A Study of Training Need Analysis Based Training and
Development: Effect of Training on Performance by Adopting
Developmen...
In today‟s complex and fast changing organizational environment, developing
human resources is of paramount importance and...
of the human resources as well as identify areas of professional weaknesses to
rectify well before any damage takes place ...
(1989) stated that “Legal action should not be the inevitable last step in the
process; branches should be educated to eva...
Debnath (2003) indicates that productivity of manpower in the banking sector of
Bangladesh will have to be increased by pr...
Banks” and has suggested that HR policies of Public Sector Banks should be
revised there by making them more competitive i...
selling of financial products. Training programs on Personal Effectiveness,
Leadership Excellence and Art of Living are de...
Table I:
Designation
wise
distributions
of employees
Area
No.
%
Top
20
level
Middle 40
level
Lower 40
level
Total
100
PNB...
of 8

King

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Business      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - King

  • 1. A Study of Training Need Analysis Based Training and Development: Effect of Training on Performance by Adopting Development Based Strategy Aarti chahal (HR, MBA, DCRUST, India) ABSTRACT: Training and development enables employees to develop skills and competencies necessary to enhance bottom-line results for their organization. It is a key ingredient in banking sector for organizational performance improvement. It ensures that randomness is reduced and learning or behavioral change takes place in structured format. Training and Development helps in increasing the job knowledge and skills of employees at each level and helps to expand the horizons of human intellect and an overall personality of the employees. This paper analyzes the status of various need analysis based training and development practices in Punjab National Bank and HDFC bank and explores the proposed link between the training and employees’ productivity by adopting development based theory. The study makes use of statistical techniques such as percentage, mean, standard deviation, standard error and coefficient of variation in analysing the data for finding the result. The result shown that the Training in PNB & HDFC is average and there is scope for improvement in training. The perception of employees regarding the Training and Development somewhat differs significantly on the basis of gender and designation. Consequently the recommendations support for the noteworthy of needs assessment of training which will bring a constructive worth in banking sector. Keywords - Training and Development, Training Need Analysis, PNB, HDFC, Employees Performance I. INTRODUCTION Training and Development is an attempt to improve current or future employee performance by increasing an employee‟s ability to perform through learning, usually by changing the employee‟s attitude or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Since the beginning of the twentieth century and especially after World War II, training programs have become widespread among organizations, involving more and more employees and also expanding in content. In India the banking industry becoming more competitive than ever, private and public sector banks are competing with each other to perform well. The executives of the bank are now in the position to modify their traditional human resources practice in to innovative human resources practices in order to meet the challenges from other competitive banks. This study is build upon the previous training literatures by providing a detailed examination of training needs assessment and organizational effectiveness based upon development based strategy. The question of the amount of training needs assessment and the effect of training is answered through evaluation process. The purpose of training need assessment is to add value to an organization. Hence, evaluation measures the progress in achieving this goal by purposefully improving training programs and measuring their worth. The training programs are established by the needs assessment of training. A thorough needs assessment leads to effective and efficient training, which increases the likelihood that evaluation will demonstrate successful value added outcomes (Armstrong, 2007).
  • 2. In today‟s complex and fast changing organizational environment, developing human resources is of paramount importance and training has now become one of the important segments of Human Resource Development (HRD) process. That is why the efficiency of any organization depends directly on how well its employees are trained. Training motivates employees to work efficiently and it is widely accepted as a problem solving tool. The Human Resource Development department has to play a more proactive role in shaping the employees to fight out the challenges. The banks not only have to make plans and policies and devise strategies, the actual functionaries have to show willingness, competence and effectiveness in executing the said policies and strategies. Both training and development are necessary for any organization. In the opinion of Dr. Leonard(1), Nadler development is concerned with providing learning experience to employees so that they may be ready to move into a new direction that organizational change may require. So it is evident that training and development forms an integral part of human resources development process and should be in unison. In commercial organizations like banks, HRD departments have the advantages of not being excessively burdened with day–to–day problems of running the banks or ensuring profitability of individual transactions. They are in positions to take strategic and long term view of the competitive advantage A Study Of Training Need Analysis Based Training And Development: Effect… www.ijbmi.org 42 | P a g e
