PRICING ANALYTICS
Creating Linear & Power Demand Curves
Demand Curve
0
200
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600
800
1000
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$0
$5
$10
$15
$20
$25
Demand
Curve describing how many units...
Demand Curves
•Used to estimate price that should be charged for maximum profits
•The best price for a product maximizes...
Estimating Best Price
•Need two things to estimate best price:
•Variable cost to produce one unit of product
•Product’s...
Estimating Best Price
•COG: variable cost to produce one unit of product
•p: price we charge customers for 1 unit of pro...
Demand Curves
•Demand curves are subject to frequent change
•Affected by:
•Competitive pressures
•Customer sentiment
...
Price Elasticity
•The amount demand decreases if prices increased by 1%
•Product is price elastic if its elasticity > 1 ...
Price Elasticity
•Examples of price elasticity values in Boston MSA:
•Good pricing decisions require understanding of pr...
Demand Curves
•Two most popular types of demand curves:
•Linear demand curves
•Power demand curves
Linear Demand Curves
•Straight-line relationship between price and demand
D = a – bp
•D: units of product demanded by c...
Power Demand Curves
•Arc that shows relationship between price and demand, when product’s price elasticity isn’t affected...
Which Curve to Use?
•Price elasticity properties tell us which curve is appropriate
•Linear demand curve: if product’s p...
Constructing Linear Demand Curves
•Scenario:
•We’re selling polo shirts for Ralph Lauren
•Current price per unit p = $9...
Enter our data points
Select data points by dragging the mouse over them
Insert “Scatter with only Markers” chart
Incorrect upwards- sloping demand curve
Switch Row/Column to fix slope of line
Correct slope for demand curve
Right-click a data point, and choose “Add Trendline…”
Choose “Linear” type
Check “Display Equation on chart” Click “Close”
Demand curve Equation of demand curve
Value of a Value of b
Constructing Linear Demand Curves
•Linear demand curve equation for this example:
D = 3000 – 22.2p
•Implication: Every ...
Constructing Power Demand Curves
•Use power demand curves when product’s price elasticity doesn’t change when price chang...
Starting guess for value of a
Current per-unit price
Enter Excel formula for demand:
=B1*B2^-2 Power Demand Curve Formula: D = apb
Accept formula
Demand at this price should be 1,000 units – our guess for a was way off
Goal Seek will change this value… …until our formula yields the correct value here
Start Goal Seek
We want to set the cell containing our customer demand…
…to our known value of 1000…
…by changing the value of a
Click “OK” to run Goal Seek
Goal Seek sets correct value for a
Click “OK” to exit Goal Seek
Enter prices in increments of $10 between $50 and $140
Enter Excel power demand curve formula using correct value for a:
=$B$1*C6^-2
Right-click cell containing formula, and choose “Copy”
Select other “Demand” cells, right-click, and choose “Paste as Formula”
Verify formula is correct by checking demand/price value we know
Select data cells from table Insert “Scatter with only Markers” chart
Chart of points in demand curve
Right-click any data point, then choose “Add Trendline…”
Select “Power” radio button Click “Close”
Power demand curve
Constructing Power Demand Curves
•Value of a determined to be 8,100,000
D = 8,100,000p-2
•Price elasticity remains cons...
Pricing Analytics: Creating Linear & Power Demand Curves
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Pricing Analytics: Creating Linear & Power Demand Curves

An introduction to the two most common types of demand curves (linear and power), which can be used to estimate the price for a product or service that maximizes profit margins. Includes hands-on real-world examples using Excel.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Data & Analytics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Pricing Analytics: Creating Linear & Power Demand Curves

