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14 Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences V2, I1 February 2015: 13-18
ISSN 2385-2712, EISSN 2385-2453 http://journal.mc...
Selam Shkurti 15
©2015 Mediterranean Center of Medical Sciences.  
diabetic history and absence of
glycosuria and fasting ...
16 Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences V2, I1 February 2015: 13-18
ISSN 2385-2712, EISSN 2385-2453 http://journal.mc...
Selam Shkurti 17
©2015 Mediterranean Center of Medical Sciences.  
presence of cotrimoxazole
resistance and diabetes. [21-...
18 Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences V2, I1 February 2015: 13-18
ISSN 2385-2712, EISSN 2385-2453 http://journal.mc...
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Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Patients with Diabetes Melitus in Tirana District

Background: & Objectives: Urinary tract infection is one of the most commonly occurring infections among the patients with diabetes mellitus. Methods This investigation was based to evaluate the incidence of UTI in patients with DM. Between January, 2013 to November, 1000 diabetic urine samples were collected. All urine samples were processed in the lab following standard laboratory protocol. Results: A total of 25 UTI organisms were isolated from 361 urine samples collected from the diabetic patients attending the Department of Emergency, University Hospital Center "Mother Theresa” (QSUT) from. The incidence of UTI was recorded to 36.1%. Escherichia coli (54%) was found to be the major cause of UTI. About 5 different types of organisms isolated from the UTI samples were randomly chosen to test against the UTI antibiotics. Interpretation & Conclusion: The antibiotic susceptibility pattern revealed that ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin were most effective to e.coli 79.6%, and 89.4%. These data may be used to determine trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities, to formulate local antibiotic policies and to assist clinicians in the choice of antibiotic therapy to prevent misuse, or overuse of antibiotics. Key Words: Diabetes mellitus (DM), Urinary Tract Infection (UTI), Bacteria, antimicrobial resistance
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Health & Medicine      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Prevalence of Urinary Tract Infection among Patients with Diabetes Melitus in Tirana District

  • 1. ISSN Ori Pr Pa Dr. 1 Dep Alb A B a M B w R p f U a I n a a Key 1 In Uri esti 000 500 Tir infe pra cos pro Medite Volume N 2385-2712, EISS iginal Article evalence o atients with . Selam Shkur partment of Eme bania. ABSTRACT Background: & O among the patients w Methods This inv Between January, 2 were processed in t Results: A total of patients attending th from. The incidence o UTI. About 5 differ against the UTI antib Interpretation & nitrofurantoin were m antimicrobial suscept antibiotic therapy to y Words: Diabet antimi ntroduction inary tract in imated to acc 0 visits to em 0 hospitalizat rana, Alban ections are o actice and h ts for the A ogram. The pr erranean Jou e 2, Issue 1, Feb N 2385-2453 of Urinary h Diabetes rti1 ergency, Univer Objectives: Urinar ith diabetes mellitus. vestigation was bas 2013 to November, 10 he lab following sta f 25 UTI organisms e Department of Em of UTI was recorded rent types of organis biotics. Conclusion: The most effective to e.col tibilities, to formulat prevent misuse, or ov tes mellitus (DM crobial resistanc fections (UT count for arou mergency uni tions annual nia. [1] Fre observed in c have high m Albanian Heal ropensity of th urnal of Me bruary 2015: 13- Tract Inf s Melitus i sity Hospital Ce ry tract infection is o sed to evaluate the 000 diabetic urine andard laboratory p were isolated from mergency, University d to 36.1%. Escherichi sms isolated from th antibiotic susceptib li 79.6%, and 89.4%. te local antibiotic po veruse of antibiotics. M), Urinary Tra ce Is) are und 30 ts and lly in equent clinical medical lthcare he inf Me ind und hav inf gen can com edical Scienc 18  http: fection amo in Tirana D enter "Mother T one of the most comm e incidence of UTI samples were colle protocol. 361 urine samples c Hospital Center "M a coli (54%) was fou he UTI samples wer bility pattern reveale These data may be u olicies and to assist act Infection (UT fection in pat elitus can dividuals espe derreporting ving a ri fections. [2-3] nitourinary s n be a mplications ra ces ://journal.mcmsci ong District Theresa", Tirana, monly occurring infe I in patients with ected. All urine sa collected from the di Mother Theresa” (Q und to be the major ca re randomly chosen t ed that ciprofloxaci used to determine tre clinicians in the cho TI), Bacteria, ients with D vary in di ecially when t from the p sk of acq ] DM can alt system where cause of anging from d ience.org ections DM. mples iabetic QSUT) ause of to test n and ends in oice of iabetes ifferent there is patients quiring ter the e UTI severe dysuria
