10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 1
Learning Guide 2016
10022
Unit Standard
Demonstrate knowledge of ...
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The Power o...
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10022
Table of contents
Unit Standard 10022 4
Assessment Criter...
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On completion of this Learning Guide you will be able to:
Outcome...
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To achieve this unit standard you will need to show competency in...
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Statement of Authenticity
Types of plagiarism
Using a few sente...
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Guidelines for referencing
Read the book or reading, then re-writ...
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List of definitions
Early childhood setting
Home-based services i...
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Attachment
Is the way an adult or child relates to a preferred pe...
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What is Attachment?
Attachment refers to a relationship that dev...
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Infant
Secure
Insecure
Assessment Activity One - Attachment Beha...
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Assessment Activity Two - Secure and Insecure Attachment Behavio...
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2. Write the name of the secure attachment behaviour pattern yo...
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1
Assessment Activity Three - Responses and Feelings
Read the sc...
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1
Assessment Activity Three - Responses and Feelings
3 2.
4.
3.
...
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2Short-term separation is defined as a situation where young chi...
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Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario
Let’...
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On the first day he is with the caregiver he is likely to be v...
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Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario
1. S...
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How do you think your
selected child would react
(emotional re...
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Dealing with a child who is experiencing short-term separation f...
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Assessment Activity Five - Relationship Strengthening Techniques...
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Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation
The ...
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Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation
Exam...
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Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation
Iden...
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Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation
Sele...
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Learning Activity One - What Happened?
Talk to a parent who has ...
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Reflective listening
Sharing information
Comforting
Redirecting
...
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She cried and she sobbed
She clutched my hand
Her mother had lef...
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My Reference List
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Further References and Resources
Atwool, N. (1997). Attachment a...
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Outcome Assessment Activity | Judgement Page(s) A
One
Describe a...
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POR424 10022 (Attachment Patterns and Short-term Separation)

POR424 10022 (Attachment Patterns and Short-term Separation)
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
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Transcripts - POR424 10022 (Attachment Patterns and Short-term Separation)

  • 1. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 1 Learning Guide 2016 10022 Unit Standard Demonstrate knowledge of attachment patterns and short-term separation in an ECE service. Version 4 | Level 2 | Credits 3 This material is under license to PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd (PE&T) and may not be reproduced or copied without written permission SignedOffice use only Achieved Date The National Certificate in Early Childhood Education & Care (Level 3) POR424 First Name Surname School or Area Office Home Address Post Code Email
  • 2. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 210022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd The Power of Relationships If I had my child to raise all over again, I’d finger paint more, and point the finger less. I’d do less correcting, and more connecting. I’d take my eyes off my watch, and watch with my eyes. I would care to know less, and know to care more. I’d take more hikes and fly more kites. I’d stop playing serious, and seriously play. I’d run through more fields, and gaze at more stars. I’d do more hugging, and less tugging. I would be firm less often, and affirm much more. I’d build self-esteem first, and the house later. I’d teach less about the love of power, and more about the power of love. DIANE LOOMANS 2
  • 3. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 3 10022 Table of contents Unit Standard 10022 4 Assessment Criteria 5 Plagiarism and Referencing 6 Definitions 8 What is Attachment? 10 Short-Term Separation 16 Separation Techniques 21 My Reference List 30 Further References 31 Marking Criteria 32
