THE EFFECT OF A FATHER FIGURE/MALE
CAREGIVER ON THE SEXUAL DEBUT OF
AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT
FEMALES SEEKING PSYCHIATRI...
BACKGROUND
 Average age of sexual debut in females in the U.S. is 17
years old
 African American females- 14.4 years
 T...
FIGURES FROM THE CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION,
2012
Syphilis rate in African
Americans is 7 times that
of whi...
BACKGROUND CONT.
 Family structure plays an integral role in sexual
debut, but most studies focus on the maternal
aspect
...
BACKGROUND CONT.
 Lack of research on the paternal influence has
been said to be attributed to father absence or
fathers ...
PROPOSALS:
 Based on previous research, we predicted that the
presence of a father figure/male caregiver would be
positiv...
METHODS
 Participants
 Participants were recruited from 8 mental health
institution in urban Chicago, IL
 266 mother da...
PROCEDURES
 Participants were administered
 questionnaires
 a computer-assisted self-interview
 a structured diagnosti...
PROCEDURES CONT.
 Questions answered by the mother:
 -Who currently lives in the home with the adolescent?
 -Is there c...
DATA ANALYSIS
 A series of frequencies, Chi Square, and
Independent T-Tests were run through IBM SPSS to
determine the po...
RESULTS 1
 Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver (Inside
or outside the home) versus the Absence of a
Father Figure/...
RESULTS 2
 Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver in the
Home versus No Father Figure/Male Caregiver in
the Home
 It...
RESULTS 3
 Presence of a Father Figure/ Male Caregiver in the
Home versus the Presence of a Father Figure/Male
Caregiver ...
Group Comparison Tests t df p
Presence of a Father Figure/Male
Caregiver (Inside or outside the home)
versus the Absence o...
DISCUSSION
Father Figures
Living in the
Home
Present
outside of the
home
Absent
34.8%
36% 29.2%
• Age of first sexual inte...
DISCUSSION CONT.
 No relationship between the presence of a father
figure (inside or outside of the home) and the age of
...
FURTHER RESEARCH
 Should look at different aspects of the father
daughter relationships (closeness, communication,
warmth...
LIMITATIONS
 Only 33.5% of the sample set had engaged in one
of the three type of sexual activity
 Tests should be re-ru...
QUESTIONS??
REFERENCES
 Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Youth behavior risk survey 1999. Washington,
DC: U.S. Dep...
REFERENCES CONT.
 Dittus, P., Jaccard, J., & Gordon, V. (1997). The impact of African American fathers on
adolescent sexu...
REFERENCES CONT.
 Hendricks, C. S., Cesario, S. K., Murdaugh, C., Gibbons, M. E., Servonsky, E. J., Bobadilla, R. V.,
Tav...
NAAAS 2014
of 23

NAAAS 2014

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NAAAS 2014

  • 1. THE EFFECT OF A FATHER FIGURE/MALE CAREGIVER ON THE SEXUAL DEBUT OF AFRICAN AMERICAN ADOLESCENT FEMALES SEEKING PSYCHIATRIC CARE Kayla Storrs University of Oklahoma Dr. Geri Donenberg UIC School of Public Health
  • 2. BACKGROUND  Average age of sexual debut in females in the U.S. is 17 years old  African American females- 14.4 years  Teens in psychiatric care tend to engage in more risky sexual behavior then teens not seeking psychiatric care, including early sexual activity, multiple sex partners, and higher rates of unprotected sex
  • 3. FIGURES FROM THE CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL AND PREVENTION, 2012 Syphilis rate in African Americans is 7 times that of whites 46% of people infected with HIV/AIDS are African American Consequences of Early Sexual Debut Chlamydia—Rates by Race/Ethnicity, United States, 2002–2011 Gonorrhea—Rates by Race/Ethnicity, United States, 2002–2011
  • 4. BACKGROUND CONT.  Family structure plays an integral role in sexual debut, but most studies focus on the maternal aspect  African Americans have the highest rate of single parent households- primarily mother-headed households  Mothers are perceived as the parent primarily responsible for providing directed education about sexuality
  • 5. BACKGROUND CONT.  Lack of research on the paternal influence has been said to be attributed to father absence or fathers being less likely to participate in research studies, but the few available studies suggest that greater paternal involvement is associated with less adolescent sexual behavior.
  • 6. PROPOSALS:  Based on previous research, we predicted that the presence of a father figure/male caregiver would be positively associated with the later sexual debut.
