POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF
NATIONALISM
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
OUTLINE
Main topics:
• Explaining Nationalisms (2)
• State options
• Elimination
• Exclusion
• Assimilation
• Incorporatio...
GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS?
• Commonly referred to as the “Kohn
dichotomy” after Hans Kohn (1944)
• In ...
GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS?
• “Ethnic” nation: Herder, Fichte; nation an
entity in which membership is ...
CIVIC VS ETHNIC NATIONALISM
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
GROWTH OF NATIONALISM
NATIONALIST MOBILISATION
• Phase A: Local elite control is firm; rest of
population quiescent (ancie...
VICTORY OF NATIONALISM
DETERMINANTS OF POLITICAL OUTCOME
• Commitment and resources of nationalists
(e.g. regional activis...
Nationalism Demands and Statehood
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
VICTORY OF NATIONALISM
CONTINUING CHALLENGES?
• Sometimes, continuing conflict with (new)
minorities
• Common drive for cu...
Nationalism and the State
How does the modern nation state
respond to challenges from
minority nations?
1.How much are a s...
STATE OPTIONS
TYPOLOGY OF STRATEGIES
INSTITUTIONAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF GROUPS
low
high
PROTECTION
low
1. ELIMINATION
2. E...
ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES
Approaches:
• Genocide
–systematic murder of some or all of
population
–undermining of capacity ...
ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES
Genocide: examples
•Indigenous peoples in Americas
–killing of native peoples (N & S
America, et...
ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES
Population removal: expulsion
•Direct or indirect pressure to leave
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11....
ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES
POLAND, 1945
c. 3 m. Germans expelled, 1945-46
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF NATI...
ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES
Population removal: other strategies
•“Repatriation” (removal on initiative of
external power)
–...
EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES
DIMENSION
CULTURE
POLITICS
(AT CENTRE)
APPROACH
One culture privileged over
others
Ethnic hegemon...
EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES
Example: traditional states
(e.g. British colonies—USA, Canada,
Australia in past)
•English langua...
EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES
Example: South Africa under apartheid:
•Conflict between Dutch and English
languages; christianity...
Exclusion of ‘minorities’: South Africa
POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES
DIMENSION
APPROACH
CULTURE
Only one culture is recognised;
others marginalised
POLITICS
(AT...
ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES
Example: Post-revolutionary France
• French as only acceptable language in
public sphere, educa...
ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES
Example: USA
• English as sole official language
• Majoritarian democracy as basis of
political...
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Polnat11 mh.abb