  • 1. PRICING ANALYTICS Creating Linear & Power Demand Curves
  • 2. Demand Curve 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1400 $0 $5 $10 $15 $20 $25 Demand Curve describing how many units of product the market demands for every possible price point
  • 3. Demand Curves •Used to estimate price that should be charged for maximum profits •The best price for a product maximizes margins – not unit sales 12 units * $5 = $60 50 units * $1 = $50
  • 4. Estimating Best Price •Need two things to estimate best price: •Variable cost to produce one unit of product •Product’s demand curve
  • 5. Estimating Best Price •COG: variable cost to produce one unit of product •p: price we charge customers for 1 unit of product •D(p): customer demand, in units of product, at price p •Profit margin formula: Margin = (p – COG) * D(p) Profit margin per unit Demand for product
  • 6. Demand Curves •Demand curves are subject to frequent change •Affected by: •Competitive pressures •Customer sentiment •Macroeconomic factors
  • 7. Price Elasticity •The amount demand decreases if prices increased by 1% •Product is price elastic if its elasticity > 1 •Decreasing price of product will increase revenue •Product is price inelastic if its elasticity < 1 •Decreasing price of product will decrease revenue
  • 8. Price Elasticity •Examples of price elasticity values in Boston MSA: •Good pricing decisions require understanding of products’ price elasticity Product/Service Elasticity Salt 0.09 Coffee 0.20 Beer 0.95 LCD monitors 1.73 Restaurant meals 2.90 Travel to Ireland 5.27
  • 9. Demand Curves •Two most popular types of demand curves: •Linear demand curves •Power demand curves
  • 10. Linear Demand Curves •Straight-line relationship between price and demand D = a – bp •D: units of product demanded by customers •p: per-unit price •a and b: adjust curve to fit product’s price elasticity •Excel can auto-calculate a and b for us
  • 11. Power Demand Curves •Arc that shows relationship between price and demand, when product’s price elasticity isn’t affected by product’s price D = apb •D: units of product demanded by customers •p: per-unit price •a and b: adjust curve to fit product’s price elasticity •b is additive inverse of price elasticity (ex: b = -2 if elasticity = 2) •Excel can auto-calculate a for us
  • 12. Which Curve to Use? •Price elasticity properties tell us which curve is appropriate •Linear demand curve: if product’s price elasticity changes as price changes •Power demand curve: if product’s price elasticity remains constant as price changes
  • 13. Constructing Linear Demand Curves •Scenario: •We’re selling polo shirts for Ralph Lauren •Current price per unit p = $90 •Current demand D = 1,000 shirts •Price elasticity of product: 2.0 •We need two points to construct our line: •We already know ($90, 1000) is on the curve •Increase price by 1% ($0.90), demand will decrease by 2% (20 shirts) •Calculated point on curve: ($90.90, 980)
  • 14. Enter our data points
  • 15. Select data points by dragging the mouse over them
  • 16. Insert “Scatter with only Markers” chart
  • 17. Incorrect upwards- sloping demand curve
  • 18. Switch Row/Column to fix slope of line
  • 19. Correct slope for demand curve
  • 20. Right-click a data point, and choose “Add Trendline…”
  • 21. Choose “Linear” type Check “Display Equation on chart” Click “Close”
  • 22. Demand curve Equation of demand curve
  • 23. Value of a Value of b
  • 24. Constructing Linear Demand Curves •Linear demand curve equation for this example: D = 3000 – 22.2p •Implication: Every $0.90 increase in shirt price is going to cost demand for ~22 shirts •Error rate for linear demand curves increases with distance from current price point •Pretty good approximation +/- 5% of current price
  • 25. Constructing Power Demand Curves •Use power demand curves when product’s price elasticity doesn’t change when price changes •Same scenario: •We’re selling polo shirts for Ralph Lauren •Current price per unit p = $90 •Current demand D = 1,000 shirts •Price elasticity of product: 2.0 •Price elasticity doesn’t change when price changes •Excel’s Goal Seek function calculates value of a for us
  • 26. Starting guess for value of a
  • 27. Current per-unit price
  • 28. Enter Excel formula for demand: =B1*B2^-2 Power Demand Curve Formula: D = apb
  • 29. Accept formula
  • 30. Demand at this price should be 1,000 units – our guess for a was way off
  • 31. Goal Seek will change this value… …until our formula yields the correct value here
  • 32. Start Goal Seek
  • 33. We want to set the cell containing our customer demand…
  • 34. …to our known value of 1000…
  • 35. …by changing the value of a Click “OK” to run Goal Seek
  • 36. Goal Seek sets correct value for a Click “OK” to exit Goal Seek
  • 37. Enter prices in increments of $10 between $50 and $140
  • 38. Enter Excel power demand curve formula using correct value for a: =$B$1*C6^-2
  • 39. Right-click cell containing formula, and choose “Copy”
  • 40. Select other “Demand” cells, right-click, and choose “Paste as Formula”
  • 41. Verify formula is correct by checking demand/price value we know
  • 42. Select data cells from table Insert “Scatter with only Markers” chart
  • 43. Chart of points in demand curve
  • 44. Right-click any data point, then choose “Add Trendline…”
  • 45. Select “Power” radio button Click “Close”
  • 46. Power demand curve
  • 47. Constructing Power Demand Curves •Value of a determined to be 8,100,000 D = 8,100,000p-2 •Price elasticity remains constant for every price on the demand curve

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