POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND
NATIONALISM
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
OUTLINE
Look at relationship between
language and nationalism:
• Language as a source of
division
• Language and politics
...
NATURE OF LANGUAGE
What is the difference between a language
and a dialect?
• the criteria are partly linguistic
(distinct...
NATURE OF LANGUAGE
For example, is the following a language?
Scots is descendit fae the leid o the Angles an
Saxons that i...
NATURE OF LANGUAGE
… and is the following a language?
‘Twasn’t but a whileen ago that they come
leppin’ out o’ the wood to...
NATURE OF LANGUAGE
or
this?
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
NATURE OF LANGUAGE
Languages are conventionally classified into
separate families, based on linguistic criteria.
Some stat...
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
Some examples:
• Indo-European family (443 languages)
– Hindi (366 m.)
– Spanish (Castilian) (3...
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
Some examples:
• Altaic family (65 languages)
– Turkish (61 m.)
• Uralic family (65 languages)
...
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
“Genealogical tree” approach
IN D O -E U R O P E A N
G E R M A N IC
S L A V IC
C E L T IC
....
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
“Genealogical trees” of languages may be
useful in pointing to relationships
• Some languages a...
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
But the “genealogical” approach may be
misleading
• languages are not self-contained,
autonomou...
CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Languages tend to pass, historically, through
distinctive stages (Haugen)
• selection of norm (choice...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Ocht sgéalta ó
Choillte
Mághach
(1936)
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Reversal
of decline
of Irish
language,
19361971:
Reality or
myth?
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAG...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Formally defined
“Gaeltacht” (Irishspeaking district),
1956-present
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGU...
LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT
Examples of languages at different stages of
development
• highly developed
(modern written languages...
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
Note terminology to describe types of
linguistic co-existence
• Personal bilingualism
(individuals sp...
LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY
Huge social significance of language
• Powerful, enduring link between accent
/speech form and social...
LANGUAGE AND POLITICS
In multilingual societies, state must adopt
policy on language.
It may:
• promote policy of bi- or m...
LANGUAGE AND POLITICS
FOUR TYPES OF LANGUAGE REGIME
speakers of
official
language
speakers of
unofficial
languages
type ...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE
AND “NATION” (NOT STATE)
1. “nation” contains several lang...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
nation
A
1. “nation”
contains several
language
communities
lang. A
lang. C
lang. B
POLITICS ...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
1. “nation” contains several language
communities: examples?
•
•
•
•
•
Switzerland?
Belgium?
Can...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
BELGIUM: IDENTITY BY LANGUAGE, 1994
100%
90%
80%
70%
other
60%
regional
50%
Belgian
40%
30%...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
language
A
2. Language
community
contains several
“nations”
nation A
nation C
nation B
POLIT...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
2. Language community contains several
“nations”: examples?
• English language community
– Americ...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
2. Language community contains several
“nations”: examples?
• Spanish language community
– Mexica...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
2. Language community contains several
“nations”: examples?
• Portuguese language community
– Bra...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
2. Language community contains several
“nations”: examples?
• French language community
– French
...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
2. Language community contains several “nations”:
examples?
• Arabic language community
– Egyptia...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
nation
A
lang. A
3. “nation” and
language
community
coincide
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUA...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
•
•
•
•
3. “nation” and language community
coincide: examples?
Many historical examples from cen...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
LATVIA: ETHNIC NATIONALITY BY LANGUAGE, 1935
100%
90%
80%
other
Jewish
Russian
70%
60%
50%
Ger...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
SOVIET NATIONALITIES AND LANGUAGES, 1989
100%
90%
80%
70%
60%
Other language
Titular language
50...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
nation
A
lang. A
4. “nation” is
linked to
ancestral
language
community
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
4. “nation” is linked to ancestral language
community: examples?
•
•
•
•
Irish
Basque
Breton?
We...
LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
IRELAND: KNOWLEDGE OF IRISH BY DECADE OF
BIRTH, 1881
100
90
80
70
60
50
40
30
20
10
0
1781-90 17...
