Let’s focus on two
key developments
of this era.
Population
Growth
Expanding
Networks of
Exchange
1
Population Growth
• Between 1000 BCE and 1 CE
world population rose from
about 120 to about 250 million.
• This rise was...
Population Growth
What caused
this surge in
population?
3
Population Growth
#1
The invention
of iron!
In Afroeurasia, iron axes, hoes,
spades, and plows enabled
farmers to clear a...
Population Growth
Farming and
pastoral
nomadism
replaced hunting
and gathering in
some regions.
#2
Farming and pastoral
n...
Population Growth
#3
Improved
species of
crops
produced
more food per
acre!
6
Population Growth
#4
Horses and
camels were
used for work!
#4
Work animals
made farms more
productive.
7
Population Growth
It was connected to the
build-up of natural
immunities to local
infectious diseases.
#5
People now live...
Population Growth
In Summary:
 In Afroeurasia, the invention of
iron enabled farmers to clear and
cultivate millions of a...
Population Growth
Consequences
What were the
consequences
of population
growth?
10
Population Growth
Consequences
Over time, the clearing of
forests led to soil erosion,
shortages of wood for fuel,
and the...
Population Growth
Consequences
As populations grew and
communities grew larger, more
complex, and closer together,
organiz...
Population Growth
Consequences
#3
Collective learning
increased!
13
Population Growth
Cities
#4
More people
began living in
large cities!
14
Alexandria
• Founded by Alexander the
Great in 331 BCE
• Important trade center
• Its library home to many
famous scholar...
Changan (Xian)
• Capital of China during the
Han dynasty
• Located at the eastern end of
the silk road
• Merchants and di...
Persepolis
• Founded in the 6th century
BCE by Darius I
• Capital of the Achaemenid
Empire of Persia
• Destroyed by Alex...
Rome
• Political and economic hub of
the Roman Empire
• World’s largest city in Big Era
Four, with nearly one million
res...
Teotihuacan
• Major city of the
Americas located in
the valley of Mexico
• From 400 to 600 CE, a
thriving commercial and
a...
Population Growth
In Summary:
Over time, deforestation led to
soil erosion, shortages of wood
for fuel, and the extincti...
Expanding Networks
Hmmm...
What is a
network of
exchange?
That’s easy! A network of
exchange is a web of
connections thr...
Expanding Networks
Routes
Around 300 BCE to 300 CE, merchants,
shippers, sea captains, and empire-builders
extended and s...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
In the Americas...
The Olmec of Mexico developed extensive trade
networks that extended hundre...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
The silk road,
Persian royal road,
Roman roads, and
shipping routes
combined to form
extensive
...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
On the map are some of the
goods traded along the
Afroeurasian networks.
25
Expanding Networks:
Routes
• A number of large states, or empires, appeared in
Big Era Four.
• Empire-builders had to move...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Roman Roads
The Romans built an
extensive network of
roads. Over 50,000
miles of paved roads,
...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Though built primarily to speed
troops and supplies, Roman roads
were used for commercial
purpo...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
The Silk Roads was a network of roads,
tracks, and trails ran across Inner Eurasia.
Most of thi...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Inner Eurasia is a region of grassy steppes, rugged
mountains, and forbidding deserts. This ter...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Domestication of the horse, ox, and camel made
humans more mobile.
About 3000 BCE, people in th...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Between 300 BCE and 300 CE,
long periods of stability and
prosperity in states throughout
Afroe...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
On the Silk Roads, goods changed
hands many times. Parthians,
Indians, Kushans, Uigurs, and
oth...
Expanding Networks:
Routes
Sea routes ran down the
Red Sea and Persian Gulf,
across the Arabian Sea and
Bay of Bengal, and...
Expanding Networks:
Empires
Empires had formed in Afroeurasia as
early as Big Era Three. Although many
claimed vast territ...
Large Empires of Afroeurasia
500 BCE - 500 CE
Rome Byzantium
Kush
Kushana
Parthian/
Sassanid
Maurya/
Gupta
Xiongnu
Han...
