Narrative
Theory
The Sixth Sense
Toderov's Narrative Theory
 Toderov’s Theory states that a narrative of
a film always consists of the following
stages:
...
Which of Toderov’s stages are
evident within the film?
 Within the Sixth Sense it can be seen that many of Toderov’s Narr...
 However, this equilibrium is quickly destroyed and an immediate
disequilibrium is introduced. This is conveyed as the un...
Propp’s Character Theory
 Within Propp’s Theory he states that all films consist of
a range of different characters that ...
Where can his character types be
identified? What role do they
play?
 Within the Sixth Sense Propp’s Theory types can be ...
 However, it could be argued that the true
hero is the young protagonist Cole who, at
the end of the film, becomes Malcol...
Levi-Strauss Conflict and
Opposition Theory
 Within Strauss’s Theory he believes that the
constant creation of conflict/o...
Are there any Binary oppositions in
the film? What are they?
 Within The Sixth Sense the focus upon the supernatural and ...
 However, through the use of the twist a the end revealing
the older protagonist Malcolm to also be a ghost, changes
this...
Barthes Enigma Code Theory
 Within Barthes Theory he believes in the
technique of Enigma codes. This is the
portrayal of ...
Have Enigma Codes been
applied?
 Through the film enigma codes are encoded throughout, constantly causing the
audience to...
 Other enigma codes can be found when Malcolm
first meets Cole and like the protagonist the
audience are uncertain what i...
Conclusion
 After conducting this research I believe that each theory has broadened my overall knowledge of each of the
i...
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Narrative Task- The Sixth Sense

Narrative Task- The Sixth Sense
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Narrative Task- The Sixth Sense

  • 1. Narrative Theory The Sixth Sense
  • 2. Toderov's Narrative Theory  Toderov’s Theory states that a narrative of a film always consists of the following stages:  equilibrium,  disruption  disequilibrium  seeking a resolution  new equilibrium
  • 3. Which of Toderov’s stages are evident within the film?  Within the Sixth Sense it can be seen that many of Toderov’s Narrative stages have been applied.  For example within the Sixth Sense the Equilibrium stage is revealed within the opening sequence. This can be seen where the protagonist Malcolm and his wife are relaxing in their house happy and celebrational of an award Malcolm has received due to his dedication to his work. Within this extract no issues or disruptions for the characters are revealed, communicating to the audience that this is the equilibrium stage for the characters, as they have not yet experienced something they feel should be changed or dealt with.
  • 4.  However, this equilibrium is quickly destroyed and an immediate disequilibrium is introduced. This is conveyed as the unsuspecting protagonists realise there is an intruder in their house and when they realise where they are the intruder can be seen targeting a gun in their direction. This immediate jump to the disequilibrium stage, bypasses the disruption stage, as the characters are immediately faced with a very high level threat, rather than allowing the impending darkness to build. This could be said to go against the structure and organisation of Toderov’s narrative stages, creating the effect of inciting shock within the audience as they are met with an unexpected event so early into the film. This is effective as this helps to entice the audience as they become inclined and expectant of further surprises. This helps to connote the thriller genre of the film as a key convention of thriller is to raise anticipation and excitement within the audience.
  • 5. Propp’s Character Theory  Within Propp’s Theory he states that all films consist of a range of different characters that fit into a specific character type, these being:  Hero  Villain  Princess  Princess’s father  Helper  Dispatcher  Donor  False hero
  • 6. Where can his character types be identified? What role do they play?  Within the Sixth Sense Propp’s Theory types can be seen to apply to some of the characters within the film.  For example, Malcolm one of the protagonists could be described as a hero type. This can be seen from Malcolm's drive to help young protagonist Cole to overcome his fears and to save and discover the source for his questionable mental health. This drive to help others is a conventional trait of a hero and meets with this type well.
  • 7.  However, it could be argued that the true hero is the young protagonist Cole who, at the end of the film, becomes Malcolm’s saviour, allowing him to move on as the twist reveals that he too was a ghost all along. This helps to surprise the audience by making an unlikely hero out of a character that is not conventional of this type, this being a young and vulnerable child, more likely to be portrayed as a victim or helper within the narrative.
  • 8. Levi-Strauss Conflict and Opposition Theory  Within Strauss’s Theory he believes that the constant creation of conflict/opposition propels a narrative and that a narrative can only end on a resolution of conflict.
  • 9. Are there any Binary oppositions in the film? What are they?  Within The Sixth Sense the focus upon the supernatural and the idea of spirits that linger within the world of the living after death creates a form of binary opposition. This can be seen from the contrasting idea of the living and the dead, who although live among each there are unaware of the others existence. However, within the film this opposition and separation is effectively interrupted. This is done so by the young protagonist Cole who, unlike others, can see these spirits, living in fear of their presence. This is effective in emphasising the unique nature of Cole’s abilities, effect in intriguing and enticing the audience to the narrative content. Also, the idea that the living, such as Cole are the protagonists and the ghosts of the dead the frightening antagonists which Cole constantly must hide and defend himself from creates this idea of good and evil through this opposition.
  • 10.  However, through the use of the twist a the end revealing the older protagonist Malcolm to also be a ghost, changes this cold perception of the spiritual world. This almost creates a balance between the two as the audience come to understand that the antagonistic connotation of the spirits were false and misunderstood. This is effective for portraying the narrative as this allows for the communication of a lesson to be learned, to not judge the different, as well as to develop the understanding of the audience after the film has been watched. This balancing of the opposites also helps to signal the formation of a new equilibrium as both the living and the dead begin to understand one another and listen to what they have to say.
  • 11. Barthes Enigma Code Theory  Within Barthes Theory he believes in the technique of Enigma codes. This is the portrayal of a mystery which has the effect of drawing in an audience, causing them to become intrigued and pose questions about the narrative and how it will progress.
  • 12. Have Enigma Codes been applied?  Through the film enigma codes are encoded throughout, constantly causing the audience to question what is happening and enticing them further as they desperately seek the answers to their constantly raising questions.  These can be seen in particular in the opening sequence, where the equilibrium of the protagonists is suddenly destroyed with the realisation of an intruder within their home. This is an effective enigma codes as this both raises tension within the audience, enticing them to watch further. As well as causing them to fear for the lives of the characters as they are uncertain of the dangers of this new antagonist and whether they will survive then night.
  • 13.  Other enigma codes can be found when Malcolm first meets Cole and like the protagonist the audience are uncertain what it is Cole is so afraid of within the narrative. However, as the film progresses the audience are rewarded with the knowledge that what Cole sees is something beyond the realm of the living, he sees the dead. This is effective in both connoting the dark themes of the thriller genre of the film as well as satisfying the audience as one of their questions has been answered. However, this in turn leads to further questions, such as the origins of Cole’s spiritual ability, therefore keeping the audience intrigued by retaining an atmosphere of mystery throughout the film.
  • 14. Conclusion  After conducting this research I believe that each theory has broadened my overall knowledge of each of the important conventions within a film and how they can be achieved. I believe that Toderov’s narrative theory has helped me understand the structure of a film narrative. This will help me when it comes to creating my own thriller opening sequence for a film as I will be able to use Toderov’s stages within my own work, clearly structuring and setting up the equilibrium stage of the film and perhaps foreshadowing the potential disruption. Also I believe that Propp's character types will allow for an accurate representation of characters within my piece, which can be easily identified by my target audience. Incorporating Barthes’s enigma codes will allow me to entice the audience within my piece, convincing them to commit to the rest of the film and the use of Strauss’s binary opposites will allow for a clear representation of good and evil within my piece, again providing the audience with a narrative and prospect that can be easily understood and identified.