Support for Spelling
Support for Spelling
First published in 2009
Ref: 00171-2009DOM-EN
Disclaimer
The Department for Children, Schools and Families
wishes to make it clear that the Department and
its ...
The National Strategies | Primary 1
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Introduction
Teachers want their pupils to beco...
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Overview of spelling objectives
Objectives for Years 2 to 6
0017...
Primary Framework objectives – Strand 6: Word structure and spelling
Most children learn:
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Year 3 objectives
• Spell high- and medium-frequency words
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Year 5 objectives
• Spell words containing unstressed vowels
• K...
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A suggested sequence for the
teaching of spelling...
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THE TEACHING S...
An example of one half-term’s spelling sessions Year 3 term 1 (ii) (15-minute sessions)
Spelling ...
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Su...
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This activity can be repeated using a different...
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Apply, assess, reflect
• Revise long and sho...
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Sup...
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– Introduce words where the long vowe...
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Year 2 term 2 (i)
To split compound words into...
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S...
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Practice examples: compound words
High-freque...
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S...
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• Fun – funny. Ask: Why do we have double ...
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Extension activities
Ask the children to take s...
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Suppor...
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Practice examples
Un- ...
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...
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– Demonstrate with further examples and ...
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S...
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Find your team
Two different consonant...
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  • 1. Support for Spelling
  • 2. Support for Spelling First published in 2009 Ref: 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 3. Disclaimer The Department for Children, Schools and Families wishes to make it clear that the Department and its agents accept no responsibility for the actual content of any materials suggested as information sources in this publication, whether these are in the form of printed publications or on a website. In these materials, icons, logos, software products and websites are used for contextual and practical reasons. Their use should not be interpreted as an endorsement of particular companies or their products. The websites referred to in these materials existed at the time of going to print. Please check all website references carefully to see if they have changed and substitute other references where appropriate. BELMONT PRESS 04-2009
  • 4. The National Strategies | Primary 1 Support for Spelling Contents Introduction 2 Overview of spelling objectives 4 A suggested sequence for the teaching of spelling 8 Year 2 programme 13 Year 3 programme 33 Year 4 programme 53 Year 5 programme 71 Year 6 programme 89 Appendices 105 Appendix 1: Knowledge of the spelling system 105 Appendix 2: Learning and practising spellings 108 Appendix 3: Application of spelling in writing 112 Appendix 4: A guide for parents 115 Appendix 5: The first 100 high-frequency words 116 Appendix 6: The next 200 most common words in order of frequency 117 © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 5. 2 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Introduction Teachers want their pupils to become fluent and effective writers; accurate spelling is a means to that end. Competent spellers need to spend less time and energy in thinking about spelling to enable them to channel their time and energy into the skills of composition, sentence structure and precise word choice. The two factors that make English such a rich language also define its complexity: the alphabetic system and the history of the language. The alphabetic system is efficient, 26 letters creating 44 phonemes in 144 combinations to form about half a million words in current use. The English alphabet includes 21 consonants; spoken English uses 24 consonant sounds, so the match between how we say a consonant and how we write it is generally predictable. The rich array of vowels poses particular problems: there are 20 spoken vowel sounds but only five vowel letters, for example, the long a sound is represented in a range of ways: e.g. ai, a-e, ea, ay, eigh. The other factor influencing our spelling is history. There are three main historical sources for English spelling patterns: • Germanic – from the Anglo Saxons, over half our words fall into this category; • Romance – Latin, French and, in the 16th century, Spanish and Portuguese; • Greek – the language of areas of knowledge, (e.g. physics, philosophy). The English language has absorbed thousands of words from all over the world, through trade and commerce. These words and phrases continue to enrich the language and give us a great wealth of expression. The implications of this, for teachers of spelling, may seem daunting but 85% of the English spelling system is predictable. The keys to supporting our pupils to become confident spellers lie in teaching the strategies, rules and conventions systematically and explicitly, and helping pupils recognise which strategies they can use to improve their own spelling. A balanced spelling programme includes five main components: • understanding the principles underpinning word construction (phonemic, morphemic and etymological); • recognising how (and how far) these principles apply to each word, in order to learn to spell words; • practising and assessing spelling; • applying spelling strategies and proofreading; • building pupils’ self-images as spellers. Over the years, the National Strategies have produced a range of materials concerned with the teaching of spelling. These materials have been reviewed and built into a new programme to support teaching within the Primary Framework. A good spelling programme gradually builds pupils’ spelling vocabulary by introducing patterns or conventions and continually practising those already introduced. Experience has confirmed that short, lively, focused sessions are more enjoyable and effective than an occasional skills session. Spelling strategies need to be taught explicitly and applied to high-frequency words, cross- curricular words and individual pupils’ words. Proofreading should be taught during shared and guided writing sessions and links should be made to the teaching of handwriting. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 6. The National Strategies | Primary 3 Support for Spelling Knowledge of the spelling system In order to spell we need both phonemic knowledge and morphological knowledge. Phonemic knowledge This is the correspondence between letters (graphemes) and sounds (phonemes). It includes knowledge about: • phonics (e.g. knowledge about letter and sound correspondence, differences between long and short vowels, the identification, segmentation and blending of phonemes in speech and how these influence spelling); • spelling patterns and conventions (e.g. how the consonant doubles after a short vowel, words with common letter strings but different pronunciations); • homophones (e.g. words with common pronunciations but different spelling: to, two, too). • Phonological knowledge. This relates to: – syllables and rhymes; – analogy. Morphological knowledge This is the spelling of grammatical units within words (e.g. horse = 1 morpheme, horses = 2 morphemes). It includes knowledge about: • root words – contain one morpheme and cannot be broken down into smaller grammatical units (e.g. elephant, table, girl, day) and are sometimes referred to as the stem or base form; • compound words – two root words combined to make a word (e.g. playground, football); • suffixes – added after root words, and change the spelling and meaning of a word (e.g. hope – hoping, walk – walked, happy – happiness); • prefixes – added before a root word, and change the meaning but rarely affect the spelling of a word (e.g. replace, mistake); • etymology (word derivations) – words in the English language come from a range of sources; understanding the origin of words helps pupils’ spelling (e.g. audi relates to hearing – audible, audience, audition). The table on page 4 gives an overview of the distribution of the teaching of the two broad types of knowledge, from Year 2 to Year 6. The learning objectives for these years are laid out on pages 5 to 7 and are organised into the three terms per year. The teaching of spelling strategies, high-frequency and cross-curricular words should be built into each half-term’s work, in addition to the phonemic, phonological and morphological knowledge. For additional information on the spelling system please see Appendix 1. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 7. 4 Overview of spelling objectives Objectives for Years 2 to 6 00171-2009DOM-EN Year 2 Year 3 Year 4 Year 5 Year 6 To secure the reading and To consolidate knowledge To distinguish between the To spell unstressed vowels in To embed the use of spelling of words containing of adding suffixes and to spelling and meaning of polysyllabic words independent spelling strategies Support for Spelling different spellings for investigate the conventions homophones for spelling unfamiliar words To spell words with common phonemes related to the spelling To investigate, collect and letter strings and different To investigate the meaning and pattern -le To understand and begin classify spelling patterns related pronunciations spelling of connectives (e.g. to learn the conventions for To spell regular verb endings to the formation of plurals furthermore, nevertheless) The National Strategies | Primary adding the suffix -ed for past and to learn irregular tense tense and -ing for present tense changes (e.g. go/went) To split compound words into To know what happens to the To investigate and learn to To explore the spelling To revise and extend work on their component parts and spelling of nouns when s is spell words with common patterns of consonants and to spelling patterns, including use this knowledge to support added letter strings formulate rules unstressed vowels in spelling polysyllabic words To understand how words To understand how suffixes To explore less common prefixes To learn how to add common change when the suffixes are change the function of words and suffixes To use what is known about inflections (suffixes) to words added prefixes and suffixes to transform words (e.g. negation, tense, word class) To add common prefixes to root To embed the correct use and To understand the use of the To investigate and learn spelling To spell unfamiliar words by words and to understand how spelling of pronouns (n.b. apostrophe in contracted forms rules for adding suffixes to words using what is known of word they change meaning phonemic and morphological) of words ending in e or words ending in families and spelling patterns -y and words containing ie To discriminate syllables in To develop knowledge of To revise and investigate links To revise and use word roots, multisyllabic words as an aid prefixes to generate new words between meaning and spelling To identify word roots, prefixes and suffixes as a to spelling from root words when using affixes derivations and spelling patterns support for spelling as a support for spelling Key: Objectives in red are phonemic or phonological © Crown copyright 2009 Objectives in blue are morphological
  • 8. Primary Framework objectives – Strand 6: Word structure and spelling Most children learn: • that segmenting words into their constituent phonemes for spelling is the reverse of blending phonemes into words for reading; • to spell words accurately by combining the use of knowledge of grapheme-phoneme correspondence as the prime approach, and also morphological knowledge and etymological information; © Crown copyright 2009 • a range of approaches to learn and spell irregular words. Year 2 objectives • Spell with increasing accuracy and confidence, drawing on word recognition and knowledge of word structure, and spelling patterns, including common inflections and use of double letters • Read and spell less common alternative graphemes, including trigraphs Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 i. To secure the reading and spelling of words i. To split compound words into their component i. To add common prefixes to root words and to containing different spellings for phonemes (e.g. parts and to use this knowledge to support understand how they change meaning (e.g. /igh/, igh, ie, y, i-e – I, night, tie, my) spelling (e.g. milkman, pancake) happy – unhappy, fair – unfair) ii. To understand and begin to learn the ii. To learn how to add common inflections (suffixes) ii. To discriminate syllables in multisyllabic words as conventions for adding the suffix -ing for present to words (e.g. plurals, -ly, -ful: book – books, loud an aid to spelling (e.g. tomorrow, together) tense and -ed for past tense (e.g. play – playing, – loudly, harm – harmful) Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply played) Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling 5 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 9. 6 Year 3 objectives • Spell high- and medium-frequency words • Recognise a range of prefixes and suffixes, understanding how they modify meaning and spelling, and how they assist in decoding long complex words • Spell unfamiliar words, using known conventions including grapheme/ phoneme correspondence and morphological rules 00171-2009DOM-EN Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 i. To consolidate knowledge of adding suffixes i. To know what happens to the spelling of nouns i. To embed the correct use and spelling of Support for Spelling and to investigate the conventions related to the when -s is added (e.g. army – armies, ash – pronouns (e.g. my, your, his) spelling pattern -le ashes) ii. To develop knowledge of prefixes to generate ii. To spell regular verb endings and to learn ii. To understand how words change when suffixes new words from root words (e.g. sense – irregular tense changes (e.g. carry – carries, are added (e.g. homeless, reliable) nonsense, cook – precook) The National Strategies | Primary carried, go – went) Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. Year 4 objectives • Use knowledge of phonics, morphology and etymology to spell new and unfamiliar words • Distinguish between the spelling and meaning of common homophones • Know and apply common spelling rules • Develop a range of personal strategies for learning new and irregular words Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 i. To distinguish between the spelling and meaning i. To investigate and learn to spell words with i. To understand the use of the apostrophe in of homophones (e.g. new – knew, heard – herd) common letter strings contracted forms of words (e.g. I’ll, you’re) ii. To investigate, collect and classify spelling ii. To understand how suffixes change the function ii. To revise and investigate links between meaning patterns related to the formation of plurals (e.g. of words (e.g. verbs into nouns: create – creation, and spelling when using affixes church – churches, box – boxes) nouns into verbs: apology – apologise) Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. © Crown copyright 2009
  • 10. Year 5 objectives • Spell words containing unstressed vowels • Know and use less common prefixes and suffixes (e.g. im-, ir-, and -cian) • Group and classify words according to their spelling patterns and meanings © Crown copyright 2009 Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 i. To spell unstressed vowels in polysyllabic words i. To explore the spelling patterns of consonants i. To investigate and learn spelling rules for adding (e.g. company, poisonous) and to formulate rules (e g. full becomes -ful suffixes to words ending in e, words ending in -y when used as a suffix, c is soft when followed by i) and words containing ie (e.g. live, living, lively, ii. To spell words with common letter strings and lifeless, happy, happiness, happier) different pronunciations (e.g. -ough: tough, ii. To explore less common prefixes and suffixes (e.g. plough, through) -ian: magician, im-: immature, il-: illegal) ii. To identify word roots, derivations and spelling patterns as a support for spelling (e.g. sign, Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply signature, signal) to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. Year 6 objectives • Spell familiar words correctly and employ a range of strategies to spell difficult and unfamiliar words • Use a range of strategies to edit, proofread and correct spelling in their own work, on paper and on screen Term 1 Term 2 Term 3 i. To embed the use of independent spelling i. To revise and extend work on spelling patterns, i. To spell unfamiliar words by using what is known strategies for spelling unfamiliar words including unstressed vowels in polysyllabic words of word families and spelling patterns (e.g. phonemic, syllabic, visual, word families, (e.g. definite, separate, miniature) ii. To revise and use word roots, prefixes and suffixes mnemonics, etymology) ii. To use what is known about prefixes and suffixes as a support for spelling ii. To investigate the meaning and spelling of to transform words (e.g. negation, tenses, word Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply connectives (e.g. furthermore, nevertheless) class) to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply Extend the knowledge of spelling strategies and apply to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. to high-frequency and cross-curricular words. 