Nat paper final version matt jabbari-011414
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nat paper final version matt jabbari-011414
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete for Use in Underground Concrete Structures
CTS Cement Manufacturing Corp., Cypress, California
Vice President Product Development
CTS Cement Manufacturing Corp., Cypress, California
Tunnels and underground structures are regularly specified with 100-year design lifetime
concrete. In order to achieve this we must eliminate cracking in the concrete. Cracks are
pathways for the migration of water, chemicals and associated ions that can corrode structural
steel, and eventually affect the integrity of the structure. The most common type of cracking is
drying shrinkage cracking.
The use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete is an effective way to minimize the cracking
caused by drying shrinkage. By designing & producing controlled compressive stresses in the
concrete, Shrinkage Compensating Concrete reduces shrinkage and the associated detrimental
tensile forces which lead to shrinkage cracking. Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is popular
in wastewater and water treatment infrastructure design, where liquid or chemical
penetration/escape is strictly prohibited. Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is also widely used
in industrial floors where the reduction of joints and elimination of cracking is highly desirable.
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete has lower permeability, higher durability & abrasion
resistance, higher freeze-thaw resistance, and higher resistance to sulfate attack than ordinary
portland cement concrete.
While Shrinkage Compensating Concrete has been used in various structures since the 1960's,
this type of concrete is generally not in the curriculum of the colleges and universities that teach
engineering. Normally, an engineering graduate is not familiar with this type of concrete.
However, the specification and use of Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is growing rapidly,
and more and more infrastructures are being built with this type of concrete.
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete has been used in numerous underground applications going
back to the 1960s. 500 First Street NW in Washington D.C. is an eight story building with two
basement levels. Similar to many sites in the Washington D.C. area, there were significant
groundwater issues to contend with in constructing the foundation. In 1967, a post-tensioned
mat concrete foundation was constructed using Shrinkage Compensating Concrete. Forty-five
years later this mat foundation is still solid and watertight (Thornton, Chusid, Miller et.al. 2009).
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete was used for the waffle ceilings in many of Washington
D.C.’s yellow and green metro line subterranean stations. (Sullivan, Horwitz-Bennett et. al.
The State of Nevada used Shrinkage Compensating Concrete in the construction of the River
Mountain Tunnel #2 in Henderson, NV.
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete can be used in tunneling and underground construction,
including but not limited to cut and cover tunnels, tunnel inverts, pre-cast concrete segmental
liners, and cast-in place tunnel lining.
Crack & Shrinkage Overview
Why does concrete crack?
Concrete cracks can occur because of shrinkage, external effects, and detrimental internal
expansion. Shrinkage cracking can be either a result of plastic or drying shrinkage. The most
common type of cracks are drying shrinkage cracks.
External effects causing cracking can be in the form of thermal stresses, differential settlement,
differential movement, or damage due to freezing and thawing. Internal expansion can result
from corrosion of reinforcement or chemical reaction between the components of the concrete,
such as Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) or Delayed Ettringite Formation (DEF). On top of all of
these factors, errors in design and detailing, poor construction practices (including construction
overloads, excessive water addition during mixing or finishing, and inadequate curing), or
overloading during use can also cause cracking in concrete. Thus, the first challenge to anyone
trying to sort out the cause(s) of concrete cracking is to attempt to determine the source of
cracks (Coleman et al. 2013).
The end use of the concrete application will determine the extent to which cracking is
acceptable or unacceptable. For instance, cracks are not acceptable in tunneling construction,
where they might be acceptable in a slab on grade (SOG) application.
The measures used to control cracking depend, to a large extent, on the economics of the
situation and the seriousness of cracking if not controlled. Cracks are objectionable where their
size and spacing compromise the strength, stability, serviceability, function, or appearance of
the structure (Coleman et al. 2013).
A concrete tunnel liner placed below the water table may be subject to attack from sulfate
bearing groundwater. In conventional portland cements, hydrated calcium aluminate (C3A) will
react with sulfate ions to form detrimental expansive compounds. The consequence of this
reaction is that the newly formed substance takes up a larger volume than the reactants causing
expansion and cracking. Long-term exposure causes continual expansion leading to extensive
One of the contributing factors to cracking is high water content in the concrete’s cement paste.
