s';l;]s-;fK/;lx'K;fK
(Précis Writing)
s';l;]s-/;lx'K;fK:
clt-pfKkfxfCF[ s]d-af d[hf]u'cfI d[;fKt'af ;fKr[IilG vSdf rf]s-df...
;lx'K ;fKdfF[ ylS_g[Tpl s';lIxfC:
(1) cfglC s[F[Sn[ nfIbfKk] mf]C;fI oIuGbfaf (terrible) glIdl y]w]F[cfI d[Gbf]s-dfgf;lT
r...
s'af]i-n[G d'Gw'D ofS. sF cfNnf] zSgld- ;'d-dfF[ s';[k- ;'d-dfF[ dfMF kT. o[D ;lufI
s'a]xG d[Fg-g[Guq cfglCwf] cfdfM Ff].
...
vf;fDn[ nful ;fKkfg-n[ s'o[s-of
gf]uK:
;fKkfg-glG nTylS d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG yS;fxfCg'n-n[ ylSk[Ghlaf s[hf]s-kf gfd-e]
Ff]. ...
;'Daf]xfCF[ rf]u'Nn[ j]C ofKdlg'n-n[ gl;fDafV yf]af]af g' vf;fDaf d[GpfD yS kf]i-ifI xlI
;i-h'Def] ;lufI.
gf]uK:
x[GwlD ...
of 5

Prices writing

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prices writing

  • 1. s';l;]s-;fK/;lx'K;fK (Précis Writing) s';l;]s-/;lx'K;fK: clt-pfKkfxfCF[ s]d-af d[hf]u'cfI d[;fKt'af ;fKr[IilG vSdf rf]s-dfcfI n'D;lclG m[Td[NnfCc] tfIaf rf]s-dfcfI ;fKdf ofd-aSslG ;lx'K;fK of s';l;]s-;fK d[d[Tt'. ;lx'KklG cfTtlGpfI ;fKr[In[G r'Skf s'xIalT v[GnfD oDaf glofFfxfC gldf ;'St[T s[FCaf kfk-df;fI glafg- d[af]ig[G. sG ;lx'KklNn[ tfIaf o[D ;lufI oFlS ofd-aS rf]s-dfF[ s'efC cfalC. s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ ylD of s'uf]xfC: ;lx'K rf]s-d[Nn[ ylS_g[Tpl ylD of s'uf]xfC glIjfC ;lufI o'Id[G o[s-kf jfC. sGxfC sSs]bIaf d[jfC_ (1) s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ rlgf]af yfdlI klCdf kf]i-. (2) s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ o[s-kf kfg-xfC nKdff d[g'Cg[G. x[SsfOI rfxf d[Ghf]s-dfgf kfg-xfC of]Cdf d[g'Cg[G. (3) s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ s'a'I ;fKr[IilNn[ n'D;l g' ySjfg- d[Ddfc] ;fFfIifI s';lI glt-t[Tn ;'F'Caf ;fKkfg-gf] ;fKdf kf]i-. (4) s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ tul s'a'I ;fKklG g[;ls-kf nft-nV n'D;l g' ySjfclG g'FlS s';lI glt-t[Tn ;'Dn[IV nln[I vfFfS glk-df kf]i-. (5) s';l;]s-/;lx'K ;fKd[Nn[ of rf]s-d[Nn[ ySjf g' s'a] gf]FlS s';lI glk-df r't-g' o[s-kf ;'TnfV k[GplI g' rSk[GplIxfC dlS;]g- d[Kdf;l kf]i-. x[Ss]cfI ;fKdf x]s-df kf]i-. y]cfI s'P[C of]Cdf g' tIbf]jf (criticism) rf]s-dF[G kfg- d[bfMg[G. f (6) s';l;]s-/;lx'KklG s'a'I ;fKr[IilNn[ ;'D nSsf] ylS nSFC (1/3) rf]s-df kf]i-.