7 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 11. 8 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling A suggested sequence for the teaching of spelling Transition from Year 1 to Year 2 Children will have followed a programme of discrete phonics teaching in the Reception Year and in Year 1. By the end of Year 1, the expectation is that most children will be secure at phase 5, though further work will be required to ensure they have the knowledge and understanding of alternative spellings for each phoneme. This is addressed in the spelling objectives for Year 2. For those children who are not yet secure at phase 5, it will be necessary to continue with daily phonics sessions. Further guidance can be found at www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies. The teaching sequence This sequence presumes five short starter sessions (approximately 15 minutes) over a two-week period. The sequence is designed to be used flexibly; the number of sessions spent on each part of the sequence will vary according to the needs and ability of the children, as related to the specific spelling focus. Learning to spell is a cumulative process; the materials gradually build the children’s spelling vocabulary by introducing new words and giving continual practice of words already introduced. During each half-term, ten sessions should be used for teaching the specific spelling objective and five sessions should be used for the direct teaching of spelling strategies, proofreading, high-frequency words, specific cross-curricular words and personal spelling targets. Therefore, over a six-week half-term, there will be approximately ten sessions devoted to the specific spelling focus and five sessions devoted to the broader spelling activities. The suggested sequence is the same for every age group and every term. An example of one half-term’s spelling programme is included on page 11. A bank of approaches is suggested for each part of the sequence for the teacher to select from, to use and develop according to the needs of the class. It is strongly advised that each child has a spelling journal, not only for the spelling activities but also for the assessment dictation, so that the teacher and the children have a clear record of progress. The sequence Revisit, explain, use Children learn best when their next step builds on what they already know. The approaches described in the first part of the sequence are lively oral and Quick-write activities with two purposes: to revise and secure prior learning and to introduce and explain new learning. An important aspect of this part of the sequence is that children use the words orally, in context, so that they have a clear understanding of what they are learning. For example, in a unit related to learning the correct spelling of verb endings, the children need to have a clear understanding of the concept of tense. Teach, model, define Is spelling caught or taught? For the majority of children, reading extensively is not sufficient to secure accurate spelling; spelling must be taught explicitly and systematically. This second part 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 12. The National Strategies | Primary 9 Support for Spelling of the sequence provides a range of direct teaching activities, including teacher modelling and involving the children in the new learning. For example, after an introductory activity based on the spelling of plurals, the teacher and children define the categories and generalise the rules for their formation. In most cases, this part of the sequence will require two or three sessions. Practise, explore, investigate This part of the sequence gives children the opportunity to work independently, in pairs or in small groups, using a range of strategies to practise and consolidate new learning. For example, in a Year 2 unit focused on common suffixes, one activity is: Collect adjectives with the suffixes -y, -ful and -less to describe a fairytale character such as Cinderella’s ugly sister (e.g. hateful, careless, thoughtless, fussy, lazy). Many of the activities described in this part of the sequence could be used for homework. An extension section is included in this part of the sequence that provides more challenging activities. This could be used for the whole class, with teacher support or for groups and individuals who would benefit from more demanding activities. Apply, assess, reflect This final part of the sequence gives children the opportunity to reflect on what they have learnt and to recognise their achievements. The session follows a consistent pattern for the children to: • revise new learning; • apply the words orally and in writing; • reflect and assess their progress. For example, after a unit focused on transforming words, using prefixes and suffixes, the revision is an oral game: Give a word, transform a word. One child gives a word in a sentence that has to be changed by the next child, and so on. This book is important, that book is unimportant, the writing was legible, the writing was illegible. The children are asked to apply their learning in writing, both through a short dictated piece and by composing their own sentence for their partner to transform by adding affixes to selected words. Finally, there is an opportunity for the children to discuss and reflect on their learning and make notes in their spelling journals. This part of the sequence will normally take two sessions although some teachers may prefer to have one longer 30-minute assessment session. A set of example practice words is included in each unit. This is not an exhaustive list, nor is it intended that the children slavishly learn each one, as in a spelling list. The key principle is that the children are learning about words rather than given words to learn. The aim of each unit is that the children have an understanding of the patterns and structures of words and are able to apply their learning to their writing. Of course, learning words has a place: for example, words that the children find difficult, subject-specific words, exceptions to the rule. However, it is important that the children are encouraged to understand that most of our spelling follows rules and conventions and, by learning about these, they will be able to apply this knowledge to the spelling of words they have not met in print before. Assessment activities are included in every unit and it is intended that day-to-day assessment is a principle of this programme. Periodic assessment will also be required, to ensure children are making progress against national criteria (Assessing Pupils’ Progress, AF8). © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 13. 10 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling THE TEACHING SEQUENCE Revisit, Explain, Use What do we already know? (Previously learnt letter/sound correspondence, pre x, su x...) Oral activities to con rm prior knowledge Explain the purpose of new learning, use vocabulary orally in context Teach, Model, De ne, How the pattern/rule/structure works Model spelling examples De ne the rules, pattern and conventions Whole class/ individual whiteboard spelling practice Practise, Explore, Investigate A range of interactive activities for children to practise the new learning Whole class activities Group work Extension activities Independent work Homework Apply, Assess, Re ect Revise new learning Apply in writing Re ect on learning 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 14. An example of one half-term’s spelling sessions Year 3 term 1 (ii) (15-minute sessions) Spelling focus: To spell regular verb endings and to learn irregular tense changes Cross-curricular focus: The Romans Week 1 Week 2 Week 3 Week 4 Week 5 Week 6 Monday Monday Monday Monday Monday Monday Revisit Practise Revisit Revise verbs through action Practise group activities – past Memory strategies for learning © Crown copyright 2009 games. Model oral activity: tense, alphabet. and remembering cross- curricular words. Today I … Yesterday I … Children work in pairs to provide an oral example. Tuesday Tuesday Tuesday Tuesday Tuesday Tuesday Teach Apply/assess Practise with a partner, learning the spelling of Roman topic Introduce concept of irregular Revise learning, assess individual words. verbs, build class collection. whiteboard responses. Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Wednesday Revisit Practise Teach Secure understanding of Groups collect past-tense verbs Introduce words for our Roman the concept of present and on a theme; the playground, PE, topic next half-term: past tense; oral work, paired in the dining hall… whiteboard activity. Roman, soldier, chariot, invade. Highlight irregular verbs. Discuss meaning and context. Thursday Thursday Thursday Thursday Thursday Thursday Teach Apply/assess Apply/assess Collect more examples of Dictation, two sentences Assess spelling of H/F words and irregular past-tense verbs, sort containing past-tense verbs. Roman topic words. into spelling categories. Friday Friday Friday Friday Friday Friday Teach Practise Practise Use poem to change verbs into Paired work. Paired work. The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling past tense. Each pair to choose five Use spelling strategies for Class sort into regular spelling irregular past-tense verbs and learning the spelling of new categories. learn them together. words. 11 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 15. The National Strategies | Primary 13 Support for Spelling Year 2 programme Year 2 term 1 (i) To secure the reading and spelling of words containing different spellings for phonemes Revisit, explain, use Notes for teachers This unit is based on the assumption that the children have completed phase 5 of the Phonics programme and are ready to extend their knowledge of the English spelling system. • As this is a unit of consolidation and transition, the sessions should be used flexibly. For example, there may be three revisit sessions, two or three teaching sessions and four or more practice sessions. Alternatively, a teacher may follow the complete sequence two or three times, using different vowel phonemes on each occasion. • The focus of the unit is to revisit all the combinations of spellings for each vowel phoneme and to ensure children can distinguish between long and short vowel phonemes. Suggestions for whole-class approaches Orally, sort and revise words in each of the long vowel phoneme groups: • /ai/ (e.g. train, made, great, gate, way, brake); • /ee/ (e.g. sea, seed, be, week, meat, bean, seen); • /igh/ (e.g. write, night, sigh, try); • /oa/ (e.g. so, toe, blow, road, roll); • /(y)oo, oo/ (e.g. blew, glue, too, do, two). • Play I spy with my little eye something that rhymes with…train, etc. • Confirm that, although there are only five vowel letters, the same sound can be spelt in different ways (e.g. wait, late, great) and the same spelling can represent different sounds (e.g. read, break, bread). • Provide examples of words containing a short vowel phoneme: dog, sun, cat, leg, bit. Ask the children to repeat the words and identify the short vowel. • Practise oral discrimination: listen to the word – is the vowel short or long? Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches Select an appropriate short story and enlarge the text. Display it and read to the children, asking them to listen out for the focus phoneme for example /ai/ or /ee/. Remove the story from view and re-read it, asking the children to indicate (thumbs up) whenever they hear the focus phoneme. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 16. 14 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling This activity can be repeated using a different focus phoneme. Do a human word sort. Give out cards with words containing the focus phoneme. The children have to read the word and find others with the same spelling of the long vowel sound. Play word sort. Draw three columns on the whiteboard and write a different grapheme at the top of each one ( e.g. e, ea, ee. Children contribute words to be sorted on the whiteboard or flipchart). Repeat with other examples. Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • Phoneme spotter: children have copies of a text to highlight a particular phoneme. Then they write the word and the phoneme on a separate sheet, for example: – train – ai – gate – a-e – lane – a-e • When they have completed it they should list all the different ways of spelling the phoneme. Repeat with other vowel phonemes. • Partner work: give the children sets of common words with a particular phoneme. Ask them to take turns in saying the word and writing the word. They should then check their spellings. – /ai/ made, make, away, take, play, day, came, name, they, great, baby, paper, again – /ee/ me, he, she, we, be, been, being, see, seen, tree, people, these – /igh/ I, my, by, why, like, time, night, five, nine, nineteen – /oa/ so, no, go, going, home, old, told, over, open, only, both – /(y)oo/ blue, true, glue Extension activities • Ask the children to make a poster highlighting long and short vowels in words. • Can they explain the differences between them? 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 17. The National Strategies | Primary 15 Support for Spelling Practice examples: words containing long vowel phonemes /ai/ made sale late train sail day rain paper break baby make pale /ee/ see weak bead sea seed seat meat meet read chief bee field /igh/ cry night time sigh shine polite slide nice nine try lie pie /oa/ toe alone grow soap slow home low show note phone window those /(y)oo/ /oo/ use tune blue new cube glue blew huge to © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 18. 16 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Apply, assess, reflect • Revise long and short vowel phonemes and ask the children to give examples of words containing each type. • Dictate two sentences containing long and short vowels, for example: – On my way home from school I saw a cat with a mouse in its mouth. I told my mum about it. – On the same day each week my friend comes to tea. We like to make things with paper, glue and crayons. • Check sentences, noting successful attempts, and discuss errors. • Ask children to create a sentence that includes two words, each with a long vowel phoneme, and two words, each with a short vowel phoneme. Underline the vowel phonemes. • What have you learnt? Provide an opportunity for the children to reflect on their learning. Ask them to add words that they find difficult to their personal words to learn list in their spelling journals. Year 2 term 1 (ii) Understand and begin to learn the conventions for adding the suffix -ed for past tense and -ing for present tense Revisit, explain, use Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Before teaching the children to spell past-tense verb forms, it is important they understand about the class of words described as verbs and the meaning of past and present in relation to tense. • The children will be able to use tense changes in speech, including irregular tense changes (e.g. go – went, blow – blew). However, for the purposes of understanding the conventions related to spelling, it is important to begin with regular past and present verb tense changes using single syllable verbs. • Establish understanding of the term verb as an action word, by playing small drama games. • Play oral games requiring changing tense from present to past and the reverse, for example: – Today I am playing, yesterday I played. – Today I am painting a seaside picture, yesterday I painted a house on fire. – When I was little I scribbled, now I write. – When I was little I cried when I wanted something, now I ask. • Look at pictures of famous artists’ scenes, discuss what is happening and collect the present tense verbs, for example: – talking, chatting, looking, snowing, skating, walking, running, falling, eating. • Use small drama activities (e.g. What are you doing today? One child mimes and other children guess activities such as cleaning your teeth, brushing your hair.). – What did you do yesterday? A child replies in the past tense: I cleaned my teeth, I brushed my hair. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 19. The National Strategies | Primary 17 Support for Spelling • Explain that a verb is an action word and every sentence contains a verb. It is important we learn how to spell the verbs to show when the action takes place. When we are talking about what has happened already, this is called the past tense. What is happening now is called the present tense. • The spelling of the verb changes according to the tense and we are going to begin to learn the rules for spelling verbs. Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches Many familiar poems provide good opportunities for transposing tenses. For example, the poem on the left has been transposed into the poem on the right. Using a poem Today Yesterday Sophie looks for a book Sophie looked for a book Ahmed counts to ten Ahmed counted to ten Alice wants to cook Alice wanted to cook George searches for a pen George searched for a pen Archie hops in the playground Archie hopped in the playground Mia skips around Mia skipped around Choose a poem or use the verse Today above and read it aloud. • Identify the verbs with the children, to establish that they are written in the present tense. • Invite the children to give you the past-tense forms of the verbs they have identified. • Scribe the new version of the poem with the past tenses written in. • Look at the past-tense verbs. What spelling pattern do they all have? Emphasise that even when the final phoneme sounds different, the spelling pattern is the same. Sometimes the ed ending is two phonemes (wanted) and sometimes only one (skipped). • Look at the two versions of the verbs. What do the children notice about skips and hops when they are written in the past tense? (Remove the s and double the consonant.) • Explain that if a base word ends in a single consonant letter preceded by a single vowel letter, double the consonant letter. Another way of saying this is that there needs to be two consonant letters between a ‘short’ vowel and a suffix beginning with a vowel e.g. hop, hopping, hopped. • Quick-write activity: ask the children to change the verbs to past tense: stop – stopped, hug – hugged, beg – begged, knot – knotted, fit – fitted, grab – grabbed. Repeat the process with -ing. – Establish that -ed and -ing are suffixes and, before they are added to the end of words, sometimes the spelling of the word has to change. – What happens to the following verbs: splash, jump, fetch, when you add -ing or -ed? Or to lift, dust? – Explain that for many verbs, you just add -ed or -ing (e.g. play – played, playing; enjoy – enjoyed, enjoying; walk – walked, walking). © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 20. 18 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling – Introduce words where the long vowel is split (e.g. bake, hope, like). Explain that the e is dropped before the -ed or -ing is added (e.g. hope – hoped, hoping). Demonstrate this using magnetic letters. Invite examples from the class. – Draw three columns on the whiteboard, corresponding to the three possible actions to take when adding -ed to verbs. – Invite the children to change verbs ending in y preceded by a vowel into past or present tense. Adding -ed to verbs Add -ed Drop the e and add -ed Double the final consonant and add -ed • Shuffle a pack of verb cards (see suggestions over the page). • Show the first card. • Ask the children to discuss the verb with their talk partners and decide which column it belongs in. • Place the word in the correct column. • Repeat. You may wish to repeat this activity for present tense verbs – adding ing Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • The children work in small groups. Each child needs a whiteboard and pen and the group needs a large piece of flipchart paper with the three columns labelled Add -ed, Drop the e and add -ed, Double the final consonant and add -ed. – The verb cards should be placed in a pile, face-down. – One child takes a card from the pile and shows it to the group. – The children decide which column the word belongs to and try changing the word on their whiteboards. If all agree, one child records the word in the agreed column on the flipchart paper. – Repeat the process. • Give the children regular past-tense verbs to sort into categories: sounding t (e.g. jumped), sounding d (e.g. called), sounding ed (e.g. wanted). The purpose is to confirm that, although the endings are pronounced differently, they are all spelt with -ed. • Children change a text written in the present tense into the past tense, for example, this sports report. – Jones sprints down the right wing. Collier passes him the ball. Jones darts forward, spots Carrick and aims carefully. Kirby tries to take the ball but Carrick dodges him, dribbles the ball neatly round Kirk and kicks it high to Johnson. Johnson heads the ball and scores. One–nil. The fans clap, cheer and hug each other. • Make a past-tense zigzag book based on a theme, for example, After a walk, After a cooking or PE session or A past season: Last summer I… 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 21. The National Strategies | Primary 19 Support for Spelling • Partner work: children select three verbs from each category (add -ed, drop the e and add -ed, double the final consonant and add -ed). They write the present tense then add ed with their partner. They practise learning and writing these words. Practice examples: regular verbs Typical words Words ending in e Words with short vowels and ending in a single consonant help helping helped hope hoping hoped hop hopping hopped ask asking asked care caring cared chat chatting chatted enjoy enjoying enjoyed share sharing shared clap clapping clapped pull pulling pulled like liking liked plan planning planned look looking looked smile smiling smiled rub rubbing rubbed jump jumping jumped phone phoning phoned stop stopping stopped float floating floated use using used hug hugging hugged groan groaning groaned bake baking baked slip slipping slipped Extension activities • Children research what happens to verbs ending in y preceded by a consonant when they are changed to the past tense. • Children research past tense verbs that don’t add ed. • In both cases, they present findings to the class. Apply, assess, reflect • Revise the term verb and invite the children to provide examples. • Revise the concept of past tense and again invite examples. • Dictate two sentences containing verbs in the present tense, for children to convert to the past tense, for example: – Mrs Jones looks at the children as she rests in the park. Eddie kicks the ball to Ellie. She picks it up but drops it. Josie smiles and skips with her rope. Ben licks his ice-cream and Ahmed rolls down the hill. • Show the past-tense version and check for errors. • Invite the children to write their own past–present tense sentence (e.g. Yesterday I… but today I…). What have you learnt? Provide an opportunity for children to reflect on their learning. Invite them to select the verbs they are unsure about, write them in their journals and practise the Look, say, cover, write, check strategy in order to learn them. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 22. 20 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Year 2 term 2 (i) To split compound words into their component parts and to use this knowledge to support spelling Revisit, explain, use Notes for teachers • Spelling is not specifically a grammatical issue, but it does arise frequently when children are learning about the structure of words. Understanding the structure and meaning supports accurate spelling. • Words in the English language can be classified into three broad categories: – simple words – words that cannot be reduced any further without destroying their meaning (e.g. girl); – complex words – words that have had suffixes or prefixes added to them, which has changed the meaning (e.g. girls); – compound words – words that consist of two simple words joined together (e.g. girlfriend). This unit focuses on the structure of compound words and splitting them into parts to support spelling. Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Ask the class if any of their road names combine two words to make one word (e.g. Maytree Avenue, Eggbridge Lane, Catford Road). • When two words are joined together to form one word it is called a compound word. • Give the sentence: When I went out into the playground at playtime I played football. – Point out the two words in each compound word. It’s important that the children understand that each word can stand alone and the two words are joined together to form a new word. • Invite the children to clap the two beats for each word. • Ask the children to think of other compound words. It may be useful to give a topic (e.g. in the playground, at the seaside). Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Find a partner: give out simple words written on cards. Ask the children to find a partner to make a compound word. – Examples include: play–ground, play–time, foot–ball, green–house, farm–house, car–park, hair–brush, fair–ground, see–saw, wheel–chair, cow–boy, sun–shine, church–yard • Read words together and check children’s understanding of their meaning. Check that children understand the term compound word. • Demonstrate spelling a compound word (e.g. seaside), clap for each word, draw two boxes, write the words in the boxes, modelling your thoughts aloud: The first word is sea, that is s 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 23. The National Strategies | Primary 21 Support for Spelling followed by ea to make the long vowel /ee/ phoneme. The second word is side – s followed by the long vowel /ie/ phoneme (split digraph) and d, so together I have the word seaside. • Say a compound word (at this stage keep it to two simple words), such as backbone, clapping the words. Ask the children to join you. Write the compound word and draw boxes around each simple word. Ask the children to write down the letters for the first word and show you. Then ask the children to write down the letters of the second word and show you. • Say another compound word and ask the children to clap each word, then draw boxes for the words on their whiteboards and show you. • Ask the children to write down the letters in the first word and show you, then repeat with the second word. • Summarise the routine, with the children joining in to help them remember it: – Clap and count the beats, draw the boxes, write the letters for the first word, then the second word, say the compound word. • Demonstrate by collecting a group of compound words based on the same simple word (e.g. man: mankind, manmade, manhunt), referring to prior learning about long and short vowel phonemes. • Quick-write activity: on individual whiteboards, children write a number of examples (e.g. teatime, eggcup, backbone). • Extend this to two- and three-syllable words. Model breaking the words into beats for each syllable to support spelling. Use words such as everywhere, everybody. Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • Compound word hunt activity: children search a page of text to find compound words. • Create lists of compound words for one base word (e.g. man, time, side, green, day, eye). • Give out a page of TV listings and invite the children to identify as many programme words as they can that are compound words. • Partner work: children look at the list of compound words (below) and choose five with different long-vowel phonemes to learn and practise, with the help of a partner. • Remind children of the routine: clap and count the beats, draw the boxes, write the letters, say the word. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 24. 22 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Practice examples: compound words High-frequency compound words Compound words everyone playground hairbrush everybody goalkeeper fairground everything paintbrush downstairs nowhere upstairs football nobody playground seesaw somewhere birthday waterfall anyone cornflakes farmhouse anywhere carpark weekend anybody halftime dustbin someone greenhouse earthworm bluebell thumbnail Extension activities • Children research the history of unusual compound words (e.g. breakfast, handkerchief, cupboard, sideboard, gunpowder). • Children choose three unusual compound words to make an information poster for the rest of the class. • Children create a compound word that does not exist and give a dictionary definition for it. Apply, assess, reflect • Revise the term compound word and invite examples. • Ask children what will help them to spell such long words. Revise the routine. • Dictate three sentences containing compound words, for example: – I heard a noise but nobody was there. – I went into the classroom, then the playground, but nobody was there. – Something made a noise, yes a paintbrush had fallen to the floor. • Check the sentences and use this opportunity to remind the children of the spelling routine. • Ask the children to write an interesting sentence containing a compound word. • What have you learnt? Provide an opportunity for children to reflect on their learning and to note down any compound words in their spelling journals that they need to practise and learn. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 25. The National Strategies | Primary 23 Support for Spelling Year 2 term 2 (ii) To learn how to add common inflections (suffixes) to words Revisit, explain, use Suggestions for whole-class approaches This unit continues to develop learning about the spelling of words when adding suffixes. • Revisit prior learning: spelling changes for past and present tense (from term 1). • Revise short vowel phonemes. • Write the following verbs on the whiteboard (e.g. hop, beg, wish). • Invite the children to turn them into past-tense verbs (hopped, begged, wished). • Ask what would happen if we added -ing to the words (hopping, begging, wishing). • Revise the differences in spelling: If the verb ends in a single consonant letter preceded by a single vowel letter and the suffix begins with a vowel, double the consonant letter before adding the suffix. Another way of explaining this is that there need to be two consonant letters between a ‘short’ vowel and a suffix beginning with a vowel ( e.g. hop, hopped, hopping; run, running, runner) • Explain that -ed and -ing change the tense of verbs and the name for them is suffixes. • Write the verbs containing long vowel phonemes (e.g. play, hope, float) on the whiteboard. • Invite the children to add the suffixes -ed and -ing to each in turn, commenting on spelling changes (playing, played, hoping, hoped, floating, floated). • Explain the rule: If the verb has a split digraph within it, drop the e if the suffix begins with a vowel. • The children are now going to learn how to add some different suffixes to words and to learn how to spell the words and use them in writing. Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Explain the terms singular and plural. • Explain that one suffix they all know is -s, when we want to say more than one (e.g. table – tables, girl – girls, doll – dolls). • This changes when the word ends in -y (e.g. army – armies); the -y changes to i. • Practise: one dog but two…, one party but many…. • Establish that adding -s or changing y to i and adding -es changes the word from one to more than one. • Quick-write activity: children practise changing words from singular to plural (at this stage use only regular plurals, -s and -ies). • Write the word fun on the whiteboard. Say: Someone told me a fun joke the other day. Then say: That doesn’t sound right. What should I say? Yes, funny, can you help me to spell it? © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 26. 24 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling • Fun – funny. Ask: Why do we have double n before I add -y? • Explain that adding the -y suffix changes the word fun into an adjective: funny. • Practise on individual whiteboards, adding the suffix -y to fur, nut, sun. • Ask: What happens if we add the suffix -y to words ending in e? Demonstrate (e.g. laze – lazy, smoke – smoky). • Practise with other words (e.g. bone, stone, grease). • Ask what happens if you add the suffix -y to most words (e.g. cheek, fuss, smell, water). Just add y (cheeky, fussy, smelly). • Whiteboard activity: children work with a partner to write three sentences with adjectives, using the suffix -y. • Repeat the process, forming adjectives with the suffix -ful, meaning full of (e.g. wish – wishful, pain – painful, hate – hateful, beauty – beautiful, wonder – wonderful). • Explain that, when ful is added, most words stay the same, except for words ending in y. • Introduce the suffix -less, meaning without. Invite examples (e.g. home – homeless, fear – fearless, care – careless). • Summarise, adding suffixes to words by practising using various adjectives in sentences and discussing spelling conventions, for example: – He told a funny story. – Her ankle was very painful. Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • Model this activity first. – Give groups of children cards, each with a root word on it, and a large sheet of paper with columns headed with the conventions for adding the suffixes for plurals or for forming adjectives -s, -y, -ful, -less. Use the number of categories as appropriate. Adding suffixes for forming plurals Add -s Change y to i and add -es • The cards should be placed face-down on the table. • One child takes a card from the pile and shows it to the group. • The children decide which suffix would be added and to which column the word belongs. They try it on their whiteboards. When all the children in the group agree, one child records the new word on the paper. • Repeat the process for forming adjectives. • Children collect adjectives with the suffixes -y, -ful or -less to describe a fairytale character such as Cinderella’s ugly sister (e.g. hateful, careless, thoughtless, fussy, lazy) or Jack from Jack and the beanstalk (e.g. fearless, kindly, thoughtful, careless, cheeky, forgetful). • Children refer to one or two pages of a storybook and look for adjectives ending with the suffixes -ful, -y and -less. They write the collection in their spelling journals. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 27. The National Strategies | Primary 25 Support for Spelling • Partner work: set this task. – Choose three words with the -y suffix, three with the -ful suffix and three with the -less suffix, that you find tricky or difficult to spell but will be useful in your writing. Write the word and check the meaning in your dictionary. Highlight the tricky part and, with a partner, learn them and then practise writing them. Practice examples: adding suffixes to form plurals Add -s Change y to i and add -es boy boys party parties girl girls army armies table tables baby babies pen pens lady ladies Practice examples: adding suffixes to form adjectives -ful -y -less wishful funny careless hopeful misty homeless sorrowful nutty endless painful sunny speechless beautiful chilly fearless hateful lucky forgetful crispy careful fussy restful bony useful stony © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 28. 26 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Extension activities Ask the children to take some magazine advertisements for one product, such as chocolates, soap or films. They collect all the adjectives and decide: • which is the most common; • how many have a -y suffix; • how many a -ful suffix; • how many a -less suffix; • what other suffixes are used to form adjectives? Apply, assess, reflect • Revise the term suffix and the suffixes they have learnt so far: -ed, -ing, -y, -s, -ful, -less. • Ask the children to provide sentences including examples of words, using each suffix. • Dictate sentences, for example: – At my party, we had lots of cakes and jellies. We played games and watched a DVD. – It was a beautiful day yesterday, warm with hazy sunshine. I walked through the leaves which were crunchy under my feet. • Compare the sentences with the correct versions, note successes and highlight any errors, identifying the part of the word that was incorrect • What have you learnt? Give the children an opportunity to reflect on their learning. Invite the children to write any words they find difficult into their spelling journals and practise the Look, say, cover, write, check strategy. Year 2 term 3 (i) To add common prefixes to root words and to understand how they change meaning Revisit, explain, use Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Revise the term suffix and invite examples (e.g. plurals – boys, past tense – walked, present tense – running, adjectives – funny, beautiful, painless). • Confirm with the children that a suffix is added to the end of a word to change it from present tense to past tense, from singular to plural, from noun to adjective and that this sometimes means changing the spelling of the word. • Write pairs of words (using the prefix un-) in random order on the whiteboard (e.g. happy – unhappy, well – unwell, tidy – untidy). • Ask the children to say what adding un- before the word has done to the meaning of the word. • Invite the children to give pairs of sentences, using the pairs of words (e.g. I am happy when I go swimming. I am unhappy when I’m in trouble). • Explain to the children that un- is called a prefix and comes before a word to change its meaning. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 29. The National Strategies | Primary 27 Support for Spelling • Ask the children what the meaning of un- before a word could be. Establish un- means not. • Explain that they are going to learn how to add other prefixes to words to change the meaning of the word. Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Use magnetic letters to form the opposite of prewritten words on the whiteboard. Include un- and dis- (e.g. well – unwell, like – dislike, lucky – unlucky, obey – disobey, agree – disagree). • Invite the children to explain what they think dis- before a word does to the meaning of the word. Explain that this is another prefix meaning not or the opposite of. • Whiteboard activity: show a word card, say the word in a sentence and ask the children to write the word meaning the opposite by adding or removing a prefix. • Give out cards with prefixes un- and dis-. Hold up the prefix to go before the word. • Change the word, change the sentence. Write a sentence on the board. The children rewrite the sentence in their journals, using a prefix or removing a prefix to change the meaning of the sentence, for example: – I like peas and potatoes. – I felt well yesterday. • Establish that a prefix is added before a word without any changes in spelling to the word. Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • Children play Pairs: they place cards upside down and hunt for the pairs of words. • Children collect words using the prefix un-. • Collect words using the prefix dis-. • Partner work: each child chooses five tricky words for them both to write in their spelling journals (e.g. unnecessary, unusual, dissatisfied, disobey) and uses a dictionary to check the meaning. They highlight the tricky parts and support each other to learn and practise the words. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 30. 28 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Practice examples Un- Dis- happy unhappy like dislike lucky unlucky please displease seen unseen own disown usual unusual agree disagree do undo appear disappear tie untie obey disobey zip unzip honest dishonest dress undress trust distrust well unwell allow disallow fold unfold order disorder Extension activities • Definitions game: children provide the definition and challenge the class to find the right word. • Children take a paragraph from a storybook and rewrite it so that it has the opposite meaning. (Not all the words will require un- or dis-.) Apply, assess, reflect • Revise the term prefix and invite children to suggest examples. • Show and tell. Write a word on the whiteboard and ask the children to write the opposite. • Dictate two sentences for the children to write in their spelling journals, using words with the prefixes un- and dis-, for example: – The king was displeased, he was unable to go outside because it was raining. – He disliked this unpleasant weather. • Together, check the sentences against the correct version and ask the children to note the parts of the words that are incorrect and to write the correct versions and highlight the tricky parts. • What have we learnt? Give the children the opportunity to reflect on their learning and to add words with the prefix un- or dis-, that they would like to use in their writing, to their spelling journals. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 31. The National Strategies | Primary 29 Support for Spelling Year 2 term 3 (ii) To discriminate syllables in multisyllabic words as an aid to spelling Revisit, explain, use Suggestions for whole-class approaches This unit offers opportunities to consolidate earlier learning: compound words, suffixes and prefixes. • The focus is on identifying syllables in words to support spelling. • First the children need to understand the term syllable. • Say a name and then clap the syllables (e.g. Jane Potter, Ahmed Patel, Katie Jackson). After each one, say the number of syllables. • Explain that a syllable is a beat, so Jane is one syllable, Pott is the second syllable and er is the third syllable. • Ask the children, in turn, to clap the syllables of their own names while the rest of the class count them and make a tally chart. • How might splitting words into syllables help with spelling? • Split the word elephant into syllables: el-e-phant. Demonstrate by drawing three lines on the whiteboard to represent the syllables. Then write down the letters for each phoneme in each syllable and read the word. Repeat, with other words, as necessary. • Give children the opportunity to try the same method on their whiteboards, using other words such as seventeen, beautiful, classroom. • Explain to the children that they are going to learn about ways to help them when they are spelling long words. Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches Explain that there are many ways of helping us to spell long words. • Tell the children that they have already learnt quite a few things to help them, during this term. – Splitting a word into syllables (beats). – Writing the letters to represent the phonemes for each syllable. – Thinking if the word has a prefix or a suffix. – Knowing that when the word is in the past tense it is likely to have an -ed ending. – Explain to children that they are going to practise applying all that they have learnt to the spelling of some long words. • Demonstrate. Say unimportant, clap the syllables, draw lines to show the syllables, then write the phonemes for each syllable, explaining your thinking. – The first syllable is un. I know that it is a prefix and that the next syllable /im/, is the beginning of the base word. The next syllable has the /or/ phoneme in it, port, and the final syllable has three phonemes, a-n-t, and there’s my word – unimportant. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 32. 30 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling – Demonstrate with further examples and involve the children in the routine: Clap, count, draw the lines, write (e.g. thankful, unforgiving, disagree, jumped, wanted, wishing, following). • Revise past tense, present tense, prefix, suffix, as necessary. • Invite the children to try a long word (e.g. something) on their whiteboards and then show it. Ask children to explain how they worked it out. • Repeat this process until the children are confident in determining the spelling of long words, using all the information available to them. Practise, explore, investigate Suggestions for whole-class, group, individual work and homework • Give children sets of words, written on cards, to classify into any groups as they wish (e.g. by number of syllables, type of prefix, type of suffix, long vowels, short vowels). Ask each group to explain their reason for the grouping. • Children play Clap and count. – Working in groups of four, they put the word cards face-down on the table. – When it is their turn, each child should take the top word from the pile, read it aloud and put it face-down in front of them. – The children go through the routine: clap and count the syllables, draw the lines, write the letters. – The child then reveals the card and everybody checks the accuracy of their spelling. – They gain one point for the correct number of syllables and one point for each syllable spelt correctly. – Repeat until each child has had at least one turn then add up the scores to determine the winner. • Partner work: children take five long words each and practise spelling them, using the routine: Clap, count, draw, write, then test each other. Can they practise the routine silently? • Children play Build a word. Give them prefixes, suffixes and base words to build new long words. Can they build a word with both a prefix and a suffix (e.g. disappearing, unwanted)? Ask the children to write the words they have built in their spelling journals. 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009
  • 33. The National Strategies | Primary 31 Support for Spelling Practice examples: multisyllabic words unworn unhappily unforgiving merciful thankful unselfish plentiful unpopular powerful discomfort fearful spending another skipping something grandmother whatever grandfather pretending tomorrow wonderful together Extension activities • Children play Create a word. Ask them to use all that they know about how words are structured to create three new words and make a dictionary definition for each one. They then explain how they are spelt to the class. • Children look at a page of text and find the longest word. What does it mean? How is it structured (built)? Apply, assess, reflect • Revise the syllable counting routine and ask the children to apply it by spelling words on their individual whiteboards. Check for understanding. • Dictate two sentences containing long words, for example: – The fairies lived underneath the ground in Neverland. – They were unable to disappear until one day a powerful wizard came to help them. • Check sentences against the correct version and check children’s understanding. Note all successful attempts. Ask the children to write any words that were incorrect into their spelling journal and to highlight the tricky part so that they will remember it next time. • Give the children five words and ask them to choose two to include in a sentence. Check their sentences and ask children to write all five words into their journals, check the meaning and practise spelling them. • What have you learnt about spelling long words? Provide an opportunity for the children to reflect on their learning and to discuss successes and difficulties. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 34. The National Strategies | Primary 33 Support for Spelling Year 3 programme Year 3 term 1 (i) To consolidate understanding of adding suffixes and to investigate conventions related to the spelling pattern -le Revisit, explain, use This unit consolidates understanding of suffixes added to verbs and the conventions governing their use and introduces a new focus : the spelling pattern -le at the end of two-syllable words. • Draw a table with three columns on the whiteboard and writes the following words : hop, run, shut, clap, swim in the first column. Ask the children to add the suffixes ed and ing to these words and write them in the second and third columns. What happens to them? • Highlight the double consonants and invite the children to explain the convention: When the base word ends in a single consonant letter and the suffix begins with a vowel, double the consonant letter. Another way of explaining this is that there need to be two consonant letters between a short vowel and a suffix beginning with a vowel. • Repeat the activity with the following words : write, hope, ride, smile, drive, decide and again invite the children to explain the convention: If a base word ends in an e which is part of a split digraph, drop the e if the suffix begins with a vowel ( e.g. hoping) but keep the e if the suffix begins with a consonant (e.g. hopeful). • Allow time for children to practise the convention, using individual whiteboards, and to compose sentences, using the example words above. • Explain to the children that they are now going to learn another spelling pattern that will help them when they are writing. Teach, model, define Suggestions for whole-class approaches • Explain that good spellers know what usually happens when certain letters form a pattern in words. Refer back to their successes with suffixes -ed and -ing. • Introduce the letter pattern that they are now going to investigate and learn to use: -le at the end of two-syllable words. • Play Find your team, using three categories of -le words. – Split the children into three teams. Appoint a captain to search for the rest of the team. – Give each captain a card with a prompt, as set out below, to help them look for a particular spelling pattern, and attach another copy of the card to their back. © Crown copyright 2009 00171-2009DOM-EN
  • 35. 34 The National Strategies | Primary Support for Spelling Find your team Two different consonants A double consonant One consonant before -le before -le before -le e.g. candle e.g. bottle e.g. beetle • Give out a word card to each child or pair of children. They need to look carefully at how the word is spelt. • When you say: Go, the captains start checking the word cards and add people to their team, or team members find their captain. • Stop the children after a few minutes and look at each team’s cards. Award two points for each correct word card. • After the game, ask the children what they notice about the vowels in their team’s words (all long or all short vowel phonemes). • Help the children to form a rule for spelling words ending in le. If a word contains a short vowel phoneme, there are always two consonants between the vowel and -le (candle) or kettle where the consonant is doubled. If there is a long vowel phoneme there is one consonant before -le (beetle). • Note: ck is treated as a double consonant. Practice examples: Find your team Two different consonants A double consonant One consonant before -le before -le before -le grumble battle needle handle middle sparkle simple muddle people bundle apple startle example giggle fable crumple cattle bible tinkle nettle steeple single puddle noodle tumble little table candle bottle beetle 00171-2009DOM-EN © Crown copyright 2009

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