  • 3. of the human resources as well as identify areas of professional weaknesses to rectify well before any damage takes place in the organization. According to Flippo(1), “Training is the act of increasing knowledge and skill of an employee for doing a particular job”. Dale S. Beach(2) “Training is the organized procedure by which people learn knowledge and or skills for a definite purpose”. Berger (2000) states the expenditure on human resource is imperatively high rising. Given the role of training as a business strategy it is important that any training effort be targeted and relevant. Thus, the process by which training needs are identified and addressed becomes a critical issue for organizations. It will introduce basic needs assessment terminology and discuss potential options for the process. II. LITERATURE REVIEW Sharma (1974) “The expansion of banking facilities was uneven and lopsided, and banks were concentrating their operations in metropolitan cities and towns. A fairly large number of rural and semi urban centers with reasonable potentialities of growth failed to attract the attention of commercial banks. As far as the deposit mobilization in the rural areas is concerned, much remains to be done. Sampat, Vaghul and Varde (1977) clearly state that, the training system will have to be aimed at providing professional banking education to the employees in the industry. On the job experience should be a necessary part of the training strategy. Agrawal (1978) review the existing the training and education system and examine whether the present arrangements would meet this challenge. The idea of Banking Academy intended to integrate the entire training and educational programs within a framework of interdependent units in the country is open to wide discussion by the educationists, government authorities and the banking industry. Saxena (1978) stated the “Improvement in the systems and procedures of inspection of stocks, maintenance of stock register is required. Reforms should be initiated in extension of sponsorship schemes, recovery and consultancy.” Bhatnagar (1983) the immediate objective of the training should be to help the participants perform more effectively the activities enrolls they are performing at presents. The training programs for branch manager should be design around the specific skills required by them. Patel (1984) many of the problems of the banking in rural areas and the apprehensions arising from such problem were largely due to inadequate understanding of the rural areas, activities and the people. Even the lack of orientation in some quarters was largely due to this knowledge gap, the gap in the information and knowledge had created a situation where in the banking norms developed for other sectors which were not generally relevant to the rural areas were applied blindly. Padwal and Naidu (1985) training needs help to identify existing training gap, what type of training can be under taken by outside agencies, and accordingly schedule the training programs for the bank staff.” Chandran
  • 4. (1989) stated that “Legal action should not be the inevitable last step in the process; branches should be educated to evaluate this option for recovery, like any other option, objectively before launching the same. Building up an information infrastructure at the apex level first and at the lower tiers subsequently should be initiated.” Barthakur (1990) focuses on the information processing mechanism of the mind, it cursorily touches upon the social psychological variables governing the organize teaching learning process. Richards (1997) Management Training-the Real Objectives views that while embarking upon a management program, the real objective must be to focus on the individual manager, not the position in the company. The author's discussion on training needs analysis i.e., about core competencies, job profiling and identification of competencies gaps-either against core competencies for individuals or against job profiles for generic roles is worth mentioning. Badhu and Saxena (1999) role of Training in Developing Human Resources is another work of relevance. In this, the authors concluded that an organization should have well-defined training policy as well as training manual and training should be made an ongoing process. Regarding the executive development programs the authors have concluded that, these programs have been found to be useful in improving the productivity, efficiency and effectiveness of managers. The authors have suggested that these programs should be included as an integral part of the training program. Kaufman and Valentine (1999) refer to needs assessment as the process for identifying and prioritizing gaps in performance. In contrast, they define needs analysis as the process for attributing cause to identify performance gaps. Hence, the entire process will be referred as needs assessment. So, once training has been conducted, a comprehensive evaluation should follow. However, Goldstein (2001) claims that, of all of the best practices, needs assessment is probably the most important part of the process. Therefore, training needs assessment is the foundation of the entire instructional design process. It establishes the content of subsequent training. If not done correctly, or at all, the job-relatedness, effectiveness and validity of any training program is jeopardized. In addition, needs assessment provides a database to support or justify resource allocation for other human resource functions. Therefore, Rothwell (2002) indicates effective training as systematically designed learning, based on a complete analysis of job requirements and trainee compatibility. This clarification implies a definite training process, one highly regarded model for describing the systematic development of training programs is the instruction design process. A Study Of Training Need Analysis Based Training And Development: Effect… www.ijbmi.org 43 | P a g e
  • 5. Debnath (2003) indicates that productivity of manpower in the banking sector of Bangladesh will have to be increased by proper training both on the job and off the job. Moreover, Decenzo & Robins (2003) state “training brings about the changes in ability, awareness, approach and behavior”. Besides, Griffin (2003) supports training usually in human resources management perspective refers to teaching operational and technical employees as to how to do the job for which they were hired. Kozlowski & Salas (2003) training needs assessment is traditionally regarded as a diagnostic process that occurs before training. The purpose of formal needs assessment is to identify the training targets. In the past, there has been disagreement about the appropriate terminology to describe this process. Some authors choose to distinguish needs assessment from needs analysis. Das and Ghosh‟s (2004) sample study conducted “to know the performance of bank CEOs in the era of corporate governance, tried to identify the adaptability characteristics of CEOs in terms of technology. The study also states that CEOs of poorly performing banks are likely to face higher turnover than CEOs of well performing ones.” Glaveli and Rainaye (2004) in their study empirically examined the training policy in two commercial banks, namely, State Bank of India and Jammu & Kashmir Bank Limited. The focus is on the various facets of training including Management‟s attitude towards training, training inputs, quality of training programs and transfer of training to the job. Furthermore, Mathis & Jackson (2004) state „training as a procedure whereby people obtain capabilities to assist in the accomplishment of organizational objectives‟. Rohmetra (2004) conclude that an unimpressive HRD climate and a weak IT perspective has been able to contribute towards each other .A good training and development climate could possibly boost up the technology environment or a good technology environment could facilitate development of human resources. Kufidu (2005) in their paper analyzed the changes that took place in the Greek banking industry in the last years, their impact on the role of employees training and development for strategy implementation and success, using four case studies to investigate the effect of the environmental changes on these particular banks and the role of their training and development strategies in adjusting themselves to the changing industry environment. Ford (2006), training effectiveness is a broad construct that identifies situational or contextual factors impacting learning, retention and transfer. This focus is critical for uncovering whether a training program was effective or ineffective due to characteristics of the program or to factors outside the control of the training system. Tyson (2006) training function for most organizations is not as effective or efficient as it could be. To truly be effective or successful, training programs must incorporate more of the established best practices. Lincoln, Krishna and Rao (2008) conducted a study on “HRM Practices in Public Sector and Private Sector