  • 2. ;lx'K ;fKdfF[ ylS_g[Tpl s';lIxfC: (1) cfglC s[F[Sn[ nfIbfKk] mf]C;fI oIuGbfaf (terrible) glIdl y]w]F[cfI d[Gbf]s-dfgf;lT rlI;lIgfI o'I. v'g[C cfafIi] ofSkIu]V vfDP' clg-bf]C g' nfh]CF[G xfIwlDdlaf nfDnf]afxfCcfI s';lI d[glt-t'GplG of gfd[;fCF'G;lG. s[F[Sn[ d[ulF'CV s'Gw]bfIaf g' ;fDglu[DafxfCF[cfI. r'Skf oDaf cfDd[Tg[G. sG vfDa]s-d[G oSv'F rlDoI;lGa[Nn[ ;fKrfafxfCF[cfI ;fSdf d[G;'St'GgfI d[ulF'C. v[G glIdlg- vfDa]s-df ;lufIi] ofS. s'o[D s[TtlNn[ cfafi] yfI s[F[S s[F[S oSv';lFV oGp';lF. ;[Svfc] d'Ss'afV sla'claf. ;fKrf g' rf]a[Gn[cfI ;fSdf d[;'St''G. sGnfD xlIdfF[G nful ;[k-;lIdfF[G nfDa]xfCFC o[s-kf jfC. j]C y]cfI xf]k-. n'Knl gf]uK: n'KnlclG nTylS sG vfDa]s-sf] oDaf glIdl Ff]. sGglG y]w]F[cfI ;fSdf d[;'St'G nf]. sGglG yfIilNn[ s[F[S oGp'CV m[Tnfg-b'C s'efo[G ;[F';lC. n'KnlclG nTylS ;fSdfq x[Ss]af. ;fKrfafF[cfI ;fSdf d[Gp'St'G. ;[k-;lIdfF[ nfDa]FC d[uTt'C. (2) m[hlFl m[bfIdfV cf;fDuf] ;fDe[FfV ;lefS ofxfCF[G d'FfnfD rfJ x[Ss] rSd[Da'Caf j[a'Gbfq] ng-. kfu tf]dfI ;fDof]F[Gs] y'I;fKkf] (k]rfcf]) jfC kfu gfhlFl ;fDof]F[Gs] a}aNcf]. sG ;lufI ofSnfu[G ofSy'I ;'jfIF[G s[F[S ;fSylDV dfIwlDV ;fKkfg-V ;fKzSV yfs-o'wlD g' nf]o[DwlDxfCF[G s'a'I rlI;lGgfI ofS. ylS;]i-jf g' ylIufC rlI;lGgfI ofS. clS;fu[G vfDa]s-V tFi-blI tfI;fIV d[GpfDblI ofKdl kf]s-df g' ;fKkf]s- rf]d[G vfFfSkf vf sG ;lufI ofS. cfNnf] vf sGglG ;fDdlnf, v[bfC ;fKd'Gw'D ;fKrf s[F[S s[F[Sg'n-n[ oDaf df;d-a] d[d[Tt'C. cfSv[G v[DdfC v[Defc] rlc'i-d'Skf rf]s- sF cfNnf] yfs- s'wfs-sf] g'Kn f r'Kn k]s-n kT. gf]FlSsfI o[Dn[c] tfI;[k- d[af]i-g[Guq tfo[Dn[ dfMa]s-sfI g'Kdf ;'S. x[SsfOI ;'jfIn[ ylIufCclGgfI dMfFf]. ;fDhlS d'Gw'D gf]uK: ;fDhlS d'Gw'DdlG m[hlFl m[bfIV ;fDaf g' o[dfxfCF[ rSd'Ff k[Dd'Ff d[aft-t' d[o'MF'af y'I;fKnf]. sG ;lufI ofSy'I ;'jfIn[G ylS;]i-jf xli[cfI ofS. d[GpfD ofKdlclG cfSv[G tfhlaf rf]s- ;fDhlS d'Gw'DdlG v[Defc] tfhlafc] jfC. sG ;lufI s[F[S rclTxfCF[G
