http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1463285-naqsh-rustam5/
Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitous cliff at the south side of theHusain Kuh, located north of Persepolis, Iran, with rockreli...
The practice of rock carving as a form of artistic expression, already known in ancient Persia, found a new and splendid l...
Internet imageNaqsh-i Rustam (in English, the Throne of Rustam) was considered a sacred mountainrange in the Elamite perio...
The triumph relief of Shapur I (241-272)
The triumph relief of Shapur I(241-272), the most famousSasanian rock relief from Naqš-iRustam, is very close to the tombo...
The triumph relief of Shapur I (241-272)
The historical events depicted are these. In 244, the Roman legions invaded Mesopotamia andbesieged the Sasanian capital C...
Împăratul Filip Arabul îngenunchind în faţa caluluiregelui Shapur. Th...
the emperor Philip kneeling in front of the kings horse.
rock relief depicting Shapur, son of Ardeshir, son of Sasan, King of the kings of 37 countries with two defeated Roman emp...
Behind the triumphant Shapur, we can see his high priest,Kartir, who is saluting the king with the gesture of the fistand ...
The Iranian king Bahram II (276-293) was not the strongest ruler of theSasanian dynasty. Having lost a war against the Rom...
This relief shows a Bahrams audience. His hands rest on his giant sword, showingthat he is the man in charge of the kingdo...
The three diademed people areprobably identical to Bahramsrelatives Bahram I (273-276), ShapurI (241-272), and Ardašir (22...
First Relief of Bahram II (274-294)
the high priest Kartir. (He can be recognized from his badge.)
imperial grandees showing their devotion to the king.
Probably Bahram II needed to showhimself with his ancestors, and withhis sword so prominently displayed,because his positi...
the high priest Kartir. (He can be recognized from his badge.)
From the right, three imperial grandees show their devotion to the king.
This relief was cut into the rock over an older, Elamite relief.
Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu ...
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Naqsh i Rustam5

YOU CAN WATCH THIS PRESENTATION IN MUSIC HERE (You have a link on the first slide): http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1463285-naqsh-rustam5/ Thank you! A few kilometres from Persepolis is Naqsh-e Rostam where the magnificent tombs of Darius the Great, Xerxes, Artaxerxes I and Darius II are hewn out of a cliff face above the plain. Beneath the Achaemenid tombs are eight wonderful Sassanian bas reliefs from the third and fourth centuries AD showing scenes of Sassanian rulers’ conquests over their enemies – particularly the Romans – and portrayals of royal ceremonies. The practice of rock carving as a form of artistic expression, already known in ancient Persia, found a new and splendid lease of life during the Sassanid period. These carvings are notable not only for their great number but also for their enormous dimensions and compositional excellence. The most popular themes, found in almost all the images, were those associated with the sovereign, principally scenes of investiture or victory. A famous example is the rock monument of Naqsh-i Rustam that glorifies King Shapur's victories over the Roman emperors Philip the Arabian and Philip the Valerian. The carvings can be accurately dated and identified, and are of great iconographic and historical importance because some of them bear inscriptions with the name of the king, sometimes written in three languages. Details of the individual's clothing, headgear, and hairstyle provide valuable information concerning many aspects of court life, such as the use of weapons and musical instruments. Furthermore, they constitute an invaluable source of reference for the study and analysis of the iconographic motifs of Sassanid art.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Travel      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Naqsh i Rustam5

  • 1. http://www.authorstream.com/Presentation/michaelasanda-1463285-naqsh-rustam5/
  • 2. Naqsh-i Rostam is a precipitous cliff at the south side of theHusain Kuh, located north of Persepolis, Iran, with rockreliefs ranging from Elamite (second millennium BCE) toSasanian times (fifth century CE). Surrounding it are otherrock installations and some Achaemenid and Sasanianarchitecture, most of which lies under several meters ofdebris and has not yet been excavated.Naqsh-i Rostam este o stâncă abruptă situată în partea desud a munţilor Kuh Husain, la nord de Persepolis. Aici segăsesc basoreliefuri Elamite săpate în stâncă (mileniul IIî.Hr.), morminte ahemenide şi reliefuri Sasanide (până însecolul VII d.Hr). Există şi alte basoreliefuri în împrejurimiprecum şi unele construcţii ahemenide şi sasanide la oadâncime de câţiva metri în pământ, care nu au fost încăscoase la lumină.
