Political marketing <ul><li>Empirical phenomenon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul>...
Social and electoral change <ul><li>Social change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing identifiability and relevance of so...
Increasing importance of campaigns <ul><li>Campaigns are no longer predominantly about mobilizing support </li></ul><ul><l...
Professionalization of campaigns <ul><li>Exponential increases in campaign spending </li></ul><ul><li>Use of consultants, ...
Market models of politics <ul><li>Schumpeter, Joseph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1947)...
Expansion of the marketing concept <ul><li>Concept first introduced by Stanley Keller </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Profe...
Marketing and political science <ul><li>Use of marketing expertise by campaigning parties/candidates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul...
Marketing model of party behaviour <ul><li>Three-stage development of modern business practice applied to evolution of org...
<ul><li>Product-oriented party </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Repr...
Assumptions of marketing model <ul><li>Downsian, rational voters </li></ul><ul><li>Exogeneity and measurability of prefere...
Prescriptive/normative claims <ul><li>Customer (citizen) orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority of market-orientation o...
Political marketers in ancient Greece – the Sophists <ul><li>Rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece (Protagoras, Thrasymachus...
Sophism, truth and morality <ul><li>Relativist definition of truth, morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no absolute tr...
Similar accusations <ul><li>Style over substance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sophistic is to legislation what beautifi...
Techniques, goals and justifications <ul><li>Similar techniques and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul><...
Reconciling reputation with theory <ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political marketing considered to be m...
Theoretical shortcoming of political marketing model <ul><li>Neglecting departure from classic economic theory </li></ul><...
Consumerism <ul><li>Market intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just what, where and in what quantities consumer...
The ideological nature of marketing <ul><li>Reinforcing free market ideal becomes in itself a marketing exercise, irrespec...
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Political+Marketing

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Business      News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Political+Marketing