  • 3. s'af]i-n[G d'Gw'D ofS. sF cfNnf] zSgld- ;'d-dfF[ s';[k- ;'d-dfF[ dfMF kT. o[D ;lufI s'a]xG d[Fg-g[Guq cfglCwf] cfdfM Ff]. (3) clS;fu[G vfDa]s-sf] d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG nTylS ;fi-u'u[GafV ;lSs'DblI glIjfC s[uKkf yS;fFf]. j]C s[F[S yS;fxfC s'ef]cf] sTt';l. cfSs]af jfgfD of t[GgfDcf]cfI v'g[C xlIdf g' yScld- (adjust) kf]i-df ;'S. v'g[C s'h[ofd-ef] g' s'bul s[o[Kkf xDef]xfCcfI mf]ufKcf] tfkdf ;'St';lC. v'g[C clS;fu[G vfDa]s- g' tFi-blI tfI;fI vfFfSV oIPI g' jfxI vfFfSV t[NnS g' ofSk]s- vfFfSV x'SsfK d[Tt'cfI jfC. cfNnf]af o[Ddf] rf]a[GglG d[GpfDu[G ofKdlF[ nTylS s'gf] s'alC g' m[h'D m[of kf]s-v[cfI jfC. s';i-h'Def]F[G yf]af] s'xlIdGn[ vf v[G rf]a[GnfDd] kf]i-n kT. cfNnf] vf sG rf]a[GnfDd] xfIu[G rf]u'F kT. d[GpfDu[G ofDdl g' rf]a[G gf]uK: sf]o[Ddf] d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclNn[ rf]a[Gn[ s'efCF[ clS;fu[G vfDa]s-sf]af jfgfDdlGg] s'glIjfCF[G s'yfKyfK n[Kdf x]s-t'. d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG cfSs]af r[ofd-ef] g' xDef]xfCF[cfI d[xD;'G. nfh]C ;i-h'Def] g' d[GpfDn[G yf]af] g' vf;fDdfI vf sG rf]a[GnfDc] kf]i-. (4) d[GpfD ofKdlclG j]C yS;fxfCg' ylSk[Ghlaf kft-y'In[ ylS;]i-jf s[alCaf ;fKkfg-. c'gf o[Dn[ d[GpfDu[G ofKdl yS;f x[Ss]a} d[jo[. tfDe'Iif] y] d[PfM];' v[GxfCc] d[;'K;' d[hf]. cfSs]af t[GxfC d[Pf];' v[DefCaf t[GxfCcf]c] d[o'Mi[V d[clK;[. sF o[D n[S;lGn k] v'glC xlDafqDV s[;q' I g' n[Ko[s-xfC n[S;lGn k]. ySjf g' clt-gld- kfM]F[F k]. glIjfC kfg-xfC xSdfF[ nful ;fKkfg- tfKvf] kf]s-v[. s';IV s';I rluf]s-jfxfC d[do[F d[a]. rfdfV y'IdfV o'Idf g' jfCdfF[G jfgfDdfI n[S;lGn k]. sG s[F[S s'F[S;lIV yf]af] g' vf;fDxfC ;fKkfgxf]k-t[uq kf]i-df d[;'St[Gd[G. c]]G vf sG ;fKkfg-n[ gfd-e]nfD ;lSs'DblI glIjfCV clt-plIV ySjf g' clt-gld-xfC d[xS;lG x[Ss]cfI ;fKrf g' rf]a[GxfC d[afM]F[F d[a]. clk-df ;'Sd[Gb[Kdfgf ofd-aSxfC d[af]s-v[F d[a]. d[GpfD ofKdlF[ n'Ddf] yf]af] g' vf;fD r'St[F k].