  • 4. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 4 On completion of this Learning Guide you will be able to: Outcome One Describe Attachment Behaviours and Patterns of Behaviour of Children in an ECE Service. Evidence Requirements 1.1 Attachment behaviours are described in terms of relationships between adults and children in an ECE service. 1.2 Patterns of behaviour that may be exhibited by children in an ECE service are identified and described in terms of attachment. 1.3 Description of attachment patterns of behaviour identifies feelings and responses exhibited by adults and a child when separation occurs. Outcome Two Describe Techniques for Strengthening Relationships between Adults and a Child During Short-Term Separation. Evidence Requirements 2.1 Description includes an outline of the measures used to assess the sort of short-term separation an individual child appears ready to tolerate in accordance with current ECE practice. 2.2 Techniques for strengthening relationships between adults and the child during short-term separation are described in accordance with current ECE practice. 2.3 Techniques used in assisting the child through short-term separation are described in accordance with current ECE practice. 2.4 Techniques used when short-term separation occurs are described in terms of expressing empathy for the whānau/family and the child. Learning Guide Resources Essential readings are in the front pocket of this Learning Guide. Read the Learning Guide in full before commencing this workbook. To successfully complete this Learning Guide you are required to complete all the assessment activities in this Learning Guide. You will need to draw on your own experiences or observations in an ECE service to complete the assessment activities. NZQA unit requirements 10022 Unit Standard Demonstrate knowledge of attachment patterns and short-term separation in an ECE service Version 4 | Level 2 | Credits 3
  • 5. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 5 To achieve this unit standard you will need to show competency in all practical and written assessment activities. Use the marking criteria on the last page of this workbook to ensure you have met all the assessment requirements. You are required to meet the following criteria for successful completion: Complete all assessment activities in this Learning Guide to achievement level. Complete child observations, fulfilling all set assessment criteria. Complete all practical assessments in an ECE setting (home-based services including a child’s family environment, centre-based services (childcare centres, kindergartens, play centres, Kohanga Reo, play groups), and hospital-based services (paediatric playrooms). Practice and interaction with all children must be physically and emotionally safe. Provide evidence of your learning in relation to the Unit Standard in the Child Programme Journal (when appropriate). Complete Child Programme Journal entries (if applicable). Do not be limited by the space given for each response. If you choose to, you can use a computer to type your answers and paste them in the Learning Guide. Alternatively, you can use additional paper if required when writing a response and paste it in the Learning Guide. The programme is competency-based. This is defined by NZQA as “the ability to apply particular knowledge, skills, attitudes and values to the standards of performance required in specific contexts”. Your work will be graded Achieved (A) or Not Achieved (NA). If your work is deemed NA, you will be given guidance on extra work required and have further opportunities to resubmit. Assessment Criteria Icon Key Assessment Activity Icon Assessment Activities demonstrate your understanding of concepts and how to apply them when working with a child. Learning Activity Icon Learning Activities provide background learning in preparation for the assessments and support you to think about and practise new ideas. Readings Icon Readings icon indicates the textbook or article that will best help to support your learning. Website Icon Website icon indicates the additional on-line resources you can access to support your learning. Youtube Icon Youtube icon indicates there is a video you can watch to support your learning. Important Icon You need to pay particular attention to this information, and ensure you understand its meaning. All work must be completed in blue or black pen, NOT pencil or coloured gel pens.
  • 6. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 6 Statement of Authenticity Types of plagiarism Using a few sentences or paragraphs without referencing the source. Copying whole parts of a book, other publications or the internet without referencing the source. Copying another learner’s work or allowing another learner to copy your work. Tutors giving the answers to assessment tasks to learners. As learners sometimes work in group environments, it is important to ensure that the assessment is your own individual work. You acknowledge this is your own individual work by completing, signing and dating the ‘Statement of Authenticity’ below. An activity may be discussed in a team environment and examples of answers can be mentioned, however, every learner needs to contribute and participate in the group activity, recording the answers in their own words. Learners who have written exactly the same answers in their Learning Guides have committed Plagiarism. This is not acceptable as it does not show your individual competence. Please refer to your student handbook or contact your Programme Tutor to obtain access to a copy of ‘A beginners guide to plagiarism’. Plagiarism and Referencing Learner’s name Learner’s signature Date confirm that this is an original assessment and is entirely my own work. It contains no material previously published or written by another person except where I have acknowledged this in the text. I Plagiarism, or copying of another’s work without referencing, is not acceptable.