  • 2. 14 Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences V2, I1 February 2015: 13-18 ISSN 2385-2712, EISSN 2385-2453 http://journal.mcmscience.org organ damage and sometimes even death due to complicated UTI (pyeleonephritis).[4] Urine analysis (U/A) is one of the most important tests in clinical laboratories for diagnosis, screening and pre- vention of UTI and nowadays is used as a guide for empirical treatment in UTI.[5-9] UTI is more widespread in women with DM than in non diabetic women as a consequence of debilitated immune system. The risk factors for UTI involve colonization with a different uropathogen in cases of recurrent UTI, glucosuria and impaired granulocyte function. Diabetic patients are at a higher risk developing acute pyelonephritis, renal abscess, abnormalities of bladder scarring and pyelitis. People with diabetes have dysfunctional bladders which contract poorly. Women are prone to UTIs for reasons which are not well understood. Every one woman develops UTI among five women. UTI is uncommon in men and contributes to havelarger complications after initial infection. Ninety five percent of UTIs are caused by uropathogens which multiply at the notch of the urethra and migrate towards the bladder. UTI is a result of various factors which may trigger Infection. Recurrent UTI is a nasty infection in sexually active young women and patients with DM.[12-17] Cystitis or bladder infection is commonly prevalent in women and young adolescent girls. The infection can be brief and acute (Cystitis) with classical symptoms of dysuria. In cases of continuous infection deeper layers of the bladder may be damaged (pyleonephritis). The risk of UTI increases with harmful changes in the immune system which also leads to the easier invasion and colonization in the lining of the bladder by Uropathogens. DM is also a leading a cause of overactive bladder or neurogenic bladder. 2. Methods This was a longitudinal study conducted on 1000 urine samples that were collected from laboratory of University Hospital Center "Mother Theresa”(QSUT), Tirana, Albania. Samples of DM patients were collected with systematic randomized sampling method. A total of 1000 diabetic patients from various out-patient departments and admitted in wards at QSUT Hospital, were taken for the study. Known diagnosed diabetics who were already started on antibiotics and who took antibiotic within last 2 weeks were excluded. The presence of at least 105 CFU/ml in 1 culture of clean-voided mid- stream urine specimen or obtained by urethral catheterization was the criterion used for defining asymptomatic bacteriuria. In order to exclude possible diabetic patients from non diabetic group, was assured to have a negative
  • 3. Selam Shkurti 15 ©2015 Mediterranean Center of Medical Sciences.   diabetic history and absence of glycosuria and fasting blood sugar less than 126 mg/dl. It is a serious clinical problem for people with DM. Hospitalization for pyleonephritis occurs 15 times more frequently in diabetic patients. Symptomatic UTI may be present as a severe illness including higher frequency of bacteremia and bilateral renal involvement with pyleonephritis or unusual clinical presentations of emphysematous cystitis. (8) Diabetic patients encounter urinary urgency and incontinence during night. This condition is often manifested by the shape of painful urination and retention of urine in the bladder. DM also results in abnormalities of the host defense system that may result in a higher risk of developing infection. Immunologic impairments such as defective migration, and phagocytic alterations of chemotaxis in polymorphonuclear leukocytes is well marked in diabetic patients. Statistical analyses were performed using IBM SPSS version 20 statistical software for windows. 3. Results Among the 1000 urine samples analyzed, 57.7% were female patients and 42.3% were male patients. Among the 361 urine samples that gave growth in culture, 83% (90/108) yielded more than 105 CFU per mL of urine. The prevalence of microorganisms in female patients was: Escherichia coli (62,1%; 124/232), Enterococcus spp. (13.4%; 38/232), Klebsiella spp. (7.4%; 12/232), Proteus mirabilis (5.3%; 11/232), Staphylococci spp (3.4%; 22/232). In male patients, the prevalence was: E. coli ( 53.49%; 69/129), Enterococcus spp. (16.3%; 21/129), Klebsiella spp. (6.2%; 8/129), Proteus mirabilis (5.43%; 8/129), Staphylococci spp (4.65%; 6/129). The sensitivity and specificity for the parameters analyzed as predictors of UTI are shown in [Table 1] Table 1 Isolation rate of uropathogens in male and female patients Diabetic males Diabetic females N° % N° % E. coli 69 53.49 124 62.1 Enterococcus spp 21 16.28 38 13.4 Klebsiella spp 8 6.20 12 7.4 Proteus spp 7 5.43 11 5.3 Pseudomonas spp 5 3.88 13 4.9 Staphylococci spp 6 4.65 12 3.4 Other 13 10.08 22 3.5 Total 129 100 232 100
