.
Questions and Objectives
• (1a) How to steer the global network behavior resulting from
self-organization where agents h...
.
This Talk is about Cloud Networks
• a network of DCs is a cloud -- say, Amazon EC2 with 9 regions
• a network of clouds ...
.
Cloudification Timeline and Scope
WiFi
Scale/sizeofcloudifieditems
Timeline
Mid-2015
Probably
should not
cloudify
Should...
.
One Cloud Service
.
VNE Problem
..
....stands for Virtual Network Embedding
APP
Cloud/DC
APP
APP
VM
Container
APP
Cloud/...
.
Many Cloud Services
.
VNE
..
....is the same, no difference
Cloud A Cloud B
DC
DC
DC
Virtual
Physical
Many
Service
topol...
.
OSPF, QoS Routing, VNE → complexity
• OSPF optimizes one parameter (cost/weight) for one physical graph, and is NP
Hard
...
.
Solution to the Complexity Problem
.
The Simple Solution is...
..
.... Do-it-Yourself, that is, to let services self-opt...
.
Non-Cooperative Way
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology --...
.
Step 1: Probe your Cloud
• visualization of active probing
across 8 Amazon regions 05
california
ireland
oregon
saopaulo...
.
Step 2: Optimize your service network
• change DCs for some members of your population, gradually optimize 05
Pooler mod...
.
Cooperative Clouds
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- ...
.
Traditional vs Akamai vs LHAP
Local
hardware
VirtualMachine
Cloud
Platform
(Xen)
App
App
App
…Multitenant
environment
Ph...
.
Akamai MiniCache Technology
Local
hardware
Cloud
Platform
(Xen)
Multitenant
environment
Physical Machine (PM)
…
VirtualM...
.
Local Hardware Awareness (LHA)
VirtualMachine
App
App
App
…
Tools
API
Layer
Control
Layer
Local
Hardware
Awareness
Platf...
.
Example Application : CDN
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technol...
.
CDN on Federated Clouds
Large
Cloud
Small
Cloud
Small
Cloud
CDN
Manager
CDN
Local clients
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail...
.
Cloud Streaming in the Wild
VM
population
Current
Sources
Service
Provider
(SP)
Tracker
Service
Provider
(SP)
Parent
pee...
.
Caching options with LHAP
• (don't laugh but) caching methods have been lost on cloud-based CDN -- a true
clean slate
• ...
.
Back to Networks: Link with NGN
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself T...
.
Key Viewpoints
1. traditional NGN in a recent book 08
◦ virtualization is key (SDN, NFV), among other reasons for suppor...
.
The Y.mnm Story : Active Probes
• 2 parts: active probing and
distributed management
11
• between OSPF and QoS
Routing, ...
.
IETF Liason with Y.mnm
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology...
.
Wrapup
• complexity wise, VNE formulation is close to reality, but is NP
Hard-er-er-er
◦ effective heuristics are unlike...
.
That’s all, thank you ...
M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technol...
Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology
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Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology

Cloud services are mid-way migrating from the traditional topic of unit VM/container/app migration to management of populations of VMs/containers/apps. Cloud Providers (CPs) today do not yet cooperate with Service Providers (SPs) by providing information on local performance and/or local execution context. On the other hand, CPs attempting to optimize performance for all their services would run into an acute complexity problem, where this presentation makes this case by discussing the Virtual Network Embedding (VNE) problem scaled to many concurrent services. One way to resolve the complexity problem is to allow services to manage their own populations, in a Do-It-Yourself (DiY) manner. The recently proposed Cloud Probing technology [1] does just that -- services actively probe e2e network performance of the cloud and optimize themselves. Another recent proposal in [2] discusses the next step -- the Local Hardware Awareness (LHA) technology through which CPs would cooperate with SPs in local discovery and would therefore improve DiY decisions. Among several examples, this presentation will discuss a cloud-based CDN [3] where SPs manage populations while clients aggregate content from several sources via concurrent streams -- referred to as the substream method in the literature on P2P streaming. This author realizes that the LHA technology breaks a fundamental rule in clouds -- blackboxing, but hopes that the case delivered in this presentation is sufficiently appealing to warrant a standardization effort in this direction.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology

  • 1. . Questions and Objectives • (1a) How to steer the global network behavior resulting from self-organization where agents have their own goals and actions? -- global vs local/self optimization • (1b) How to build and leverage the knowledge produced at the micro (agent) and macro (network) levels? How to correlate and make sense out of measurements and data from heterogeneous sources? -- e2e performance heterogeneity • (2) How to make the operations scale? To which extent are the new techniques and solutions actionable, "computable"...? -- complexity problem • (3) How can the management techniques leverage on the new properties and features introduced by adaptive and cooperative agents, i.e. applying the same techniques to the management plane itself. -- heterogeneity problem M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 2/25 ... 2/25
  • 2. . This Talk is about Cloud Networks • a network of DCs is a cloud -- say, Amazon EC2 with 9 regions • a network of clouds is a federation -- say, Amazon x 1dc + IDCF x 20dcs in Japan ◦ we already start hitting the heterogeneity wall, since there is no solution yet, no such federations exist today, but some are planned 03 • .. moving further to network edge, we find Akamai with its 30k+ cloudlets 02 -- a class of its own ◦ heterogeneity problem? in hardware NO, but in e2e network performance STRONG YES ◦ but, Akamai has all the control, so, they manage to balance the load properly • ... now, having incorporated all the devices at network edge you have the fog cloud • ... on a side note... why cloud networks? ... well, because most networking soon will be done inside and/or by clouds 03 "Chameleon project" https://www.chameleoncloud.org (2014) 02 B.Frank+8 "Pushing CDN-ISP Collaboration to the Limit" ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (2013) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 3/25 ... 3/25
  • 3. . Cloudification Timeline and Scope WiFi Scale/sizeofcloudifieditems Timeline Mid-2015 Probably should not cloudify Should definitely cloudify Data Centers Racks IoV > VC Desktop APs, Beacons Smartphone Sensor IoT Delegated networking M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 4/25 ... 4/25
  • 4. . One Cloud Service . VNE Problem .. ....stands for Virtual Network Embedding APP Cloud/DC APP APP VM Container APP Cloud/DC APP APP … • service can provide the graph of its apps • graph can include end users in form of DC-user e2e network performance • federated cloud known its actual topology and can use VNE to map 04 04 M.Zhanikeev "A New VNE Method for More Responsive Networking in Many-to-Many Groups" 7th ICUFN (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 5/25 ... 5/25