  • 7. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 7 Guidelines for referencing Read the book or reading, then re-write your understanding of it in your own words. If you want to quote a particular sentence or paragraph, you must acknowledge the author. For example: Penrose (1998) says “play is a major means by which children learn and develop” (p.7). OR “talking to and with children encourages their thinking” (Penrose, 1998, p.7). You will find the published date usually on the back of the first page of the book or on the list of readings given to you. At the end of your writing you should list all books, journals/articles or websites/web pages you have made reference to in completing this learning guide. For example: Type of Ref Example Book Penrose, P. (1998). Take another look (23rd ed.) Auckland: New Zealand Playcentre Federation. Journal / Article Stonehouse, A. (2011). The more you know, the more you see. The space for anything about early childhood, Issue no.27, Autumn 2012, 14-15. Website Ministry of Education (2012). Early Childhood Education: ECE Lead. Retrieved from http://www.lead.ece.govt.nz/ Web page Ministry of Education (2012). Early Childhood Education: ECE Lead (Home Based ECE Services). Retrieved from http://www.lead.ece.govt.nz/ServiceTypes/HomeBasedECEServices.aspx For further information on APA referencing, go to http://owll.massey.ac.nz/pdf/Academic-Writing-Guide.pdf
  • 8. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 8 List of definitions Early childhood setting Home-based services including a child’s family environment, centre-based services (childcare centres, kindergartens, play centres, Kohanga Reo, playgroups), hospital-based service (paediatric playrooms). Educator Persons and groups including teachers, supervisors, co-ordinators, whānau/families, and nannies who are involved in the learning and the development of children. Caregiver Refers to the person primarily responsible for the child in home-based care. Whānau/Families May be parents, guardians, and members of the extended family who have an interest in the child. Young children Children between the years of birth to school entry. Three ‘broad age ranges’ are identified and the overlapping age categories are: Infant birth to eighteen months Toddler one year to three years Young child two and a half years to school entry age Definitions 8
  • 9. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 9 Attachment Is the way an adult or child relates to a preferred person as a secure base from which to explore, and a haven of safety or comfort when needed. It is a key element of psychological and emotional well-being and determines the quality of relationships, how the world is seen and the tone and depth of lives. Individual’s attachment patterns are grounded in first experiences, namely those primary relationships of the first years of life. During the first nine months of life, a baby’s focus is on creating a secure attachment relationship with their mother/primary caregiver. Once established, additional attachment relationships come on board that will strengthen the child’s relationship networks and subsequent emotional and psychological wellbeing. ‘Attachment is the strong affectionate tie we have with special people or things in our lives’ (Berk 2007, p. 201). Attachment behaviours may be secure or insecure. Secure Attachment May be encouraged by adults through such things as giving warmth, comforting, cuddling, nurturing, giving positive responses, giving positive reinforcement. Insecure Attachment May be manifested by children through such things as clinging; crying; showing emotional stress, anxiety and tension. Short-term Separation Is defined as a situation where the child is separated for a short period of time from the whānau/family or caregiver. The child is placed in the care of an adult other than the primary caregiver and the care arrangement may be for an hour or a day. Tolerance Measures Are measures you can use to assess the sort of short-term separation an individual appears to be ready to tolerate. Tolerance measures (indicators) include the child’s age, stage of development, personality, family characteristics, history. Relationship Strengthening Techniques Includes reflective listening, comforting, sharing information and redirecting. 9
  • 10. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 10 What is Attachment? Attachment refers to a relationship that develops between a baby and his/her primary caregiver. The quality of a child’s attachments impacts on how well that child develops socially, emotionally and intellectually. An infant learns through being physically close to the caregiver, having needs met and being shown attention and affection, that his/her environment is secure and can be trusted. The attachment process allows the caregiver and child to cement a meaningful and intimate relationship and grow in their understanding on another (ECD, 1997). Reading One O’Connor, A. Practice in pictures – a sense of security. Nursery World, January 2009, p 14-15. Reading Two Sutton, M. (2003). Attachment: The foundation stone of identity and security. Parenting with Confidence, Issue 12, 6-7. Reading Three Porter, L. (2008). Attached and Connected. Kiwiparent, Issue 225, 8-11. Reading Four Porter, L. (2012). Attachment Theory in everyday life. The Natural Parent Magazine NZ, Issue 6, 14-23. Most attachment relationships are trusting and secure but some may develop that are insecure in nature. Video One Watch this youtube clip to learn more about attachment. The Menninger Clinic (2013). What We All Need to Know About Attachment. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RdCBip-8pC8 Video Two Watch this youtube movie clip to look at how secure attachments can be created. Helpguide.org (2013). Creating Secure Infant Attachment. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=w3lB1cSMMFU Infants usually develop close attachments to those who care for them – at first their parents or primary caregivers. (Bruce & Meggitt, 2002).