  • 4. 16 Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences V2, I1 February 2015: 13-18 ISSN 2385-2712, EISSN 2385-2453 http://journal.mcmscience.org The rates of antibiotic resistance of E. coli in diabetic patients were : ampicillin 38.1%; cotrimoxazole 29.9%; ciprofloxacin 21.4%; nitrofurantoin 10.6% [Table 2]. The Pseudomonas strains isolated in diabetic patients had similar patterns of resistance: ciprofloxacin 33%; ceftazidime 39.6%: imipenem 15.2%; amikacin 18.9%. 4. Conclusion This study confirms that diabetes predisposes patients to the risk of urinary tract infections due to the changes in bladder function and in circulation. UTIs are more frequent and are likely to have a more complicated course in patients with (DM). The most frequent uropathogen is E. coli. Imipenem was most effective against GNB and vancomycin and Linezolid was most effective against GPC. These data may be used to determine trends in antimicrobial susceptibilities, to formulate local antibiotic policies and to assist clinicians in the choice of antibiotic therapy to prevent misuse or overuse of antibiotics. The mechanisms, which potentially contribute to the greater incidence of UTI in these patients, are malfunctioning in the local urinary cytokine secretions and an increased adherence of bacteria to the cells of the Uroepithelial cells. No confirmation is available on the best possible treatment of acute cystitis and pyelonephritis in patients with DM. Thus we suggest screening of UTI in diabetic patients is imperative. Varieties of factors were found responsible for UTI in diabetic patients, probably the most important is the damaged immune response, but also genetic susceptibility can be possible cause. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of UTI among the diabetic patients and compare these data with other previous studies. Regarding the antimicrobial resistance profile of the uropathogens, we observed that the isolated E. coli strains were resistant at similar rates to ampicillin, cotrimoxazole, ciprofloxacin and nitrofurantoin in diabetic patients. In a similar study performed in emergency departments, an association was found between the Table 2 Antimicrobial resistance of urinary E. coli in patients with diabetes. Antomicrobial agent Tested strains Resistant strains n° n° % ampicillin 92 35 38.1 cotrimoxazole 75 22 29.9 ciprofloxacin 112 24 21.4 nitrofurantoin 82 9 10.6 Total 361 90
  • 5. Selam Shkurti 17 ©2015 Mediterranean Center of Medical Sciences.   presence of cotrimoxazole resistance and diabetes. [21-25] Competing interests The author declare that they have no competing interests. Acknowledgement The author hereby acknowledge to the patients for participation in the study and the laboratory specialists at the University Hospital Center "Mother Theresa”, Tirana, Albania for the precious contribution. References   [1] Shkurti, Selam. "Urinary Tract Infections (UTI) Among Patients at the University Hospital Center" Mother Theresa", Tirana, Albania." Mediterranean Journal of Medical Sciences 1.1 (2014). [2] Forland M, Thomas VL. The treatment of urinary tract infections in women with diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Care 1985;8:499-506. [3] Patterson TF, Andriole VT. Detection, significance, and therapy of bacteriuria in pregnancy: update in the managed health care area. Infect Dis Clin North Am 1997;11:593-608. [4] Zhanel GG, Harding GKM, Guay DRP. Asymptomatic bacteriuria: which patients should be treated? Arch Intern Med 1990;150:1389-96. [5] Harding GKM, Zhanel GG, Nicolle LE, Cheang M. Antimicrobial treatment in diabetic women with asymptomatic bacteriuria. N Engl J Med 2002;347:1576-83 [6] Perez-Luque EL, de la Luz Villalpando M, Malacara JM: Association of sexual activity and bacteruria in women with non.insulin dependent diabetes mellitus. J DiabetesComplications 1992, 6(4):254-57. [7] Brauner A, Flodin U, Hylander B, Ostenson C: Bacteriuria, bacterial virulence and host factors in diabetic patients. Diabet Med 1993, 10:550-554. [8] Zhanel GG, Nicolle LE, Harding GKM: Prevalence of asymptomatic bacteriuria and associated host factors in women with diabetes mellitus. The Manitoba Diabetic Urinary Infection Study Group. Clin Infect Dis 1995,21(2):316-22. [9] Conway PH, Cnaan A, Zaoutis T, Henry BV, Grundmeier RW, Keren R. Recurrent urinary tract infections inchildren risk factors and association with prophylactic antimicrobials. JAMA. Jul 11; 298(2):179-86 [10] Patterson JE, Andriole VT. Bacterial urinary tract infections in diabetes. Infect Dis Clin NorthAm.1995;9:25–51. [11] Kass EH. Bacteriuria and the diagnosis of infections of the urinary tract. Arch Intern Med. 1957;100:709-714. [12] Zhanel GG, Harding GK, Nicolle LE. Asymptomatic bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus. Rev Infect Dis.991;13:150-154. [13] Hansen RO. Bacteriuria in diabetic and non- diabetic out-patients. Acta Med Scand. 1964; 176:721-730. [14] Vejlsgaard R. Studies on urinary infection in diabetics. I. Bacteriuria in patients with diabetes mellitus and in control subjects. Acta Med Scand. 1966;179:173-182. [15] Vejlsgaard R. Studies on urinary infection in diabetics. II. Significant bacteriuria in relation
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