Expanding Networks:
Writing
Cool!
• Alphabetic writing systems appeared
in the later second millennium BCE.
These system...
Expanding Networks:
Religions
What is a world religion?
It’s a belief system that
embraces people of
differing languages ...
Growth of World
Religions
Hinduism
From lst
millennium BCE
Buddhism
From 5th century
BCE
Christianity
From 1st century
C...
Expanding Networks:
Religions
When people carried a
new religion from place
to place, they also often
took along
•A writi...
So, what have we
learned about two key
developments of this
era?
Population
growth and
networks
41
Population
Growth
Population growth in Big Era
Four was linked to the
expansion of agriculture.
Increases in population d...
So many
developments!
Hmmm… I wonder
what will happen
next.!
43
of 43

Population and Trade

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population and Trade

  • 1. Let’s focus on two key developments of this era. Population Growth Expanding Networks of Exchange 1
  • 2. Population Growth • Between 1000 BCE and 1 CE world population rose from about 120 to about 250 million. • This rise was fueled by an acceleration in the rate of growth during this time. • Between 3,000 and 1,000 BCE, it took about 1,600 years for world population to double. • Between 1,000 BCE and 1 CE the doubling time was less than 1,000 years. 2
  • 3. Population Growth What caused this surge in population? 3
  • 4. Population Growth #1 The invention of iron! In Afroeurasia, iron axes, hoes, spades, and plows enabled farmers to clear and cultivate millions of acres never before used for farming. 4
  • 5. Population Growth Farming and pastoral nomadism replaced hunting and gathering in some regions. #2 Farming and pastoral nomadism! People moved into previously uninhabited areas. 5
  • 6. Population Growth #3 Improved species of crops produced more food per acre! 6
  • 7. Population Growth #4 Horses and camels were used for work! #4 Work animals made farms more productive. 7
  • 8. Population Growth It was connected to the build-up of natural immunities to local infectious diseases. #5 People now lived in denser populations! 8
  • 9. Population Growth In Summary:  In Afroeurasia, the invention of iron enabled farmers to clear and cultivate millions of acres never before used for farming.  Farming and pastoral nomadism replaced hunting and gathering in some regions. People moved into previously uninhabited areas.  Improved kinds of crops produced more food per acre.  Horses and camels began to be used more as work animals, making farms more productive.  People began to live closer in denser populations. This led to the build-up of natural immunities to local infectious diseases but left people vulnerable to epidemics caused by diseases new to the region. 9
  • 10. Population Growth Consequences What were the consequences of population growth? 10
  • 11. Population Growth Consequences Over time, the clearing of forests led to soil erosion, shortages of wood for fuel, and the extinction of some local animal and plant species. #1 Deforestation! 11
  • 12. Population Growth Consequences As populations grew and communities grew larger, more complex, and closer together, organization became more important. New political, social, and economic systems emerged. #2 More complex societies! Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Sudra Untouchable The Indian Caste System 12
  • 13. Population Growth Consequences #3 Collective learning increased! 13
  • 14. Population Growth Cities #4 More people began living in large cities! 14
  • 15. Alexandria • Founded by Alexander the Great in 331 BCE • Important trade center • Its library home to many famous scholars There were not only Greeks and Italians, but also Syrians, Libyans, Cilicians and yet others from farther countries—Ethiopians, Arabs, as well as Bactrians, Scythians, Persians, and a few Indians. A Greek orator The Pharos Lighthouse in Alexandria writing about Alexandria 15
  • 16. Changan (Xian) • Capital of China during the Han dynasty • Located at the eastern end of the silk road • Merchants and diplomats brought trade goods and new ideas 16
  • 17. Persepolis • Founded in the 6th century BCE by Darius I • Capital of the Achaemenid Empire of Persia • Destroyed by Alexander the Great in 330 BCE 17