  • 11. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 11 Infant Secure Insecure Assessment Activity One - Attachment Behaviour Attachment behaviours are those exhibited behaviours that children use to seek a response and to maintain closeness to their caregivers. They can be both secure and insecure, depending on the relationship that exists between the adult and the child. For this assessment, think about your current ECE service experiences or observations and the relationships you have had with the whānau/families during these times. 1. State the type of ECE service (centre-based, home-based or hospital-based) and the type of whānau/family represented (parents, guardians, or extended family). 2. Describe the types of attachment behaviours (both secure and insecure) you would see in a relationship between adults and children (one for secure and one for insecure, for each age category stated). 1 Type of ECE Service Type of Whānau/family Toddler Secure Insecure Young Child Secure Insecure
  • 12. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 12 Assessment Activity Two - Secure and Insecure Attachment Behaviour Patterns Children need to feel safe and secure. To have the best chance to grow and develop they need to have a warm, responsive and consistent relationship with one or a small number of special adults. How secure this relationship is depends on the adult’s ability to build a trusting bond and maintain this over time, as the child grows. At times children may display some or all of these different behaviours and this doesn’t mean you can diagnose a child as having a secure or insecure attachment. These are examples of some secure and insecure attachment behaviours. Attachment Behaviours 1. Thinking about the type of ECE service and the whānau/family stated in assessment activity one, identify (circle) two attachment behaviours (one secure and one insecure) from your own experiences or observations and complete the rest of the activity on the following page. 2 Non-emotional Overly emotional Limited eye contact Seeks assistance from other adults Doesn’t seek help from adults Easily comforted Seeks out attachment figure Independent Clingy Withdrawn and distant Happy to explore Easily upset Not accepting of help Settles quickly Indifferent (non-responsive) The child will display feelings of insecurity Checks in physically with attachment figure Positive response (smile) Comfortable in new environments Checks in visually with attachment figure Shows confidence Demanding of attention
  • 13. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 13 2. Write the name of the secure attachment behaviour pattern you identified on the previous page in the space provided below. For each of the age categories, describe why a child may exhibit this behaviour when experiencing secure attachment (one point required for each age category). Secure Attachment Behaviour Patterns Assessment Activity Two - Secure and Insecure Attachment Behaviour Patterns 2 Infant Toddler Young Child 3. Write the name of the insecure attachment behaviour pattern you identified in the space provided below. For each of the age categories, describe why a child may exhibit these behaviours when experiencing insecure attachment (one point required for each age category). Insecure Attachment Behaviour Patterns Infant Toddler Young Child
  • 14. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 14 1 Assessment Activity Three - Responses and Feelings Read the scenario and, using the information you have learned about attachment relationships, respond to questions 1 - 4. Select one of the children from the scenario and state the age category of the child selected. Then answer questions 1 - 4 in relation to the type of ECE service stated and the child’s age. Definitions Respond - to do something as a reaction to something that has happened or been done: to have a particular reaction to something. Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary (2015). Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/respond Feeling - an emotional state or reaction. Retrieved from http://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/feeling 3 Lia, a part time working mum, is taking herelderly father to the hospital. She has three sons;Jonty (8 mths), Travis (2) and Hunter (4½).She drops them off to her PORSE Educator, whohas cared for the children for four days per weekover the last three months. Child’s name Age Type of ECE Service Type of whānau/family How might the child respond to the short- term separation situation? 1. How might the child be feeling? Short-term Separation Scenario
  • 15. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 15 1 Assessment Activity Three - Responses and Feelings 3 2. 4. 3. How might the mother respond to the short-term separation situation? How might the mother be feeling? How might the educator respond to the short-term separation situation? How might the educator be feeling? How might the Granddad respond to the short-term separation situation? How might the granddad be feeling?
  • 16. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 16 2Short-term separation is defined as a situation where young children are separated for short periods of time from the parents, family and whānau. The young child is placed in the care of an adult other than the primary caregiver and the care arrangement may be for an hour, a day or overnight. Learning to be apart can be difficult for parents and children. However, parents need time to themselves occasionally and children can benefit from spending time with other people. It is common for young children to be shy around new people and anxious about separation from parents. The age and stage of a child will largely determine the separation response, eg separation for a four month old is quite a different issue than separation for a four year old. Children react in different ways when short-term separation occurs, and you need to know how to support both the child and his/her parent. Short-Term Separation Reading Five Maack, I. (2005). Separation anxiety: The long goodbye. Childcare Australasia, 1(2), 19-21). Video Watch the youtube movie clip to learn more about separation anxiety. YouTube (2010). Separation Anxiety. Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3cXy_Ir_nI&feature=related Behaviours such as... Anxiety Clinging Crying Distress Withdrawal Show that the child is reacting to the absence of a key person from their life. Tolerance Measure (indicators) The Child’s Age Stage of Development Personality Family Characteristics History Help you assess if a child is ready for planned short-term separation situations.