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polnat11 mh.abb

  • 1. POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 2. OUTLINE Main topics: • Explaining Nationalisms (2) • State options • Elimination • Exclusion • Assimilation • Incorporation POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 3. GROWTH OF NATIONALISM ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS? • Commonly referred to as the “Kohn dichotomy” after Hans Kohn (1944) • In fact, nineteenth-century roots • Has strong normative connotations (not just German v. French, “eastern” v. “western”, exclusive v. inclusive, but “bad” v. “good”) • Better seen as referring to ideal types POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 4. GROWTH OF NATIONALISM ETHNIC v. CIVIC NATIONS? • “Ethnic” nation: Herder, Fichte; nation an entity in which membership is inherited, e.g. blood, language • “Civic” nation: Rousseau, Renan; nation an entity in which membership is voluntary, “daily plebiscite” • Can we separate the two that clearly? Could we have elements of each type in all national ideologies? Are there regional variations? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 5. CIVIC VS ETHNIC NATIONALISM POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 6. GROWTH OF NATIONALISM NATIONALIST MOBILISATION • Phase A: Local elite control is firm; rest of population quiescent (ancien régime) • Phase B: Counter-elites emerge; propose political programme favouring masses; separate party, or parties; possible cultural revival movement (transitional systems) • Phase C: Emergence of mass parties / movements (modern state structures) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 7. VICTORY OF NATIONALISM DETERMINANTS OF POLITICAL OUTCOME • Commitment and resources of nationalists (e.g. regional activists) • Commitment and resources of opponents (e.g. imperial state; normally much greater) • International context (e.g.: (1) international power balance (2) ideological “viruses”) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 8. Nationalism Demands and Statehood POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 9. VICTORY OF NATIONALISM CONTINUING CHALLENGES? • Sometimes, continuing conflict with (new) minorities • Common drive for cultural integration, sometimes leading to authoritarian nationalism, e.g. in fascist form • To be explained by theories of communal insecurity, elite manipulation? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 10. Nationalism and the State How does the modern nation state respond to challenges from minority nations? 1.How much are a state’s minority management strategies based on individual rights? 2.How open are a state’s minority management strategies for the recognition of group rights? POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 11. STATE OPTIONS TYPOLOGY OF STRATEGIES INSTITUTIONAL ACKNOWLEDGEMENT OF GROUPS low high PROTECTION low 1. ELIMINATION 2. EXCLUSION high OF INDI- 3.ASSIMILATION 4.INCORPORATION VIDUAL RIGHTS POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 12. ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES Approaches: • Genocide –systematic murder of some or all of population –undermining of capacity for life • Removal of population –expulsion –“repatriation” –“exchange” POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 13. ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES Genocide: examples •Indigenous peoples in Americas –killing of native peoples (N & S America, etc.) •Armenians in Turkey –killing of more than 1m., 1915-16 •Jews in Germany –killing of c. 6m, 1941-45 •Others (many examples) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 14. ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES Population removal: expulsion •Direct or indirect pressure to leave POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 15. ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES POLAND, 1945 c. 3 m. Germans expelled, 1945-46 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 16. ELIMINATION OF MINORITIES Population removal: other strategies •“Repatriation” (removal on initiative of external power) –Baltic Germans, 1939 •“Exchange” (removal by agreement between powers) –c. 1m. Greeks to Turkey, ½ m. Turks to Greece, 1923 POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 17. EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES DIMENSION CULTURE POLITICS (AT CENTRE) APPROACH One culture privileged over others Ethnic hegemony (one group rules; possible minority rule) GROUP AUTONOMY High, but uneven (separate devt.; groups have different rights) TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT Extensive territorial devolution on an unequal basis (bantustans) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 18. EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES Example: traditional states (e.g. British colonies—USA, Canada, Australia in past) •English language and christianity given precedence •Political rights confined to white settlers •Indigenous peoples allowed some selfadministration, e.g. in reservations POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 19. EXCLUSION OF MINORITIES Example: South Africa under apartheid: •Conflict between Dutch and English languages; christianity given precedence •Political rights confined to European settlers; “apartheid” system •Separate parliamentary bodies for Indians and Coloureds •Planned removal of Africans to “homelands” (“bantustans”) POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 20. Exclusion of ‘minorities’: South Africa POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 21. ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES DIMENSION APPROACH CULTURE Only one culture is recognised; others marginalised POLITICS (AT CENTRE) De facto rule by majority ethnic group or coalition GROUP AUTONOMY No group autonomy; all individuals equal before the law TERRITORIAL MANAGEMENT Centralised state administered on a prefectoral basis POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 22. ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES Example: Post-revolutionary France • French as only acceptable language in public sphere, education etc. • Emphasis on popular sovereignty based on equality; majoritarian democracy • Refusal to offer institutional recognition to culturally distinct groups • Administrative system based on centrally managed districts of equal size Other examples: Poland, Romania, Turkey POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM
  • 23. ASSIMILATION OF MINORITIES Example: USA • English as sole official language • Majoritarian democracy as basis of political system • Low level of autonomy for culturally distinct groups • Symmetrical federal system based on culturally homogeneous units Other examples: other “melting pot” societies POLITICS OF NATIONALISM 11. THE POLITICS OF NATIONALISM

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