Literature Review: Electromagnetic Wheelchair for Paraplegics
ENGL 398 Fall 2015
Proposed Project
The desired goal of this...
ways to ensure the success of these components is crucial to advancing the use and reliability of
wheelchair EMG apparatus...
References
[1] M.I Reaz, M. S. Hussain, F. M. Yasin. (2006). Techniques of EMG signal analysis:
detection, processing, cla...
of 3

Popson,Michael_LitReview

Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - Popson,Michael_LitReview

  • 1. Literature Review: Electromagnetic Wheelchair for Paraplegics ENGL 398 Fall 2015 Proposed Project The desired goal of this proposed research project is to develop a method for paraplegics to move without needing the help of an assistant. This can be accomplished though capturing electrical signals from the central nervous system that are still active. Currently, the best way to capture the electrical signal is by having four EMG pads capture the signal, have a circuit filter it, and then have a hardware system analyze the signals. The hardware then signals the wheelchair to move on its own. There are not any current successful models of EMG signal capturing that are completely accurate. This research would be used as a way to evaluate current methods and understand how the field can improve upon them. Because technology improves quickly, it is important to continually inspect current research methods to improve upon them. Current EMG Models There are three different types of EMG sampling that are used currently. They are the following: surgically invasive wireless EMG implantation, wireless EMG sampling pads, and wired EMG sampling pads. [1] The invasive wireless EMG implantation is a surgical procedure where a wireless device is placed in the central nervous system. [6] This device then wirelessly communicates with the hardware outside of the wheelchair. Based on whether the user shrugs the left or right shoulder, the wheelchair will move left or right. This method is useful because the patient does not need to put EMG pads on daily like the other methods. [5] Therefore, a completely independent paraplegic is realizable using the EMG implantation method. A downside of this method is that the user has to undergo surgery for it to be effective. Wireless EMG pads are becoming more common. [5] This method does not involve any surgery, but it does require an aide. In this method, the aide must put the wireless EMG pads on daily. [4] This method is growing in popularity because most paraplegics have a family member or friend to act as an aide already. [7] Also, the wireless EMG pads allow the paraplegic to move on his or her own without wires obstructing them. [7] The downside to this method is that the pads can fall off leaving the user stranded. The third method, wired EMG pads, is the most used of all three due to its simplicity and effectiveness. [8] Wired EMG pads attach to the muscles exactly like the wireless pads, but are attached to the wheelchair’s hardware. [2] There is no surgery required for this method. An aide is needed to attach the wires every morning to the user. The biggest downside to this method is that the pads could fall off, similar to the wireless pads, and leave the user stranded. [3] Each of these methods fits into a specific niche that the user needs. Surgical implantation is good for the user that does not mind undergoing a medical operation and does not have helpers, while the EMG pads are beneficial for the user that is going to have an aide. Important Factors The most important factors impacting this research is determining the parts of the wheelchair apparatus will result in terrible consequences if they fail. For example, if EMG pads fall off the user, he or she will be stranded without a way to reattach the pads on their own. Researching
  • 2. ways to ensure the success of these components is crucial to advancing the use and reliability of wheelchair EMG apparatuses. EMG pads need to be waterproof, be able to handle a certain level of strain, and have a high attachment to the skin while having little resistance between the skin and the pad. Little resistance usually means having a liquid barrier between the pad and skin. This would make it easier for the pad to fall off, however, so alternative methods need to be explored. Significance of Project Finding a safe way to operate a wheelchair without hands is important because it will give paraplegics freedom to go wherever they want. This project’s end goal will lead to a safer and more reliable working wheelchair for paraplegics. The project will use old methods of collecting and analyzing EMG signals from publications. Phase One of the project will be considered the research of these methods and will take place from October 2015 to December 2015. The scope of phase one is to better understand the advantages and flaws of each method. Phase Two will focus on technology that will enhance the effectiveness of the wheelchair apparatus, and it will focus on the development of concepts. It will take place from December 2015 to May 2016.
  • 3. References [1] M.I Reaz, M. S. Hussain, F. M. Yasin. (2006). Techniques of EMG signal analysis: detection, processing, classification and applications [Online]. Available FTP: link.springer.com/article/10.1251/bpo115 [2] M.A. Ahad. (2012). Simulation of EMG signals for Aging muscle [Online]. Available FTP: ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=6197082&tag=1 [3] J.S. Han. (2003). Human-machine interface for wheelchair control with EMG and its evaluation [Online]. Available FTP: ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=1279672 [4] S.J. Mulroy. (1996). Electromyographic activity of should muscles during wheelchair propulsion by paraplegic persons [Online]. Available FTP: sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0003999396901665 [5] M.L. Lamontagne. (1992). Biomechanical analysis of wheelchair propulsion for various seating positions [Online]. Available FTP: europepmc.org/abstract/med/1640378 [6] J.P. Linssen. (2004). Fatigue in type 1fiber predominance: A muscle force and surface EMG study on the relative role of type I and type II muscle fibers [Online]. Available FTP: onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/mus.880140906 [7] H.F. Huang. (2010). Design of a robust EMG sensing interface for pattern classification [Online]. Available FTP: iopscience.iop.org/article/10.1088/1741- 2560/7/5/056005/meta;jsessionid=58548BDAAE8C493D06BE8E215C7CC22D.ip-10- 40-2-81 [8] B.D. Farnsworth. (2008). Wireless implantable EMG sensing microsystem [Online]. Available FTP: ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpls/abs_all.jsp?arnumber=4716669&tag=1

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