  • 5. . Many Cloud Services . VNE .. ....is the same, no difference Cloud A Cloud B DC DC DC Virtual Physical Many Service topology • for many services, you might use a more detailed physical topology (rack-level?) • otherwise, the same mapping method • many-service case is already considered in literature 04 04 M.Zhanikeev "A New VNE Method for More Responsive Networking in Many-to-Many Groups" 7th ICUFN (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 6/25 ... 6/25
  • 6. . OSPF, QoS Routing, VNE → complexity • OSPF optimizes one parameter (cost/weight) for one physical graph, and is NP Hard • QoS Routing optimizes multiple parameters for one path, and is NP Hard • VNE maps one virtual graph on top of a physical graph and is NP Hard-er? • ... so, what happens when the global NOC tries to optimize many VNEs? NP Hard-er-er-er? M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 7/25 ... 7/25
  • 7. . Solution to the Complexity Problem . The Simple Solution is... .. .... Do-it-Yourself, that is, to let services self-optimize • however.... ◦ it is one thing to self optimize in a non-cooperative environment ◦ ... and quite another when clouds offer tools/envs/platforms that help self-optimize better M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 8/25 ... 8/25
  • 8. . Non-Cooperative Way M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 9/25 ... 9/25
  • 9. . Step 1: Probe your Cloud • visualization of active probing across 8 Amazon regions 05 california ireland oregon saopaulo singapore sydney tokyo virginia same DC large bulk transfer california ireland oregon saopaulo singapore sydney virginia DC - other DC e2e delay 05 M.Zhanikeev "Performance Management of Cloud Populations via Cloud Probing" IPSJ JIP (related to http://goo.gl/f3QpiW) (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 10/25 ... 10/25
  • 10. . Step 2: Optimize your service network • change DCs for some members of your population, gradually optimize 05 Pooler model 0 100 200 300 400 500 Ordered list of values 0 20 40 60 80 100 Completiontime(s) Do nothing Optimize 05 M.Zhanikeev "Performance Management of Cloud Populations via Cloud Probing" IPSJ JIP (related to http://goo.gl/f3QpiW) (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 11/25 ... 11/25
  • 11. . Cooperative Clouds M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 12/25 ... 12/25
  • 12. . Traditional vs Akamai vs LHAP Local hardware VirtualMachine Cloud Platform (Xen) App App App …Multitenant environment Physical Machine (PM) Tools API Layer Control Layer Local Hardware Awareness Platform (LHAP) … VirtualMachine App Tools … VirtualMachine App VirtualMachine App App App … Global network (to Internet) In-box network Fig1a: Conventional Platform … MiniOS App SSD Operating System VirtualMachine App App App … Multitenancy impossible Physical Machine (PM) Fig1b: Mini Cache Cloud Platform (Xen) Operating System Global network (to Internet) HDD Local Network Global network (to Internet) Physical Machine (PM) Fig1c: LHAP (proposed) Cloud Platform (Xen) Operating System DtL: Direct to Local Local hardware SSD HDD 02 B.Frank+8 "Pushing CDN-ISP Collaboration to the Limit" ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (2013) 06 M.Zhanikeev "A Cloud Visitation Platform to Facilitate Cloud Federation and Fog Computing" IEEE Computer (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 13/25 ... 13/25
  • 13. . Akamai MiniCache Technology Local hardware Cloud Platform (Xen) Multitenant environment Physical Machine (PM) … VirtualMachine App VirtualMachineApp App App … Global network (to Internet) Fig1a: Conventional Platform … MiniOS App SSD Operating System VirtualMachine App App App … Multitenancy impossible Physical Machine (PM) Fig1b: Mini Cache Cloud Platform (Xen) Operating System Global network (to Internet) HDD • depends on MiniOS, part of Xen • MiniCache allows MiniOS-based apps to use SSD/HDD connected to that PM • MiniCache (storage) and ClickOS (network) are similar technologies, the letter is used for SDN • demerits 1. restricted to PM 2. storage only 3. no concurrency control or load balancing 02 B.Frank+8 "Pushing CDN-ISP Collaboration to the Limit" ACM SIGCOMM Computer Communication Review (2013) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 14/25 ... 14/25