  • 17. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 1717 Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario Let’s take a look at a short-term separation scenario that describes the family situation; it includes the personality, age and stage of a child, and the characteristics and history of the family. Understanding the emotional responses that may occur for a child, will enable you to identify how the child may tolerate the short term separation. 4 Type of ECE Service Home-based Age Category Toddler Type of Whānau/family Parent Jacob is a two year old boy who lives at home with his mother Sheryl and older sister Anna. Anna attends school. There is an age gap of five years between the two siblings, and on occasions Jacob struggles to interact positively with his older sister. Up until mum’s recent decision to return to full time work, she has been a stay at home mum for Jacob’s early years. Because of these early years at home Jacob is very attached to his mother. The family has a love of pets. They have a cat called Felix, a dog called Jasper and five goldfish. Jacob has also established a very close relationship with his Grandparents and stays with them for varying periods of time. Jacob will on occasions also stay overnight. The biological father, aunties, uncles and cousins are also a large part of Jacob’s life so he knows he is a part of a loving family environment. The family is heavily involved in the community and volunteers for events, as a family. Jacob’s mother belongs to a choir, plays netball, reads a lot of books and visits the library often. Jacob loves reading books and will often, when at home, sit down with his mother and read at least three stories a day. He loves anything that has wheels, has well-developed physical skills and spends a lot of his time playing outside riding his bike. He has a great imagination, is very talkative and expresses ideas easily. Because he is so imaginative and physically well-developed he thinks he can do anything and pushes the boundaries regularly. He only has one good friend called Sam that comes and visits once a week. The mother has recently made the decision to work full-time. She starts work in a couple of weeks and has made arrangements for Jacob’s care. He has been booked in with a caregiver for 40 hours a week. 1. Example Scenario
  • 18. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 18 On the first day he is with the caregiver he is likely to be very emotional (screaming or crying). He is likely to be feeling a bit unsure, not very confident and frightened when his mother leaves him with the caregiver. He may be withdrawn, not settle, not eat much and be very quiet. He’s likely to be quite clingy, and hold on to mum’s leg as she is leaving to go to work. After a few visits he may become more comfortable with the situation as the relationship with the caregiver develops. Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario In this scenario, Jacob’s likely emotional response to the short-term situation is: 4 Example Continued 2. 3. Stage of Development Jacob is very attached to his primary caregiver – his mother. He will be very reluctant to leave is mother and go to another caregiver. The family may want to consider visits by the caregiver to establish a more secure attachment with the new caregiver, leading up to the planned short-term separation. What information does the family situation give you in relation to the five tolerance measures, as to how the child may respond during the short- term separation? This is an example of one of the tolerance measures. For this assessment you will need to provide all five…
  • 19. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 19 Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario 1. State the type of service (centre-based, home-based, or hospital-based) being provided, the type of whānau/family, and the age category (infant, toddler, or young child) of the child involved in the short-term separation situation. 2. Describe the family situation. Make sure you describe the personality, age and stage of the child, and the characteristics and history of the family. 3. Also include the short-term separation situation that is about to happen for the child. 4 Type of ECE Service Age Category Type of Whānau/family
  • 20. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 20 How do you think your selected child would react (emotional response) to the short-term separation that is about to happen? (three points required): 2. 3. What information does the family situation give you in relation to the five tolerance measures, as to how the child may respond during the short- term separation? This is an example of one of the tolerance measures. For this assessment you will need to provide all five… Assessment Activity Four - Short-Term Separation Scenario 4 Stage of Development Age Family CharacteristicsHistory Personality
  • 21. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 21 Dealing with a child who is experiencing short-term separation from a parent/caregiver/whānau member can be difficult. Knowing and understanding the following strategies will provide support and guidance. Separation Techniques Reading Six Levy, D. (2004). Parting is such sweet sorrow. Littlies, Issue 11, 8 & 11. Reflective listening ‘repeating back information said’ Sharing information ‘discussing’ Redirecting ‘distraction’ Comforting ‘a hug’
