disruption thresholds), but some concerns due to DDT • This study provides a timely warning signal of the dangers of an increased reliance of DDT for malaria control in tropical countries • Concentrations of DDT and associated health risks in wildlife are generally believed to be declining but this may no longer be the case in tropical countries where DDT is increasingly used.
  • 48. Future generations: the hope of our blueFuture generations: the hope of our blue planetplanet Photo credit: J.J .Alava P. (my late Dad), November, 1991Photo credit: J.J .Alava P. (my late Dad), November, 1991
  • 49. GRACIAS!!! Photo Credit: JJ Alava
  • 50. ““We cannot let anyone forget that above all,We cannot let anyone forget that above all, Galapagos is a place of conservation, which mayGalapagos is a place of conservation, which may have tourism and fisheries determined not upon thehave tourism and fisheries determined not upon the convenience of anyone, but on Galapagosconvenience of anyone, but on Galapagos sustainability. It is overall and foremost a protectedsustainability. It is overall and foremost a protected area, a National Park and Marine Reserve, whicharea, a National Park and Marine Reserve, which means that in order to live in such a privileged andmeans that in order to live in such a privileged and unique place, it implies accepting the restrictions asunique place, it implies accepting the restrictions as well as the responsibilities. If the restrictions andwell as the responsibilities. If the restrictions and responsibilities are not convenient, anyone canresponsibilities are not convenient, anyone can choose to leave. Not everyone has the right to livechoose to leave. Not everyone has the right to live there, but everyone has the right to leave.”there, but everyone has the right to leave.” Deborah ChiribogaDeborah Chiriboga H.H. Ecuadorian EnvironmentalistEcuadorian Environmentalist

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