  • 18. Rome • Political and economic hub of the Roman Empire • World’s largest city in Big Era Four, with nearly one million residents • Elaborate water and sewer systems made Rome livable despite its size Not without good reason did gods and men choose this spot as the site of a city. Livy, a Roman historian 18
  • 19. Teotihuacan • Major city of the Americas located in the valley of Mexico • From 400 to 600 CE, a thriving commercial and agricultural center with 200,000 residents • The Pyramid of the Sun covered as much ground as the pyramid of Khufu in Egypt Photo: University of Arizona The Pyramid of the Sun, Teotihuacan 19
  • 20. Population Growth In Summary: Over time, deforestation led to soil erosion, shortages of wood for fuel, and the extinction of some local animal and plant species. Brahmin Kshatriya Vaishya Sudra When communities grew larger, more complex, and closer together, new political, social, and economic systems became necessary. Untouchable Collective learning increased, further fueling advances in technology. Although the vast majority of people still inhabited rural farming villages, more people than ever before began living in large cities. 20
  • 21. Expanding Networks Hmmm... What is a network of exchange? That’s easy! A network of exchange is a web of connections through which people, goods, and ideas circulate. Telephones, the Internet, and highways are all networks of exchange. 21
  • 22. Expanding Networks Routes Around 300 BCE to 300 CE, merchants, shippers, sea captains, and empire-builders extended and strengthened trade routes across Afroeurasia and the Americas. Empires Empires required networks of military and political communication. These networks encouraged interaction of many kinds over long distances. Writing With the appearance of alphabetic writing systems in Afroeurasia, people could communicate faster and easier than ever before. Religions The appearance of world religions— Hinduism, Judaism, Buddhism, and Christianity—stimulated cultural interchange across political and cultural boundaries. 22
  • 23. Expanding Networks: Routes In the Americas... The Olmec of Mexico developed extensive trade networks that extended hundreds of miles from Olmec territory. They imported jade and other raw materials for their crafts. Their exports included pottery and sculpture. The Tiwanakans in what is today Bolivia also began to build trade routes during Big Era Four. Llama caravans brought produce, wood, metals, and fish from outlying villages to the city of Tiwanaku. 23
  • 24. Expanding Networks: Routes The silk road, Persian royal road, Roman roads, and shipping routes combined to form extensive interregional networks of exchange in Afroeurasia. A wide variety of goods flowed along these networks… 24
  • 25. Expanding Networks: Routes On the map are some of the goods traded along the Afroeurasian networks. 25
  • 26. Expanding Networks: Routes • A number of large states, or empires, appeared in Big Era Four. • Empire-builders had to move troops and supplies, dispatch messages, gather intelligence, and collect taxes. • These tasks required good systems of communication and transport by land and sea. • These systems were created mainly to serve the empire’s government and army. • But they also served as highways of commerce, cultural exchange, and migration. An empire is a state that unites many territories and diverse peoples under one ruler or government. 26
  • 27. Expanding Networks: Routes Roman Roads The Romans built an extensive network of roads. Over 50,000 miles of paved roads, tracks, and trails radiated from the Forum in the center of Rome to all parts of the empire. 27
  • 28. Expanding Networks: Routes Though built primarily to speed troops and supplies, Roman roads were used for commercial purposes, too. Goods were shipped to distant provinces and beyond. Constructed by skilled engineers, the roads were strong enough to support half-ton wagons and wide enough to allow two-way traffic. 28
  • 29. Expanding Networks: Routes The Silk Roads was a network of roads, tracks, and trails ran across Inner Eurasia. Most of this region is part of the Great Arid Zone, the belt of dry country that extends across Afroeurasia. Inner Eurasia 29
  • 30. Expanding Networks: Routes Inner Eurasia is a region of grassy steppes, rugged mountains, and forbidding deserts. This terrain is hard to cross. Despite these harsh conditions, humans have been carrying goods, ideas, and technologies along the Silk Roads of Inner Eurasia for millennia. Inner Eurasia 1997, Encyclopedia Britannica Inc 30