Portland cement needs a W/C ratio of 0.25 to hydrate (25 pounds of water is needed to hydrate
100 pounds of portland cement). At this W/C ratio, the concrete is very stiff and not workable
(you cannot even get this concrete out of a ready mix truck). Higher W/C ratios are used to
make the concrete workable. The extra water added is "water of convenience", which will end
up on the concrete surface as bleed water. Excessive water is one of the culprits in shrinkage
cracking. The bleed water escapes to the surface through small capillaries. These capillaries
reduce the durability of the concrete. Also, bleed water on the surface of concrete causes the
W/C ratio to change. The W/C ratio on the surface (present as bleed water), is higher than the
W/C ratio in the bulk of the concrete, contributing to lower durability, lower abrasion resistance
and higher shrinkage.
Engineers constantly struggle to reduce the drying shrinkage, and cracking associated with
drying shrinkage in portland cement concrete. In this effort, they try to lower the W/C ratio, use
gap-graded aggregates, and even reduce the amount of cement in the mix (lowering the paste
content). There are drawbacks associated with any of these measures, such as: lack of
workability, material availability, and strength loss, to name a few.
However, by replacing a small portion of portland cement with a mineral expansive additive
(Komponent), one can convert a high shrinkage mix to a Shrinkage Compensating mix (Type-K)
conforming to ASTM C 845; and consequently reduce shrinkage cracking. All of this can be
done while using local portland cement and aggregates without major changes the mix design.
The added cost is very minimal when you look at the overall benefits associated with the
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete
Shrinkage Compensating concrete made with Type-K cement, is an effective way to minimize
the cracking caused by drying shrinkage. Shrinkage Compensating Concrete expands during
the first part of curing process (7 days of wet curing). Expansion will induce tension in the
reinforcement and compression in the concrete. Shrinkage cracks are eliminated if the
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete's expansion is greater than its anticipated shrinkage.
By designing and producing controlled compressive stresses in the concrete, Shrinkage
Compensating Concrete reduces the detrimental tensile forces which lead to shrinkage
cracking. The concrete mass will remain in compression as long as the compressive stresses
are more than the tensile stresses.
As known in the industry, concrete is about 10 times stronger in compression than it is in
tension. As long as the concrete mass is in compression, it won't crack!
There are no added compressive stresses in structural members, and the designer need not
make any design adjustments. All other design parameters are unchanged and should be in
accordance with good engineering practices, standards, and code requirements.
There are three characteristics of Shrinkage Compensating Concrete that make it the product of
choice for tunneling & underground construction: ability to design and construct large monolithic
placements, absence of shrinkage cracks, and greatly reduced permeability (Valentine et al.
A tunneling design engineer looks for durable, water tight, low permeability, 100-year life
concrete for the underground structures he/she designs. Shrinkage Compensating Concrete
has lower permeability, higher durability & abrasion resistance, higher freeze-thaw resistance,
and higher resistance to sulfates than ordinary portland cement concrete.
Comparing Shrinkage Compensating Concrete to Ordinary Portland Cement Concrete
Shrinkage Compensating Cement consumes more water to hydrate, therefore less water
"bleeding" occurs with this type of concrete (Figure 3).
Comparison of hydrated portland cement concrete to hydrated shrinkage-compensating
concrete by mass and volume.
33 29 15 21 2
CONCRETECOMPONENTS, % BY VOLUME Rock
33 29 36 2
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete hydrates up to 0.45 w/c
Leaving no water for evaporation
33 29 27 9 2
Portland Cement Hydrates up to 0.25 w/c
Leaving 9 % of volume for evaporation
Anti-ASR and ACR
Calcium Sulfoaluminate cement, which one of the main ingredients in Type-K cement, is
relatively inactive to Alkali-Silica Reaction (ASR) and Alkali-Carbonate Reaction (ACR) in
comparison with portland cement. This is due likely to:
1) The ettringite (3CaO.Al2O3.3CaSO4.32H2O) hydration product of Calcium Sulfoaluminate
cement, with 32 crystalline water molecules, decreases the porosity of hardened Calcium
Sulfoaluminate cement dramatically, and
2) Lower PH-values in the liquid phase of hydration products of Calcium Sulfoaluminate cement
in comparison with portland cement (Valentine et al. 1994, Yanjun, Yongmo, Chunlei, et al.
Type K cement has been available since the 1960's and has exhibited an excellent track record.
In the early 1990's at Orange County California’s John Wayne airport, portland cement concrete
was used on level one of the parking structure resulting in approximately one mile of cracks.