  • 3. The practice of rock carving as a form of artistic expression, already known in ancient Persia, found a new and splendid lease of life during the Sassanid period. These carvings are notable not only for their great number but also for their enormous dimensions and compositional excellence. Basoreliefurile sculptate în stâncă, formă majoră de exprimare artistică practicată în Persia antică, a cunoscut în perioada Sasanidă o înflorire deosebită. Aceste sculpturi sunt notabile, nu numai datorită numărului mare, dar, de asemenea, pentru dimensiunile lor de-a dreptul enorme şi pentru excelenta realizare şi compoziţieThe triumph relief of Shapur I (241-272)
  • 4. Internet imageNaqsh-i Rustam (in English, the Throne of Rustam) was considered a sacred mountainrange in the Elamite periods (early first millennium BCE). The façades of Naqsh-iRustam became the burial site for four Achaemenid rulers and their families in the fifthand fourth centuries BCE, as well as a major center of sacrifice and celebration duringthe Sasanian period between the third and seventh century CE.În vremea imperiului elamit (începutul primului mileniu î.Hr) Naqsh-i Rustam (TronulluiRustam) a fost considerat un lanţ muntos sacru. Faţa muntelui Naqsh-i Rustam adevenit loc de înmormântare pentru patru conducători ahemenizi şi familiilor lor, în alcincilea şi al patrulea secol î.Hr, fiind apoi un important centru de sacrificiu şi desărbătoare în timpul dinastiei Sasanide (între secolele III şi VII).
  • 5. The triumph relief of Shapur I (241-272)
  • 6. The triumph relief of Shapur I(241-272), the most famousSasanian rock relief from Naqš-iRustam, is very close to the tombof Darius I the Great. It showshow king Shapur has defeatedtwo Roman emperors.Victoria regelui Shapur I(241-272), cel mai faimosbasorelief sasanid de la Naqsh-iRustam, este foarte aproape demormântul lui Darius I cel Mare.El ilustrează victoria regeluiShapur I care a învins doiîmpăraţi romani.
  • 7. The triumph relief of Shapur I (241-272)
  • 8. The historical events depicted are these. In 244, the Roman legions invaded Mesopotamia andbesieged the Sasanian capital Ctesiphon, but the war lasted long, and the Roman emperor GordianIII was replaced by Philippus Arabs, who was forced to conclude a peace treaty with Shapur. Philipeven paid a ransom and was happy to return alive, allowing Shapur to present the events as if thenew Roman ruler owed the throne to the Sasanian king. So, we can see the emperor Philip kneelingin front of the kings horse.Basorelieful prezintă evenimentele istorice petrecute după anul 244, când legiunile romane auinvadat Mesopotamia şi au asediat capitala Sasanidă Ctesiphon. Războiul a durat mult timp, iarîmpăratul roman Gordian III a murit (a fost ucis?), fiind înlocuit de Filip Arabul, care a fost obligat săîncheie un tratat de pace cu Shapur. El a făcut pace cu perşii, dându-le teritorii din Mesopotamia şiplătindu-le 500.000 de denari răscumpărare dar a fost fericit să se întoarcă în viaţă, permiţându-i luiShapur să prezinte evenimentele ca şi cum lui i-ar datora tronul. Basorelieful îl prezintă pe împăratulFilip Arabul îngenunchind în faţa calului regelui Shapur.
  • 9. Împăratul Filip Arabul îngenunchind în faţa caluluiregelui Shapur. The standing man, seized by the hand by Shapur, is the Roman emperor Valerian, who was taken captive in 260. This monument, therefore, has to be dated after this event. A more elaborate version of these monument, which also shows a dead Gordian, can be seen at Bishapur (relief II). Personajul stând în picioare, ţinut de mâini de Shapur, este împăratul roman Valerian, care a fost luat prizonier în anul 260. Basorelieful, prin urmare, trebuie să fi fost realizat după acest eveniment. O versiune mai elaborată a acestui basorelief, care îl prezintă şi pe Gordian mort, sub copitele calului lui Shapur, poate fi văzută la Bishapur (relief II).
  • 10. the emperor Philip kneeling in front of the kings horse.