  • 7. METHODS  Participants  Participants were recruited from 8 mental health institution in urban Chicago, IL  266 mother daughter pairs participated in the study, all adolescents in the 12-16 year age range  Participants were self-identified African Americans who spoke English, understood the survey and assent process, and lived with their female caregiver for at least 3 months
  • 8. PROCEDURES  Participants were administered  questionnaires  a computer-assisted self-interview  a structured diagnostic interview  a variety of other activities that were unrelated to the data analysis. o Specific questions used for this study were taken from the GT Baseline Family Demographic Interview that was completed by the female caregivers as well as the AIDS Risk Behavior Assessment (ARBA) completed by the adolescent and include:
  • 9. PROCEDURES CONT.  Questions answered by the mother:  -Who currently lives in the home with the adolescent?  -Is there currently a male caregiver living in the home?  If so, who?  - Does the adolescent have a male caregiver living outside her home?  If so, who?  Questions answered by the adolescent:  -Have you ever engaged in oral sex?  -How old were you when you first engaged in oral sex?  -Have you ever engaged in vaginal sex?  -How old were you when you first engaged in vaginal sex?  -Have you ever engaged in anal sex?  -How old were you when you first engaged in anal sex?
  • 10. DATA ANALYSIS  A series of frequencies, Chi Square, and Independent T-Tests were run through IBM SPSS to determine the possible relationship between the presence of a father figure/male caregiver and the age of sexual debut of adolescent participants.
  • 11. RESULTS 1  Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver (Inside or outside the home) versus the Absence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver  It was found that there is no significant difference in the age of sexual debut of participants with a father figure/male caregiver (living in the home or present outside of the home) (M = 13.00, SD = 2.42), and the age of sexual debut of participants with no father figure/male caregiver (M = 12.47, SD = 3.16).
  • 12. RESULTS 2  Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver in the Home versus No Father Figure/Male Caregiver in the Home  It was found that there is no significant difference in the age of sexual debut of the participants with a father figure/male caregiver living in the home (M =12.53, SD =3.22) and the participants that either had a father figure/male caregiver present outside of the home or had no father figure/male caregiver present (M = 12.92, SD = 2.47)
  • 13. RESULTS 3  Presence of a Father Figure/ Male Caregiver in the Home versus the Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver outside the Home  It was found that there is no significant difference in the age of sexual debut of the participants that were living with a father figure/male caregiver (M =12.53, SD = 3.22) and participants that had a father figure/male caregiver present outside of the household (M = 13.38, SD =1.38).
  • 14. Group Comparison Tests t df p Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver (Inside or outside the home) versus the Absence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver .89 87 .38 Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver in the Home versus No Father Figure/Male Caregiver in the Home -.60 87 .55 Presence of a Father Figure/ Male Caregiver in the Home versus the Presence of a Father Figure/Male Caregiver outside the Home 1.33 55 .19
  • 15. DISCUSSION Father Figures Living in the Home Present outside of the home Absent 34.8% 36% 29.2% • Age of first sexual interaction range from 12.08 years to 16.92 years. • Types of father figures/male caregivers were broken down by type • Biological father, stepfather, adoptive father, etc.. Only 89 of the participants had engaged in one of the three types of sexual activity.
  • 16. DISCUSSION CONT.  No relationship between the presence of a father figure (inside or outside of the home) and the age of sexual debut  No relationship between the absence of a father figure/male caregiver and age of sexual debut  Previous studies have explored the impact the father daughter relationship on sexual debut
  • 17. FURTHER RESEARCH  Should look at different aspects of the father daughter relationships (closeness, communication, warmth, attachment) in association with sexual debut  Should consider the types of father figures/male caregivers in relation to sexual debut
  • 18. LIMITATIONS  Only 33.5% of the sample set had engaged in one of the three type of sexual activity  Tests should be re-run with the data collected from participants at the end of the study to evaluate changes  Our Study did not examine closeness, communication, attachment, warmth of father daughter relationships, therefore the study is significant to presence alone  Self-reported sexual activity  Our sample set is specific to African American adolescent females seeking psychiatric treatment  Results are not representative of the African American female population as a whole
  • 19. QUESTIONS??
  • 20. REFERENCES  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2000). Youth behavior risk survey 1999. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 2011 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/gonorrhea.htm  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 2011 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/chlamydia.htm  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 2011 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/figures/6.htm  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 2011 Sexually transmitted diseases surveillance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/std/stats11/figures/24.htm  Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2012). 2011 Key statistics from the national survey of family growth. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nchs/nsfg/abc_list_s.htm#sexualactivity  Crosby, R., Leichliter, J., & Brackbill, R. (n.d). Longitudinal prediction of sexually transmitted diseases among adolescents - Results from a national survey. American Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 18(4), 312-317.  Dangal, G. (2006). Teenage pregnancy: Complexities and challenges. JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc, 45(162).  Davis, A. A., Rhodes, J. E., & Hamilton-leaks, J. (1997). When both parents may be a source of support and problems: An analysis of pregnant and parenting female African American adolescents' relationships with their mothers and fathers. Journal of Research on Adolescence : The Official Journal of the Society for Research on Adolescence, 7(3), 331-348.  DiClemente, R. J., Wingood, G. M., Crosby, R., Cobb, B. K., Harrington, K., & Davies, S. L. (2001). Parent-adolescent communication and sexual risk behaviors among African American adolescent females. The Journal of Pediatrics, 139(3), 407-412.