The engineer switched to Shrinkage Compensating Concrete for the placement of level 2 of the
same parking structure which resulted in no cracks. As a matter of fact, after 14 years of heavy
traffic, the finish of the Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is still crisp and looking new, due to
the materials superior abrasion resistance (Chusid et al. 2007). See figure # 4.
Other construction industries have used Shrinkage Compensating Concrete successfully.
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is popular in wastewater and water treatment infrastructure
design, where liquid or chemical penetration/escape is strictly prohibited.
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is also popular in rock anchoring, soil nailing, and roof
bolting operations, as well as grouting of post-tensioned structures. It is used due to its
expansive characteristics and its ability to compensate for shrinkage. In warehouses and
distribution centers, Shrinkage Compensating Concrete is used to reduce the number of joints,
typically placing floors in excess of 50,000 square feet with no joints.
The Turnpike Authorities of Michigan, Ohio, New Jersey, and Pennsylvania use Shrinkage
Compensating Concrete toppings in their bridge rehabilitation operations to eliminate decking
cracks, therefore preventing the bridge's steel reinforcement from exposure to chloride ions.
Recently a monolithic roof (64 feet X 40 feet) of a custom residence in the Eastern Mountains of
San Diego (Julian, CA), using Shrinkage Compensating Concrete was placed with no roofing
membrane. This residence is located 4000 feet above sea level. The area is known to have a
quite high accumulated snow fall in the winter. No leakage was reported by the owner. As a
matter of fact Shrinkage Compensating Concrete was used to construct the entire house,
including the subterranean garage and the tunnel connecting the garage to the observation
tower. Please see figure 5, 6, and 7.
John Wayne Airport
with Portland and
Same Design, Contractor, and Ready-Mix Company.
The only difference is the Type-K Cement.
Type K concrete monolithic roof placements.
Edward K Rice; PE, F.ASCE, F.ACI; one of the original developers of Shrinkage Compensating
Concrete built his house in 1963 using Type K concrete. To this day, he lives in the same house
and its exposed concrete roof has not leaked (Chusid et al. 2006).
Shrinkage Compensating Concrete technology is ideal for, and should be adopted extensively in
tunnels and underground structures.
While the cost of Shrinkage Compensating Concrete can be slightly more than conventional
portland cement concrete, the cost reduction associated with lesser joints and larger pours
makes using Shrinkage Compensating Concrete a cost benefit. Also, savings resulting from
extended life, reduced shrinkage cracking, reduced leakage, and reduced need for repairs make
the overall life cycle cost significantly lower than conventional portland cement concrete
construction. The true benefit is derived from having a leak-proof, structurally sound and
environmentally safe underground structure.
Thornton, Keith; Chusid, Michael 2009, Waterproofing Without Membrane, PTI Journal August 2009
Sullivan C.C. and Horwitz-Bennett, Barbara 2013, Building with Concrete-Design and Construction
Techniques, Concrete Construction AIA Journal 2013
Chusid Michael, RA, FCSI, is principle and founder of Chusid Associates, a consultant to building product
manufacturer, based in Tarzana, CA
Coleman, Jeffery 2013. Cracking...Defect or Normal? When is concrete cracking a construction defect?
Concrete International Sept. 2013.
Valentine, Lawrence 2000. Containment Structures in the Chemical Industry Concrete International
ACI Committee 223, Standard Practice for the Use of Shrinkage-Compensating Concrete (ACI 223-98),"
Chapter 1.4, American Concrete Institute, Farmington Hills, MI, Dec 1998.
Valentine, Lawrence 1994. Environmental Containment Structures, Concrete International July 1994.
Yanjun, Yongmo, Chunlei 2012. Sulfoaluminate Cement: An Alternative to Portland Cement. Advanced
Materials Research Vols. 368-373 (2012) pp 478-484 Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.
Jindingbeilu, Shijingshan District, Beijing-100041, P.R.China
Sanlihelu, Haidian District, Beijing-100083, P.R.China
Chusid, Michael, RA FCSI 2007. A Perfect Match. Post Tensioning and Shrinkage Compensating
Concrete Form a Durable Union at John Wayne Airport. PTI Journal July 2007.
Bondy Kenneth, SE, FACI, President of the Post-Tensioned Institute (PTI) and was, in 2005, inducted into
the PTI Hall of Fame
Chusid, Michael 2006 All-Concrete House Turns 40 Years Old. Concrete International March 2006.