  • 11. rock relief depicting Shapur, son of Ardeshir, son of Sasan, King of the kings of 37 countries with two defeated Roman emperors
  • 12. Behind the triumphant Shapur, we can see his high priest,Kartir, who is saluting the king with the gesture of the fistand index finger. Kartir had been able to promoteZoroastrianism, which was made into the Sasanians statereligion. He was also responsible for the persecution ofChristians, Jews, and Buddhists, and instigated the deathof the prophet Mani, thus giving Manichaeism its firstmartyr.În spatele lui Shapur triumfător, îl putem vedea pe MarelePreot Kartir, care îl salută pe rege cu gestul de admiraţieşi loialitate, pumnul ridicat şi degetul index îndoit. Kartir areuşit să promoveze zoroastrismul, care a devenit religieoficială de stat. Dar tot el a fost, răspunzător de prigonireacreştinilor, evreilor şi budiştilor, şi a instigat la moarteaprofetului Mani, care a devenit astfel primul martirmaniheism.
  • 13. The Iranian king Bahram II (276-293) was not the strongest ruler of theSasanian dynasty. Having lost a war against the Roman emperor Carus, heaccepted the loss of Armenia and Mesopotamia; he had some difficulty insuppressing a revolt by his brother Hormizd II; and he lost power to theZoroastrian high priest Kartir. Still, Bahram II left no less than ten rock reliefs,two of them in Naqš-i Rustam.Regele Bahram al II-lea (276-293), nu a fost cel mai puternic conducător aldinastiei Sasanide. După ce a fost învins în războiul împotriva împăratuluiroman Carus, el a acceptat să piardă Armenia şi Mesopotamia, a avut uneledificultăţi în suprimarea unei revolte a fratele său Hormizd al II-lea, şi a pierdutputerea în faţa marelui mag zoroastrian Kartir. Totuşi, regele Bahram al II-leanu a lăsat mai puţin de zece basoreliefuri săpate în stâncă, dintre care două laNaqsh-i Rustam.
  • 14. This relief shows a Bahrams audience. His hands rest on his giant sword, showingthat he is the man in charge of the kingdom. From the right, three imperial grandeesshow their devotion to the king. On the left, three people with diadems look atBahram, together with two others, among whom we can discern the high priest Kartir.(He can be recognized from his badge.)Aceast basorelief prezintă o audienţă publică acordată de Bahram II. Mâinile i sesprijină pe sabia lui gigant, gest care arată că el este conducătorul regatului. Îndreapta, trei nobili de rang înalt îşi arată devotamentul faţă de rege. În partea stângă,trei persoane cu coroane împărăteşti se uită la Bahram, împreună cu alţi doi, dintrecare îl putem recunoaşte pe marele mag Kartir. (El poate fi recunoscut după insignalui.)
  • 15. The three diademed people areprobably identical to Bahramsrelatives Bahram I (273-276), ShapurI (241-272), and Ardašir (224-241),the founder of the dynasty.Cele trei persoane cu coroane regalesunt, probabil, antecesorii regelui,respectiv Bahram I (273-276),Shapur I (241-272), şi Ardashir(224-241), întemeietorul dinastiei.
  • 16. First Relief of Bahram II (274-294)
  • 17. the high priest Kartir. (He can be recognized from his badge.)
  • 18. imperial grandees showing their devotion to the king.
  • 19. Probably Bahram II needed to showhimself with his ancestors, and withhis sword so prominently displayed,because his position was hardlysecure at all. This may also be thereason why he ordered this relief tobe cut into the rock close to theInvestiture Relief of Ardašir.Probabil Bahram II simţea nevoia săse reprezinte alături de predecesoriisăi şi cu sabia atât de vizibilă deoarece domnia lui nu era delocsigură. Tot acesta ar putea fi motivulpentru care basorelieful a fostrealizat chiar lângă reprezentareainvestiturii lui Ardashir, întemeietoruldinastiei, chiar dacă locul era ocupatde un besorelief elamit pe care înmare parte l-a distrus.
  • 20. the high priest Kartir. (He can be recognized from his badge.)
  • 21. From the right, three imperial grandees show their devotion to the king.
  • 22. This relief was cut into the rock over an older, Elamite relief.
  • 23. Text : Internet Pictures: Sanda Foişoreanu Nicoleta Leu Copyright: All the images belong to their authors Arangement: Sanda FoişoreanuSound: Great maestro Shajarian, Tasnif Saghia www.slideshare.net/michaelasanda

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