KINETIC
THEORY
OF
MATTER
3 STATES OF MATTER
SOLID
LIQUID
GAS
SOLIDS
• Fixed shape and volume
• Normally hard and rigid
• Large force needed to
change shape
• High density
• Incompress...
Model of Solids
• Closely packed
together
• Occupy minimum space
• Regular pattern
• Vibrate about fixed
position
• Not fr...
LIQUIDSLIQUIDS
• Fixed volume but no fixed
shape
• High density
• Not compressible
Model of Liquids
• Occur in clusters
with molecules
slightly further apart
as compared to solids
• Free to move about
with...
GASESGASES
•No fixed shape or
volume
•Low density
•Compressible
Model of GasesModel of Gases
• Very far apart
• Travel at high speeds
• Independent and
random motion
• Negligible forces ...
Brownian MotionBrownian Motion
• Movement of
smoke cells
were observed
under the
microscope
• Random
motion
Pressure in Gases
(Ideal Gases)
Air molecules in a container are in
as state of continuous motion.
Pressure in Gases
(Ideal Gases)
Air molecules in a container are in
as state of continuous motion.
When they collide with ...
Pressure in Gases
(Ideal Gases)
Air molecules in a container are in
as state of continuous motion.
When they collide with ...
Pressure-volume (p-V)
relationship of a gas
Air molecules in a container will
exert a certain amount of pressure.
Pressure-volume (p-V)
relationship of a gas
Air molecules in a container will
exert a certain amount of pressure.
If the v...
Pressure-volume (p-V)
relationship of a gas
Therefore, when we decrease the volume of
the container, the pressure exerted ...
To form an equation,
p = k/V
pV = k (k is a constant)
p1V1 = p2V2
Where p1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume,
And...
Example:
The volume of a fixed mass of gas at 600 Pa is
1500cm3
. What is the pressure if the volume is
reduced to 1000 cm...
P-T Relationship
Now we will keep the
volume of the
container constant.
We will investigate to
see how the pressure
will v...
P-TRelationshipP-TRelationship
From the applet, we can see that
Pressure increases as the temperature increases.
TP ∝
when...
Example
Air is being trapped in a container of fixed volume. At room
temperature of 300 K, the pressure exerted by the gas...
V-T Relationship
This is the most commonly occurring relationship.
When gas gets heated, the amount of space that it
occup...
Example
A balloon is filled with gas, at a temperature of 300 K, to a
volume of 50cm3
. If I want to expand the balloon to...
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Kinetic Theory of Matter

Slides used during lesson
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Business      Health & Medicine      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Kinetic Theory of Matter

  • 1. KINETIC THEORY OF MATTER
  • 2. 3 STATES OF MATTER SOLID LIQUID GAS
  • 3. SOLIDS • Fixed shape and volume • Normally hard and rigid • Large force needed to change shape • High density • Incompressible
  • 4. Model of Solids • Closely packed together • Occupy minimum space • Regular pattern • Vibrate about fixed position • Not free to move about
  • 5. LIQUIDSLIQUIDS • Fixed volume but no fixed shape • High density • Not compressible
  • 6. Model of Liquids • Occur in clusters with molecules slightly further apart as compared to solids • Free to move about within confined vessel
  • 7. GASESGASES •No fixed shape or volume •Low density •Compressible
  • 8. Model of GasesModel of Gases • Very far apart • Travel at high speeds • Independent and random motion • Negligible forces of attraction between them
  • 9. Brownian MotionBrownian Motion • Movement of smoke cells were observed under the microscope • Random motion
  • 10. Pressure in Gases (Ideal Gases) Air molecules in a container are in as state of continuous motion.
  • 11. Pressure in Gases (Ideal Gases) Air molecules in a container are in as state of continuous motion. When they collide with the wall of a container, they exert a force, F on the wall. F
  • 12. Pressure in Gases (Ideal Gases) Air molecules in a container are in as state of continuous motion. When they collide with the wall of a container, they exert a force, F on the wall. F The force per unit area is the pressure exerted on the wall.
  • 13. Pressure-volume (p-V) relationship of a gas Air molecules in a container will exert a certain amount of pressure.
  • 14. Pressure-volume (p-V) relationship of a gas Air molecules in a container will exert a certain amount of pressure. If the volume of this container was to decrease, the air molecules will have less space to move about. This will result in the molecules colliding with the walls more frequently.
  • 15. Pressure-volume (p-V) relationship of a gas Therefore, when we decrease the volume of the container, the pressure exerted by the air molecules on the container increases. V 1 αp
  • 16. To form an equation, p = k/V pV = k (k is a constant) p1V1 = p2V2 Where p1 and V1 are the initial pressure and volume, And p2 and V2 are the final pressure and volume.
  • 17. Example: The volume of a fixed mass of gas at 600 Pa is 1500cm3 . What is the pressure if the volume is reduced to 1000 cm3 at constant temperature? Solution: Using the formula: p1V1 = p2V2 (600)(1500) = p2(1000) p2= p2= 900 Pa (1000) )(600)(1500
  • 18. P-T Relationship Now we will keep the volume of the container constant. We will investigate to see how the pressure will vary with temperature of the gas.
  • 19. P-TRelationshipP-TRelationship From the applet, we can see that Pressure increases as the temperature increases. TP ∝ when the volume is kept constant
  • 20. Example Air is being trapped in a container of fixed volume. At room temperature of 300 K, the pressure exerted by the gas is 100 Pa. If the air in the container was heated to 600 K, what is the new pressure exerted by the gas now? Solution: Since pressure is proportional to temperature, when temperature increases, pressure should also increase. Temperature increases by 2 times, so pressure should increase by 2 times. New pressure = 100 x 2 = 200 Pa
  • 21. V-T Relationship This is the most commonly occurring relationship. When gas gets heated, the amount of space that it occupies expands. So when temperature increase, volume would also increase. Temperature is proportional to volume. TV ∝ at constant pressure
  • 22. Example A balloon is filled with gas, at a temperature of 300 K, to a volume of 50cm3 . If I want to expand the balloon to a volume of 150cm3 , what is the temperature of the gas now? Assuming that the pressure exerted by the gas does not change. Solution: Volume is proportional to temperature. Since the volume has to be increased by 3 times, the volume should also be increased accordingly. Required temperature = 300 x 3 = 900 K

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