  • 21. REFERENCES CONT.  Dittus, P., Jaccard, J., & Gordon, V. (1997). The impact of African American fathers on adolescent sexual behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 26(4), 445-465.  Donenberg, G., Emerson, E., Bryant, F., Wilson, H., & Weber-Shifrin, E. (2001). Understanding AIDS-risk behavior among adolescents in psychiatric care: Links to psychopathology and peer relationships. Journal Of The American Academy Of Child And Adolescent Psychiatry, 40(6), 642-653.  Donenberg, G. R., Bryant, F. B., Emerson, E., Wilson, H. W., & Pasch, K. E. (2003). Tracing the roots of early sexual debut among adolescents in psychiatric care. Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, 42(5), 594-608.  Donenberg, G. R., Emerson, E., & Mackesy-Amiti, M. E. (2011). Sexual risk among African American girls: Psychopathology and mother-daughter relationships. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 79(2), 153-158.  Dutra, R., Miller, K. S., & Forehand, R. (1999). The process and content of sexual communication with adolescents in two-parent families: Associations with sexual risk-taking behavior. AIDS And Behavior, 3(1), 59-66. doi:10.1023/A:1025419519668  Ellis, B. J., Bates, J. E., Dodge, K. A., Fergusson, D. M., Horwood, L. J., Pettit, G. S., & Woodward, L. (2003). Does father absence place daughters at special risk for early sexual activity and teenage pregnancy? Child Development, 74(3), 801-821.  Ellis, B. J., Schlomer, G. L., Tilley, E. H., & Butler, E. A. (2012). Impact of fathers on risky sexual behavior in daughters: A genetically and environmentally controlled sibling study. Development and Psychopathology, 24(1), 317-332.  Gordon Simons, L., Harbin Burt, C., & Blyskal Tambling, R. (2012). Identifying mediators of the influence of family factors on risky sexual behavior. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 22, 460-470.  Guilamo-Ramos, V., Bouris, A., Lee, J., McCarthy, K., Michael, S. L., Pitt-Barnes, S., & Dittus, P. (2012). Paternal influences on adolescent sexual risk behaviors: A structured literature review. Pediatrics, 130(5), e1313-25.
  • 22. REFERENCES CONT.  Hendricks, C. S., Cesario, S. K., Murdaugh, C., Gibbons, M. E., Servonsky, E. J., Bobadilla, R. V., Tavakoli, A. (2005). The influence of father absence on the self-esteem and self-reported sexual activity of rural southern adolescents. The ABNF Journal : Official Journal of the Association of Black Nursing Faculty in Higher Education, Inc, 16(6), 124-131.  Hollingshead, AB. Unpublished Manuscript. New Haven, CT: Yale University; 1975. Four Factor index of social status.  Jaccard, J. J., & Dittus, P. P. (1993). Parent-adolescent communication about premarital pregnancy. Families In Society: The Journal Of Contemporary Social Services, 74(6), 329-343.  Khurana, A., Romer, D., Betancourt, L. M., Brodsky, N. L., Giannetta, J. M., & Hurt, H. (2012). Early adolescent sexual debut: The mediating role of working memory ability, sensation seeking, and impulsivity. Developmental Psychology, 48(5), 1416-1428.  McBride Murray, V. (2007). Black American adolescent females sexual activity pattern: abstainers, mothers, and those in between. Retrieved from http://www.rcgd.isr.umich.edu/prba/perspectives/spring1997/vmurry.pdf  Oman, R. F., Vesely, S. F., & Aspy, C. B. (2005). Youth assets and sexual risk behavior: The importance of assets for youth residing in one-parent households. Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health, 37(1), 25-31.  Somers, C. L., & Paulson, S. E. (2000). Students' perceptions of parent-adolescent closeness and communication about sexuality: Relations with sexual knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. Journal of Adolescence, 23(5), 629-644.  Starr, L., Donenberg, G., & Emerson, E. (2012). Bidirectional Linkages Between Psychological Symptoms and Sexual Activities Among African American Adolescent Girls in Psychiatric Care. Journal Of Clinical Child And Adolescent Psychology, 41(6), 811-821.  Whitaker, D. J., Miller, K. S., May, D. C., & Levin, M. L. (1999). Teenage Partners' Communication about Sexual Risk and Condom Use: The Importance of Parent-Teenager Discussions. Family Planning Perspectives, 31(3), 117-121.

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