  • 4. vf;fDn[ nful ;fKkfg-n[ s'o[s-of gf]uK: ;fKkfg-glG nTylS d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG yS;fxfCg'n-n[ ylSk[Ghlaf s[hf]s-kf gfd-e] Ff]. vf sG ;fKkfg-nfD d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclNn[ ;fKrf]claf ;lSs'DblI s'glIjfCV s'wSjfV s'cltgld- g' s'hf]s-clt-xfC d[xS;lG j]CclNn[cfI x'C;lG. s';IV s';I clk-df ;'Sd[Gb[Ddfgf rluf]sjfxfC tfKvf] d[af]s-v[. s[F[S jfgfD o'IgfD jfCgfDxfC n[S;lG. yf]af] g' vf;fD r'St[. s[F[Ss] ;fKkfg-n[ s'g'gfd]. (5) clS;fu[G vfDa]s-sf] vfDbf]C ;fjfg- kf]i-ifI sTgf j]CF[G s'efC g' sDafqI rfxfhf]s-. v'g[C k[F[i-jf g' cfa'af jfCclNn[ cfafi] s'xlD;oi-af x[Ss]cfI ;i-h'Def]F[G s'efC g' mfFf rfxhf]s-. t'Sv]_nfSv]cf]V t'S;fSslNn[cfI j]CF[Gg] s'efC rfxhf]s-. s'hfV s'wl of ofI;f f s'Gw] rfxf rf]s-slNn[cfI j]CF[cf] mfFf rf]s-V s'efC gfs-t';l. j]CF[cfI s'efC d[gfu'uq mfCF';l. y]cfIa]a[Nn[ v'g[C nTylS ;i-h'Def]cf] ;'dfhlaf yS;f kf]i-dfcfI xlIdf kf]i-. cfafi] xlIdfcfI j]CxfCcfI xlIdf;l kf]i-. j]CcfI d[xlIuq v'g[CcfI xlIdf ;'S. ylSn]k-kf kf]i-dcfI f c]s-;f jfCdfV o'Idf g' xlIdf d[;'Sg[G. s'c]s-;f xlIa]s-uq v'g[C kf]i-df ;'S yS;f of glIjfCm'df. d[GpfD nTylS ;'dfhlaf yS;f gf]uK: d[GpfDu[G ofKdl d[Kdfgfa[G nTylS ;'dfhlaf yS;fFf]. ;i-h'Def] ;lufI v'g[C nTylS ;oi-af kf]i-ifI xlI. cfSs]af r[ofd-ef] g' xDef] tfM;fI j]CF[ s'efCF[ cDb[Djf (solve/overcome/tackle) rf]u'. x[Ss]n-n[;fC tfDe'I yS;f g' glIjfCm'df x[Ss] d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG ylSn]k-kf kf]i-dfcfI xlIdf d[;'Sg[G. (6) cfSvf]af s'F[GglG cfNnf]af tfgfDdlNn[ cf];[g- cfwfS d[aft-t' cl;ls- cfTtlGpfI d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclNn[ s';'Daf]clG v'g[C o'IafV jfCafV kIjfafV rf]afV y'i'afV nfIP]s-kfV x[SsfOI rf]u'af ofd-aS g' j]Cj]C ofKdlxfCg' tfCh[Iaf n[Ko[s-xfCnfD s';lI glk-df ;'St[T. v'g[C cfTtl k]s-;IV f jfC;fI s'gS;'d-af g' s'FfIhIxfC d[bf]s-g[G. cfSs]bIaf t[Ggf];fIV jfgfDdf];fI xTt'. ;ih'Def]F[ dlS d[ofCF'G. sG s'gf] s';'Daf]clG d[gl;'cfI j]C ofKdlxfCcfI cf]d' nfCF';l y]cfIa]a[Nn[ v'g[C cfafi]g'n-n[ y'Ibf]a[G gfhD klCdf g' mf]C;fIa[G dld- d[Kdf n[;'cfI jfC. v'g[CcfI s[F[Sn[ dld- g' gfhD d[d[Tt'V d[;fdC'CV x[SsfOI gfd[;fCF'. v'g[C vf sSs]bIaf