  • 31. Expanding Networks: Routes Domestication of the horse, ox, and camel made humans more mobile. About 3000 BCE, people in the steppes of Inner Eurasia began to take up pastoralism. Because they moved with their herds, they typically did not grow crops. Instead, they traded with farmers and city-dwellers for food and other goods. By 1000 BCE, pastoralists controlled networks of exchange throughout Inner Eurasia . 31
  • 32. Expanding Networks: Routes Between 300 BCE and 300 CE, long periods of stability and prosperity in states throughout Afroeurasia stimulated interest in long distance trade. Intercontinental communication and the exchange of goods, became regular, organized, and protected by large empires. The Silk Roads carried shipments of Chinese silk but also many other goods. 32
  • 33. Expanding Networks: Routes On the Silk Roads, goods changed hands many times. Parthians, Indians, Kushans, Uigurs, and others acted as middlemen, selling and bartering goods, and taking profits. Caravans passing west carried silk, porcelain, jade, bronze, and spices. Those traveling east shipped gold and silver coins, ivory, gemstones, glassware, and carpets. 33
  • 34. Expanding Networks: Routes Sea routes ran down the Red Sea and Persian Gulf, across the Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal, and through the Straits of Malacca to the South China Sea. These sea lanes often linked up with overland routes, facilitating travel, trade, and the exchange of ideas across Afroeurasia. Roman Ship Indian Ship Chinese Ship 34
  • 35. Expanding Networks: Empires Empires had formed in Afroeurasia as early as Big Era Three. Although many claimed vast territories, most did not survive for long. In the 4th century BCE, Alexander the Great amassed an empire that stretched from Greece to India. Upon his death, however, the empire fragmented. The later centuries of Big Era Four saw the rise of new empires that both dominated huge expanses of land and remained unified for a long time. The Largest of these were the Han and Roman empires. 35
  • 36. Large Empires of Afroeurasia 500 BCE - 500 CE Rome Byzantium Kush Kushana Parthian/ Sassanid Maurya/ Gupta Xiongnu Han Axum 36
  • 37. Expanding Networks: Writing Cool! • Alphabetic writing systems appeared in the later second millennium BCE. These systems used a small number of symbols, or letters, to represent sounds. • Letters could be arranged in countless ways to form words. • The Phoenicians were among the first to devise an alphabet. • Because they were sailors and merchants, the idea of alphabetic writing spread wherever the Phoenicians traveled. • During the first millennium BCE alphabetic writing spread from the Mediterranean region to India. 37
  • 38. Expanding Networks: Religions What is a world religion? It’s a belief system that embraces people of differing languages and cultural traditions. Religions that spread during this era were: Hinduism Judaism Buddhism Christianity 38
  • 39. Growth of World Religions Hinduism From lst millennium BCE Buddhism From 5th century BCE Christianity From 1st century CE Judaism Communities scattered widely in Southwest Asia, Northern Africa, and Europe, especially from the first century CE. Outline Map: Microsoft Encarta Reference Library 2002 39
  • 40. Expanding Networks: Religions When people carried a new religion from place to place, they also often took along •A writing system (This was useful in teaching holy scripture.) •Trade goods (Religion was a basis of trust among merchants.) •Art styles (Religious ideas were often expressed in painting, sculpture, and architecture.) 40
  • 41. So, what have we learned about two key developments of this era? Population growth and networks 41
  • 42. Population Growth Population growth in Big Era Four was linked to the expansion of agriculture. Increases in population density and job specialization in farming communities led to the creation of more and larger cities. Expanded networks of exchange allowed people, goods, and ideas to move thousands of miles. The development of alphabetic writing systems speeded up the transfer of information. Also, people who met, shared ideas, and conducted business with one another helped spread new world religions across Afroeurasia. Expanding Networks of Exchange 42
  • 43. So many developments! Hmmm… I wonder what will happen next.! 43

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