  • 6. Banks” and has suggested that HR policies of Public Sector Banks should be revised there by making them more competitive in this challenging era of globalization”. The Man Power Services Commission‟s glossary of training terms defines „training‟ as a planned process to modify attitude, knowledge, skill, behavior through learning experience, to achieve effective performance in an activity or range of activities‟‟. Karthikeyan, Karthi and Shyamala (2010) Graf assess the effectiveness of the various facets of training i.e. employee‟s attitude towards training inputs; quality of training programs; training inputs and application of training inputs to the actual job. III. TRAINING STRATEGIES USED IN BANKS Training program should be repeated at regular intervals for individuals to provide reinforcement of learning. At present the following types of programs will be designed and conducted by the training centers. 3.1 Standard program on repetitive basis. 3.2 Role orientation courses in functional areas. 3.3 Special courses and seminars. 3.4 Sales training for supervisory and field personnel. The first category should be attended by all employees at predetermined intervals. A course will also be given to all officers when they move from one level of job to another. When an officer is appointed as Branch, Divisional or Zonal Managers for the first time, he would be assigned to a program to help him understand the demands of his new role. This will also apply to persons who are appointed as Heads of a Department in Branch office. The second and third category of courses will be arranged regularly for officers as they enter into that function at the Divisional, Zonal of Central office level in case they have not attended a program in that function earlier. No officer should hold a post in functional area for more than six months unless he has attended a program in that function. The third categories of courses are special program depending on the specific requirements of the particular level or the group. The fourth categories of courses are meant for field staffdevelopment officers and agents. Training at HDFC is based on up gradation of competencies and skills. It is an integral part of their business strategy. Almost all employees have undergone training to enhance their technical skills or the softer behavioral skills to be able to deliver the service standards that the company has set for itself. Besides the mandatory training that Financial Consultants have to undergo prior to being licensed, they have developed and implemented various training modules covering various aspects including product knowledge, selling skills, objection handling skills and so on. New training initiatives includes Lead Management, rural housing and cross A Study Of Training Need Analysis Based Training And Development: Effect… www.ijbmi.org 44 | P a g e
  • 7. selling of financial products. Training programs on Personal Effectiveness, Leadership Excellence and Art of Living are delivered by Guest Lecturers. IV. OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY 4.1 To study the Training practices prevailing in PNB and HDFC bank. 4.2 To know the satisfactory level of the employees regarding the training and development programs. 4.3 To associate employees personal factors like gender, designation and the employee‟s attitude on Training. 4.4 To study the effect of Training and Development on organizational performance. 4.5 To study the differences in the effectiveness of training program between commercial and private banks. V. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY AND DESIGN Research methodology comprises a number of alternative approaches and interrelated and frequently overlapping procedures and practices. Since there are many aspects of research methodology, the line of action has to be chosen from a variety of alternatives the choice of suitable method can be arrived at through the objective assessed and comparison of various competing alternatives. A research design is the basic plan, which guides the data collection and analyses the phases of the research project. The research design of the present study was mainly “explanatory” in nature as the main purpose of the study was to explore nature and extent of deterioration in the quality of training and thereby to find out whether the employees were satisfied with the training of “Commercial banks (PNB) and Private banks (HDFC)”. When competitive environment highly influenced by the quality of product available in market heavily depend upon the efficiency and effectiveness of manpower i.e. the human resource. 5.1 Primary and secondary data To carry out the objectives, the researcher has used both primary and secondary data. The secondary data and information have been collected from various sources like business newspapers, journals, magazines, RBI Reports and publications etc. Primary data has been collected through structured questionnaire from the employees of PNB Bank (public sector bank) and HDFC Bank (private sector bank). 5.2 Sample design For the purpose of the study, the researcher selected the branches of PNB and HDFC on the basis of random and stratified technique. Random and stratified sampling is the least expensive and least time consuming of all sampling techniques. The sampling units are accessible, easy to measure and cooperative. The researcher personally contacted 200 employees of PNB and HDFC bank (100 each) in NCR region. They were appraised about the purpose of the study and request was made to them to fill up the questionnaire with correct and unbiased information. 5.3 Selection of sample respondents
  • 8. Table I: Designation wise distributions of employees Area No. % Top 20 level Middle 40 level Lower 40 level Total 100 PNB (commercial bank) HDFC (private bank) No. % Total 10 20 10 No. 40 % 20 20 40 20 80 40 20 40 20 80 40 50 100 50% 200 100

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