  • 5. ;'Daf]xfCF[ rf]u'Nn[ j]C ofKdlg'n-n[ gl;fDafV yf]af]af g' vf;fDaf d[GpfD yS kf]i-ifI xlI ;i-h'Def] ;lufI. gf]uK: x[GwlD g' d[GpfD gf]af ylD ;lufI n[Ko[s- g' rKtfC jfCdf g' s'efI ;lufI nfIP]s-df jfCd[G d[GpfDu[G ofKdlF[G nTylS x[GwlDnf]. gf]af x[GwlD s[uKkf d[GpfDdlG cfSs]bIaf jfgfD g' t[TgfDdf];fI xlIdf ;'S. v'g[C ;i-h'Def] ;lufI s[F[Sn[ dld- g' gfhD d[d[Tt'. cfafi]cfI cf]d' nfCF'cfI jfC j]CxfCcfI cf]d' s[FfCaf rf]u';l. (7) cfTtlGpfI d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG clS;fu[G vfDa]s-d[Kdf] j]C yS;fu[G s'a'g'n-n[ ylSk[Ghlaf g' yfi-;f]a[Daf yS;fF[G dlS;]g- s[hf]s-kf kfk-df;fI v[Db'C. sG d[g-g] d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclGgfI yS;fF[ s'a[Ggf] tfM of d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclG cfSv[G yf]af]af jfC;fI s'dlI g' s'clt- d[g-g]af yS;ff kf]i-. nfh]Ccf]V ;i-h'def]cf] d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclNn[ cfSv[G ofI;fuG s'Gw] g' gf]dlIzf] yMu' sF sGglG d[g-g] v'g[C nTylS cld[G d[g-g]af n'I of [ ;lI x[Ss]afFC kf]i-. v[Nn[ rf]u'Nn[ ;fDglafxfCF[ sGglG d[GpfDu[G ofKdlF[G nTylS ylSk[GhljffFf] nCFlS d[aft-t'cfI jfC. sGn[c] gfd-e]nfD d[GpfDu[G ofKdlclNn[ s'glIjfC ;lufIaf kfg-V d]FlIn[G kfg-V dld-F[G kfg-V gf]af_m[DafFG kfg-V t'Sv]_;'Sv]F[G kfg-V [ ;[KdfIn[G kfg-xfC xSt'cfI j]CF[ s';lI cfglt-t'D. sGn[c] gfd-e]nfD ySjfV clt-nf]V cltplI g' clt-rf]xfC ;fDdlnfV ;'DV v[bfCV zSclIPI d[af]i-ifI d[xS;lGV j]CclNn[ s';lI glt-t'. sGglG d[g-g] rf]a[G g' ;fKrffxfCF[cfI y]cfI rf]s-df d[x]CF'G. sGglG xf]k-sF vlclIV d'GclI g' vfglIn[cfI y]cfI rf]s-df d[;'St'G. v[Nn[ rf]u'Nn[ sGglG d[GpfDu[G ofKdlxfC tfuFf glIjfCm'd[Nn[ cfalF[af nTylS oDaf y'D;fDaf sfKnf kfk-df;fI g'CFf]. sGglG xlIdf [ cf;'St'DuT cfglCcfI xlIdf cf;'Snf]. ;fKkfg- g' d[GpfDu[G ofKdl gf]uK: ;fKkfg-glG d[GpfDu[G ofKdlg- j]C yS;fu[G s'a'xfCg' ylSk[Ghlaf s[hf]s-kf nTylS sfKnfFf]. ;fKkfg-n[ cfTtlGpfI ofKdlg- of ;'jfIilG j]CxfCg' j]C ;[Gb';la[Nn[ ylS;]i-jefI f kfk-df;fI v[Db'C. sGn[c] gfd-e]nfD d[GpfDu[G ofKdlNn[ s[F[Ss] kft-t'cfI of ;fKt'cfI xSt'. sGglG d[g-g] ;fKrf] g' rf]a[Gn[cfI y]cfI rf]s-df d[x]CF'G. x[Ss]n-n[;fC sGglG xlIP'D x[Ss]cfI cfglCcfI xlil.