  • 14. . Local Hardware Awareness (LHA) VirtualMachine App App App … Tools API Layer Control Layer Local Hardware Awareness Platform (LHAP) … VirtualMachine App Tools In-box network Local Network Global network (to Internet) Physical Machine (PM) Fig1c: LHAP (proposed) Cloud Platform (Xen) Operating System DtL: Direct to Local Local hardware SSD HDD • not restricted to resource type, any resource ◦ storage, sensors, Hadoop/MapReduce jobs, active probing, ... • not resricted to same PM, API Layer knows the resources offered for discovery • Tools in VMs (and containers) interface with LHAP • LHAP is optional -- legacy VMs will not know it's there 06 M.Zhanikeev "A Cloud Visitation Platform to Facilitate Cloud Federation and Fog Computing" IEEE Computer (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 15/25 ... 15/25
  • 15. . Example Application : CDN M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 16/25 ... 16/25
  • 16. . CDN on Federated Clouds Large Cloud Small Cloud Small Cloud CDN Manager CDN Local clients M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 17/25 ... 17/25
  • 17. . Cloud Streaming in the Wild VM population Current Sources Service Provider (SP) Tracker Service Provider (SP) Parent peers P2P streaming Cloud streaming ClientClient 07 M.Zhanikeev "Multi-Source Stream Aggregation in the Cloud" ISBN 978-1-118-57521-5, Wiley (2014) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 18/25 ... 18/25
  • 18. . Caching options with LHAP • (don't laugh but) caching methods have been lost on cloud-based CDN -- a true clean slate • yet, LHAP makes it possible to add additional caches • note: Cache 1 and Cache 2 are completely different in nature -- VMs are short-lived CDN Main many Manager Storage Large Federation, fog cloudsVM Cache 1 Cache 2 Manage content CDN Traffic (End Users) many Cloud M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 19/25 ... 19/25
  • 19. . Back to Networks: Link with NGN M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 20/25 ... 20/25
  • 20. . Key Viewpoints 1. traditional NGN in a recent book 08 ◦ virtualization is key (SDN, NFV), among other reasons for supporting mobility 2. my own viewpoint is different ◦ because of hotspot traffic (bulk transfer = BigData = hotspots), e2e circuits (cut-through) are key 09 ◦ circuits are made in a distributed/social/sensing manner 10 close to the Y.mnm 11 story ◦ as a guy who was working on a distributed network of active probes 12 (now cloud boxes), the Y.mnm story is close to mine 08 T.Janevski "NGN Architectures, Protocols and Services" Wiley (2014) 09 M.Zhanikeev "The Next Generation of Networks is all about Hotspot Distributions and Cut-Through Circuits" http://goo.gl/a16JtD (2015) 10 M.Zhankeev "A City Traffic Model for Optical Circuit Switching in Data Centers" http://goo.gl/5z2V6F (2015) 11 "Management of Performance Measurement for NGN" ITU-T Y.2173, before that Y.mnm (2008) 12 M.Zhanikeev "A Home Gateway Box with Meter, Probe and L2 QoS Policy Edge" IEEE COMPSAC (also http://goo.gl/9graXy) (2013) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 21/25 ... 21/25
  • 21. . The Y.mnm Story : Active Probes • 2 parts: active probing and distributed management 11 • between OSPF and QoS Routing, closer to the latter, but that was before VNE was defined • active probing is its own world of research 13 • among smaller projects (smartphones, etc.) Google-backed M-Lab is the biggest 11 "Management of Performance Measurement for NGN" ITU-T Y.2173, before that Y.mnm (2008) 13 Y.Tanaka, M.Zhanikeev "Active Network Measurement: Theory, Methods, and Tools" ITU Association of Japan, ISBN 978-4916128072 (2009) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 22/25 ... 22/25
  • 22. . IETF Liason with Y.mnm M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 23/25 ... 23/25
  • 23. . Wrapup • complexity wise, VNE formulation is close to reality, but is NP Hard-er-er-er ◦ effective heuristics are unlikely • the Do-it-Yourself (DiY) Approach can resolve the complexity problem ◦ non-cooperative form: networks optimize themselves (example: Cloud Probing 05 ◦ assisted form: clouds/networks can implement a Local Awareness Feature (like LHAP 06) to improve self-optimization • the Assisted DiY also leads to better coordination across competing service networks 05 M.Zhanikeev "Performance Management of Cloud Populations via Cloud Probing" IPSJ JIP (related to http://goo.gl/f3QpiW) (2015) 06 M.Zhanikeev "A Cloud Visitation Platform to Facilitate Cloud Federation and Fog Computing" IEEE Computer (2015) M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 24/25 ... 24/25
  • 24. . That’s all, thank you ... M.Zhanikeev -- maratishe@gmail.com Population Management in Clouds is a Do-It-Yourself Technology -- bit.do/*** 25/25 ... 25/25

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