1
The 3 Basic Assumptions of
the Kinetic Theory
1. All matter is composed of small
particles (atoms ions or molecules)part...
2
Standard Atmospheric Pressure
101.325 kPa101.325 kPa
760 mmHg
760 torr
14.7 psi
All of these represent
the same pressure...
3
Example
Convert: 477 kPa = ___________ torr
What would the pressure 26.5 psi be if it
×
kPa477
=
kPa101.325
torr760
torr...
4
Effects of Temperature on
Molecular Motion
• Temperature of a substance is the avg• Temperature of a substance is the av...
5
Temperature Conversion Equations
• Celsius Fahrenheit
• Fahrenheit Celsius
• Celsius Kelvin
32)8.1T(T CF +×=
8.1
)32T(
T...
6
States of Matter
Liquid
• Restricted particle motion
• Particles vibrate and slip past one
another
• Liquids have a defi...
of 6

Kinetic theory

Molecular Motion/Pressure/Temperature
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Science      Technology      Business      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Kinetic theory

  • 1. 1 The 3 Basic Assumptions of the Kinetic Theory 1. All matter is composed of small particles (atoms ions or molecules)particles (atoms, ions, or molecules) 2. These small particles are in constant motion 3. All collisions between particles are perfectly elasticperfectly elastic. - there is no change in total Kinetic Energy of two particles before and after their collision Pressure • Caused by the force of collision and the # of collisions with the walls of athe # of collisions with the walls of a container • Standard Pressure (avg. air pressure at sea level) = 101.325 kPa • Pressure can be directly or inverselyPressure can be directly or inversely related or proportional to other characteristics of gases (temp, volume)
  • 2. 2 Standard Atmospheric Pressure 101.325 kPa101.325 kPa 760 mmHg 760 torr 14.7 psi All of these represent the same pressure – Standard Atmospheric Pressure – just inp 1 atm 29.92 inHg different pressure units Converting Pressure Units 1. Write down what you’re given 2. Conversion factor: units)(originalPressureStandard units)(desiredPressureStandard 3. Cancel units and solve units)(originalPressureStandard
  • 3. 3 Example Convert: 477 kPa = ___________ torr What would the pressure 26.5 psi be if it × kPa477 = kPa101.325 torr760 torr 101.325 362520 torr5803= p p were expressed in units of in Hg? × psi6.52 = psi14.7 inHg92.29 inHg 14.7 88.792 inHg9.53= Factors Affecting Molecular Motion • Speed of gas particles depends on: –Temperature –Mass of the particle • Lighter gases travel faster thang g heavier gases (at the same temperature)
  • 4. 4 Effects of Temperature on Molecular Motion • Temperature of a substance is the avg• Temperature of a substance is the avg. KE of its particles • A decrease in temperature causes decrease in speed Sl d f lli i• Slower speed = fewer collisions lower pressure Temperature (cont.) • Standard unit of temperature = Kelvin (K) • Absolute zero – temperature at which all molecular motion ceases –(0 K = -273.15°C) –Round to –273 °C • Conversion between K and °C: K = °C + 273
  • 5. 5 Temperature Conversion Equations • Celsius Fahrenheit • Fahrenheit Celsius • Celsius Kelvin 32)8.1T(T CF +×= 8.1 )32T( T F C − = 273TT + • Kelvin Celsius • Fahrenheit Kelvin? Combine equations! 273TT KC −= 273TT CK += States of Matter Gases • Independent, straight-line motion • Change direction only following collisions • Gas molecules travel in a random manner • Gases assume the shape and volume of their container. G
  • 6. 6 States of Matter Liquid • Restricted particle motion • Particles vibrate and slip past one another • Liquids have a definite volume but• Liquids have a definite volume, but assume the shape of their container L States of Matter Solids • Highly restricted particle motiong y p • Particles vibrate around a fixed point • Particles arranged in a definite pattern • Solids have a definite volume and a definite shapedefinite shape S

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