  • 1. Political marketing <ul><li>Empirical phenomenon </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Professionalization of campaigns </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Research paradigm </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Market models of politics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Expansion of marketing to non-commercial applications </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing model of party behaviour </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Political marketing – bureaucratic form of sophistry </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Parallels between professions of sophists and marketers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Structure of markets and need for marketing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Consumerism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological nature of marketing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 2. Social and electoral change <ul><li>Social change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing identifiability and relevance of social class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing social mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increased education </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing relevance of ideology </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of new issues/cleavages (Inglehart) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Electoral change </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dealignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Increasing electoral volatility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing explanatory power of variables like age, gender, class </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Decreasing importance of “projection”/issue alignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Issue voting; pocketbook voting; retrospective voting </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 3. Increasing importance of campaigns <ul><li>Campaigns are no longer predominantly about mobilizing support </li></ul><ul><li>With decreasing base support, voters need to be attracted through campaigning </li></ul><ul><li>Campaign context impacts on economic, issue, leadership evaluations </li></ul><ul><li>More floating voters to compete over </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing importance of mass media (new findings challenging the “minimal effects model” providing campaigners with reasons to trust in effectiveness of electioneering) </li></ul>
  • 4. Professionalization of campaigns <ul><li>Exponential increases in campaign spending </li></ul><ul><li>Use of consultants, pollsters, commercial advertisers </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing influence of campaign consultants on policy content of manifestos </li></ul><ul><li>Policy convergence -> need for distinguishing from competitors </li></ul><ul><li>Market research (focus groups, private polling, direct-marketing, database-marketing) </li></ul><ul><li>Changing media focus, from coverage of issues, coverage of leadership, image and the race, to coverage of strategy, party-media interaction, and the role of spin </li></ul>
  • 5. Market models of politics <ul><li>Schumpeter, Joseph </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Capitalism, Socialism and Democracy (1947) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Elitist” model of democracy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Function of voting: to restrain elites, not to manifest “common will” </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Downs, Anthony </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>An Economic Theory of Democracy (1957) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rational choice model of voting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assuming material self-interest as primary motivation of elites and voters </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Median voter theorem: party platforms will converge, to accommodate voter preferences </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Wellhofer: “Contradictions in Market Models of Politics: the Case of Party Strategies and Voter Linkages'”, European Journal of Political Research 1990 </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vote production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>vs. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Vote maximization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 6. Expansion of the marketing concept <ul><li>Concept first introduced by Stanley Keller </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>(Professional Public Relations and Political Power, 1956): understood marketing to mean persuasion and used it interchangeably with ‘propaganda’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Expanding application of marketing disciplines beyond business world </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Philip Kotler (1981) Marketing for Non-profit Organizations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emphasis on strategy, marketing-mix, understanding of politics as a market where voters and candidates/parties, like sellers and buyers, exchange ‘something of value’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Broadening of marketing definition by American Marketing Association </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Marketing is the process of planning and executing the conception, pricing, promotion and distribution of ideas, goods and services to create exchanges that satisfy individual and organisational objectives” (1985) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 7. Marketing and political science <ul><li>Use of marketing expertise by campaigning parties/candidates </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The observable practice of marketing in political competition prompted the entry of the concept of marketing into political science </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Early political marketing literature </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Descriptive and anecdotical </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Marketing as a scientific approach to campaigning </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mauser (Political Marketing, 1983) defines political marketing as the </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>‘ science of influencing mass behaviour in competitive situations’ </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 8. Marketing model of party behaviour <ul><li>Three-stage development of modern business practice applied to evolution of organizational behaviour of political parties </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Parties may simply stand for what they believe in, or focus on persuading voters to agree with them, or change their behaviour to follow voters’ opinions” (Jennifer Lees-Marshment, 2001: p. 701) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Product-oriented party </li></ul><ul><li>Sales-oriented party </li></ul><ul><li>Market-oriented party </li></ul>
  • 9. <ul><li>Product-oriented party </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Representing/leading social movement </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Unresponsive to social change </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral success not an objective in itself </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral goal: vote production/supporter mobilization </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Sales-oriented party </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Intra-organizational choice of policies, leadership </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using market research, advertising, communication techniques to sell itself, its policies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral goal: persuasion </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Market-oriented party </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Using market intelligence to identify voter demands </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing deliverability of demanded policies </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Assessing intra-party acceptability of policy changes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Designing product (party manifesto, leadership selection, etc) accordingly </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Electoral goal: adapting to the market </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 10. Assumptions of marketing model <ul><li>Downsian, rational voters </li></ul><ul><li>Exogeneity and measurability of preferences, needs, demands </li></ul><ul><li>Transferability of product/market/marketing metaphor to the political sphere </li></ul>
  • 11. Prescriptive/normative claims <ul><li>Customer (citizen) orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Superiority of market-orientation over product- and sales-orientation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prediction that market-oriented parties will prevail over sales- or product-oriented parties </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Recommendation for parties to embrace market-orientation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Evolutionary model </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing responsiveness of political parties </li></ul><ul><li>Improving democracy </li></ul>
  • 12. Political marketers in ancient Greece – the Sophists <ul><li>Rhetoric teachers in ancient Greece (Protagoras, Thrasymachus, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>Criticized by Plato for providing their services/rhetorical skills for whatever purpose and position </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Eristic: arguments aimed at victory rather than at truth </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Anti-logic: the assignment to any argument of a counterargument that negates it (basis of Hegelian dialectic) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Never accepted as philosophers </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For their suspicion towards metaphysics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>For their pragmatism </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 13. Sophism, truth and morality <ul><li>Relativist definition of truth, morality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>There is no absolute truth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Truth, or the right course of action, is what one can convince the audience of being true or right </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Purpose of debating is not (what would be the Platonic understanding) to jointly discover truth, but to succeed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Morality is a cultural, hence conditional, value </li></ul></ul>
  • 14. Similar accusations <ul><li>Style over substance </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Sophistic is to legislation what beautification is to gymnastics and appearance to reality” (Plato) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Man is the measure of all things” (Protagoras) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Technicians of enticement </li></ul><ul><li>Mercenaries </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The purpose of government is to be efficient and to succeed. This is the criterion by which it should be judged” (Thrasymachus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Profane </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ The uncultured whose desire is not for wisdom but for scoring off an opponent” (Plato) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 15. Techniques, goals and justifications <ul><li>Similar techniques and goals </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Empiricism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Rhetoric </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Similar justifications </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Relativism </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Popularity replaces legitimacy </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Efficiency replaces values </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Management replaces politics </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Nothing is unjust but a justice that does not succeed (Thrasymachus) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Morality and law are not absolute, collective values, but principles defined by those in power </li></ul></ul></ul>
  • 16. Reconciling reputation with theory <ul><li>Reputation </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political marketing considered to be manipulative (spin doctors), dishonest, close to propaganda, placing style over substance </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Effect </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political marketing practice appears to turn people off (decreasing turnout in US since 1970s, collapse of turnout under New Labour since 1997) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Public demand for politicians of conviction (but consider the paradox of Margaret Thatcher – the pioneer of political marketing in UK, nonetheless understood as principled and ideological) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Positivistic, presenting political marketing as potentially regenerative force for democracies (by basing policy on public preferences) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 17. Theoretical shortcoming of political marketing model <ul><li>Neglecting departure from classic economic theory </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Markets are not perfect and do not self-regulate </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production and pricing are not naturally regulated by supply/demand function </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Political markets are oligopolistic (concentrated, with few competitors) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Products become secondary to the image/reputation of the firm </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>From trader to salesman, intervening in markets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Marketing is active intervention in markets </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Oligopolistic markets tend to produce socially uneconomical outcomes </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Strategic behaviour </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pricing </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Production </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Labour relations </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Accounting </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
  • 18. Consumerism <ul><li>Market intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just what, where and in what quantities consumers want </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But also why they want it </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>From homo economicus to buyer motivations, consumer psychology </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Not just discovering demand </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>But stimulating it </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Potentialities of demand </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Dormand/latent needs </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consumers are “irrational at least as often as rational, motivated in large degree by emotions, habits and prejudices; differing widely in personality structure, in aspirations, ideals and buying behaviours.” (Martineau, It’s Time to Research the Consumer, 1955) </li></ul>
  • 19. The ideological nature of marketing <ul><li>Reinforcing free market ideal becomes in itself a marketing exercise, irrespective of factual oligopoly in most commercial and all political markets </li></ul><ul><li>Downsian theory of democracy </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Ideological in its use of the false analogy of competitive political markets, with invisible hand mechanism that produces socially desirable outcomes notwithstanding asocial nature of actors </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The essential features of political marketing </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Opinion (replacing values as more malleable building blocks of collective choice) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Appearance (not whether you are a good leader, or your policy a good one, but whether you can make it appear thus, counts) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pragmatism (downgrading elected government to a management function) </li></ul></ul></ul>

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