  • 22. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 22 Assessment Activity Five - Relationship Strengthening Techniques A variety of techniques such as reflective listening, comforting, sharing information and redirecting are used in an ECE service to strengthen the relationships between adults and children during short-term separation situations. 1. Define the four techniques used to strengthen relationships (what they mean). 2. For the type of ECE service, the age category of the child, and the type of whānau/family you stated in Assessment Activity Four, provide one example of how you could use each of these techniques for the short-term situation you described. 5 Technique Meaning Provide a specific example of how you have used or could use each technique DURING SHORT-TERM SEPARATION Reflective Listening Comforting Sharing Information Redirecting
  • 23. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 23 Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation The following extract describes a young child’s morning ritual when he is left at an early childhood service. It shows the security that exists in the relationship between him and his caregiver. This has developed from repeated experiences of having the child’s needs responded to in predictable, caring and consistent ways. The child (Ryan) copes well with the parental separation because he has built up an expectation of respectful, predictable transitions, secure with his caregiver (Jung). Identify a short-term separation situation you have experienced or observed, within a service. 1. Describe the short-term separation situation (refer to the example for the level of detail and information required). 2. State three actions you used or observed being used to assist the child to cope with the short-term separation. 3. Select two techniques (reflective listening, comforting, sharing information, redirecting) used in your short-term separation situation and explain why these techniques assisted with the stated short-term separation situation. 6 Type of ECE Service Daycare Age Category Toddler Type of Whānau/family Parent and child Example Describe the short-term separation situation you have chosen Two-and-a-half-year-old Ryan is in his father’s arms at the start of his child-care day. His carer Jung walks over and stands chatting briefly with Ryan and his dad, then puts her arms out to Ryan. At first, Ryan leans away and cuddles into his dad, who speaks gently to him, rubbing his back. Ryan then looks at Jung, smiles and goes into her arms. He turns with Jung to survey the room, glancing back to his dad, who waves as he leaves. After a minute or so, Ryan gestures to get down, and in a moment is happily moving towards other children and playing on the floor. (Rolfe, 2004, p.3) 1. State three actions you used or observed being usedto assist the child to cope with short-term separation Three actions that assisted Ryan to cope with the short-term separation in this situation are: Jung chats to Ryan’s Dad. Jung puts her arms out to Ryan. Ryan’s Dad speaks gently to Ryan and rubs his back. 2.
  • 24. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 24 Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation Example Continued6 Technique Sharing of information Technique Comforting How did the technique you selected assist with your short-term separation situation? How did the technique you selected assist with your short-term separation situation? Ryan’s Dad and Jung had chatted so she had initiated the contact before holding out her hands. The conversation that Ryan’s dad had with him gave him the reassurance that it was okay for him to go with Jung. Ryan’s dad handed Ryan over to Jung and waved goodbye. Jung waited for Ryan to show cues that he wanted to get down. Jung was in tune with his cues. 3.
  • 25. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 25 Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation Identify a short-term separation situation you have experienced or observed, within a service. 1. Describe the short-term separation situation (refer to the example for the level of detail and information required). 2. State three actions you used or observed being used to assist the child to cope with the short-term separation. 6 Type of ECE Service Age Category Type of Whānau/family Describe the short-term separation situation you have chosen 1. State three actions you used or observed being usedto assist the child to cope with short-term separation 2.
  • 26. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 26 Assessment Activity Six - Coping with Short-Term Separation Select two techniques (reflective listening, comforting, sharing information, redirecting) used in your short-term separation situation and explain why these techniques assisted with the stated short-term separation situation. 6 Technique Sharing of information Technique Comforting How did the technique you selected assist with your short-term separation situation? How did the technique you selected assist with your short-term separation situation? 3.
  • 27. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 27 Learning Activity One - What Happened? Talk to a parent who has experienced leaving their young child with another adult, or use your own experiences to answer the questions below. 1 1. Describe the situation where short-term separation occurred. 2. What do you think the child was feeling when they were separated from their parent? How did they react? 3. Explain how you supported the child through this short-term separation. 4. Explain why the support was successful/unsuccessful. What could be done differently next time?