THE END …
NEXT: RELIGION AND NATIONALISM
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
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Polnat03(3)

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polnat03(3)

  • 1. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 2. OUTLINE Look at relationship between language and nationalism: • Language as a source of division • Language and politics • Language and national identity POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 3. NATURE OF LANGUAGE What is the difference between a language and a dialect? • the criteria are partly linguistic (distinctiveness of grammar, vocabulary); but also: • social (perception by speakers) • political (definition by state) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 4. NATURE OF LANGUAGE For example, is the following a language? Scots is descendit fae the leid o the Angles an Saxons that invadit the isle o Bretane fae the kintras roun Denmark atween the 4t an 5t centuries AD. … Fae the 1370s tae Scotlan an Inglan wes yokit thegither in 1707 Scots wes the leid o state. … Afore 1900 Scots wes, athoot onie doot, the maist spoken leid in Scotlan (Scots Language Society, 2003) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 5. NATURE OF LANGUAGE … and is the following a language? ‘Twasn’t but a whileen ago that they come leppin’ out o’ the wood to me, and didn’t I think ‘twas the Divil and all his young ones, an’ I thrun meself down in the thrinch the way they wouldn’t see me, the Lord save us! … They went wesht the road, your Honour, an’ they screeching always; they crossed out the field below over-right the white pony, and faith ye couldn’t hardly see Michael Leary for the shweat! (Somerville and Ross) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 6. NATURE OF LANGUAGE or this? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 7. NATURE OF LANGUAGE Languages are conventionally classified into separate families, based on linguistic criteria. Some statistics: • c. 4,000 languages in 2000 • 417 classified as “nearly extinct” • c. 100 language families (unconnected) • 2 biggest language families account for 70% of world population • 7 biggest language families account for 92% of world population POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 8. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE Some examples: • Indo-European family (443 languages) – Hindi (366 m.) – Spanish (Castilian) (358 m.) – English (341 m.) – Portuguese (176 m.) – Russian (167 m.) • Sino-Tibetan family (365 languages) – Chinese (Mandarin) (874 m.) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 9. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE Some examples: • Altaic family (65 languages) – Turkish (61 m.) • Uralic family (65 languages) – Hungarian (15 m.) – Finnish (6 m.) – Estonian (1 m.) • Other categories – minor language families – language isolates – pidgins POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 10. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE “Genealogical tree” approach IN D O -E U R O P E A N G E R M A N IC S L A V IC C E L T IC ... O T H E R NORTH W EST V A R IO U S B R Y T H O N IC G O E D E L IC V A R IO U S S W E D IS H e tc . E N G L IS H e tc . V A R IO U S W ELSH e tc . IR IS H e tc . V A R IO U S POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 11. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE “Genealogical trees” of languages may be useful in pointing to relationships • Some languages are almost identical twins: – Dutch-Afrikaans – Danish-Norwegian Bokmål (especially in the past) – Hindi-Urdu – Czech-Slovak • Others are more remote from each other: – French-Romanian – Irish-Welsh POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 12. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE But the “genealogical” approach may be misleading • languages are not self-contained, autonomous, objective entities • they vary greatly in levels of (linguistic) development POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 13. CLASSIFICATION OF LANGUAGE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 14. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Languages tend to pass, historically, through distinctive stages (Haugen) • selection of norm (choice of standard or model dialect) • codification of form (standardisation of spelling, grammar, vocabulary) • elaboration of function (extension and modernisation of vocabulary) • acceptance by community POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 15. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Ocht sgéalta ó Choillte Mághach (1936) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 16. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Reversal of decline of Irish language, 19361971: Reality or myth? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 17. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Formally defined “Gaeltacht” (Irishspeaking district), 1956-present POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 18. LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT Examples of languages at different stages of development • highly developed (modern written languages of wide use, e.g. English, Chinese, Finnish) • moderately developed (languages struggling for position in higher domains, e.g. Irish, Breton) • undeveloped (“languages” with very restricted domains, e.g. Flemish, Ulster Scots) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 19. LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY Note terminology to describe types of linguistic co-existence • Personal bilingualism (individuals speak two languages) • Societal bilingualism (society is divided between two language groups) • Diglossia (different languages used in high- and lowstatus domains) Note possibility of multilingualism, polyglossia POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 20. LANGUAGE AND SOCIETY Huge social significance of language • Powerful, enduring link between accent /speech form and social background (class, region, gender, age) • In many societies, similar link between language and social status (“French in the parlour, Flemish in the kitchen”) • Social status of language reinforced by political status POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 21. LANGUAGE AND POLITICS In multilingual societies, state must adopt policy on language. It may: • promote policy of bi- or multilingualism (unlikely; “threatens” state) • use neutral, external language (unlikely; imposes burden on all) • adopt dominant language as official one (most common approach) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 22. LANGUAGE AND POLITICS FOUR TYPES OF LANGUAGE REGIME speakers of official language speakers of unofficial languages type of language regime none all few many 2-emergent multiling.state many few 3-state with dominant lang all none 1-trad. diglossic state 4-unilingual state POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 23. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM TYPES OF RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN LANGUAGE AND “NATION” (NOT STATE) 1. “nation” contains several language communities 2. Language community contains several “nations” 3. “nation” and language community coincide 4. “nation” is linked to ancestral language community POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 24. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM nation A 1. “nation” contains several language communities lang. A lang. C lang. B POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 25. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 1. “nation” contains several language communities: examples? • • • • • Switzerland? Belgium? Canada? Nigeria, India? Other ex-colonies? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 26. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM BELGIUM: IDENTITY BY LANGUAGE, 1994 100% 90% 80% 70% other 60% regional 50% Belgian 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Dutch French POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 27. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM language A 2. Language community contains several “nations” nation A nation C nation B POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 28. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 2. Language community contains several “nations”: examples? • English language community – American – British-English – Scottish – Irish – Welsh – Canadian – Australian – New Zealand POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 29. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 2. Language community contains several “nations”: examples? • Spanish language community – Mexican – Colombian – Argentinian – Spanish – Venezualan – Peruvian – (others) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 30. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 2. Language community contains several “nations”: examples? • Portuguese language community – Brazilian – Portuguese POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 31. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 2. Language community contains several “nations”: examples? • French language community – French – Fr. Canadian – Belgian-Walloon – Fr. Swiss POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 32. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 2. Language community contains several “nations”: examples? • Arabic language community – Egyptian – Algerian – Moroccan – Sudanese – Iraqi – Palestinian – Libyan – Lebanese – (others) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 33. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM nation A lang. A 3. “nation” and language community coincide POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 34. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM • • • • 3. “nation” and language community coincide: examples? Many historical examples from central and eastern Europe Former Soviet Union Many contemporary examples (Polish, Czech, Estonian, Hungarian etc.) Some less perfect examples (Ukrainian, Belarusian) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 35. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM LATVIA: ETHNIC NATIONALITY BY LANGUAGE, 1935 100% 90% 80% other Jewish Russian 70% 60% 50% German Latvian 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Latvian German Russian Yiddish Other LANGUAGE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 36. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM SOVIET NATIONALITIES AND LANGUAGES, 1989 100% 90% 80% 70% 60% Other language Titular language 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Estonian Uzbek Ukrainian Belarusian Karelian German NATIONALITY POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 37. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM nation A lang. A 4. “nation” is linked to ancestral language community POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 38. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM 4. “nation” is linked to ancestral language community: examples? • • • • Irish Basque Breton? Welsh? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 39. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM IRELAND: KNOWLEDGE OF IRISH BY DECADE OF BIRTH, 1881 100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1781-90 1791-00 1801-10 1811-20 1821-30 1831-40 1841-50 1851-60 1861-70 1871-80 Irish only bilingual English only POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM
  • 40. THE END … NEXT: RELIGION AND NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 3. LANGUAGE AND NATIONALISM

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