  • 28. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 28 Reflective listening Sharing information Comforting Redirecting Why? Assessment Activity Seven - Understanding the Situation It is important to respond with empathy and understanding to support the needs of the parents, whānau/families and children when short- term separation occurs. As an educator we do this by supporting and responding to the needs of parents/whānau/family and the child’s needs when short-term separation occurs. Reflect on conversations you have had with the whānau/families from within your stated ECE service and the knowledge you now have about attachment behaviour. Select (tick) two different relationship strengthening techniques (one for parents/family/whānau and one for the child) and describe how you could respond with empathy and understanding towards the parents/whānau/family and child in this short-term separation situation. Empathy as defined by the online dictionary is: the ability to understand and share the feelings of another. 7 Describe how you would express and respond with empathy towards the parents/family/whānau when short-term separation occurs with their child. Parents/family/whānau Reflective listening Sharing information Comforting Redirecting Why? Describe how you would express understanding (empathy) towards the child when short-term separation occurs. Child
  • 29. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 29 She cried and she sobbed She clutched my hand Her mother had left her to do a few urgent errands. She became fearful and anxious Then angry and perplexed Her body language was indicating ‘My own mummy knows me best’ Her emotions were venting Like a volcano erupting Did she feel sick in her stomach? This situation was rapidly plummeting I held her comfortingly She screamed in my ear I remained cool and collected She didn’t really want me here. I put her on the ground Distracted her with toys But she screamed even louder Filling the air with massive noise. The attachment to her mother Was permanent and profound At this moment of time She didn’t want anyone else around... ...Several weeks later There she is over there Absorbed with activities Very secure and aware That mother will go And mother will come back A New Season has begun And because of ‘skill, love and tact’ The transition period Was worked through sensitively With a calm, comforting presence Which created A New Security. 29 A Poem Written by Elizabeth, a PORSE student who completed Unit Standard 10022 in 2002
  • 30. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 30 My Reference List
  • 31. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 31 Further References and Resources Atwool, N. (1997). Attachment as a context for development: Challenges and issues. Children’s issues seminar. Invercargill: University of Otago. Atwool, N. (2002). Attachment and the developing child. Childrenz issues, 6(2), 21-27. Atwool, N. (2004). Attachment and discipline. Childrenz issues, 8(2), 34-40. Berk, L.E. (2010). Development through the lifespan, 5th Ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon. Bowlby, J. (1998). A secure base. London: Basic books. Bowler, J. (2002). Clinging to mum. Little Treasures, October/November, 116-117. Bruce, T. & Meggitt, C. (2002). Child care & education (3rd ed.). London: hodder & Stoughton. Harrison, L. (2003). Attachment. Watson, ACT: Early Childhood Australia Inc. Levy, T.M. & Orlans, M. (1998). Attachment, trauma, and healing. Washington, DC: Child Welfare League of America, Inc. Ministry of Education (1996). Te Whariki: He Whariki Matauranga mo nga Mokopuna a Aotearoa: Early Childhood Curriculum. Wellington: Learning Media. Ministry Health Information New Zealand. (1999). Attachment disorder. Wellington: Mental Health Foundation of New Zealand. Rolfe, S. (2001). Attachment theory revisited. The First Years: New Zealand Journal of Infant and Toddler Education, 3(1), 22-26. Education Council New Zealand (N.D). Code of Ethics for Certificated Teachers. Retrieved from http://www.educationcouncil.org.nz/content/code-of-ethics-certificated-teachers-0 http://www.brainwave.org.nz http://www.education.govt.nz/assets/Documents/Early-Childhood/te-whariki.pdf http://www.educationcouncil.org.nz/content/code-of-ethics-certificated-teachers-0 http://www.practicecentre.cyf.govt.nz/policy/assessment-and-decision-making/key-information/ focusing-on-attachment-and-stability.html http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3cXy_Ir_nI&feature=related Legislation and Conventions Education (Early Childhood Services) Regulations 2008 Care of Children Act 2004 Humans Rights Act 1993 United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCROC), 1989
  • 32. 10022 POR424 ©2016 PORSE Education & Training (NZ) Ltd 32 Outcome Assessment Activity | Judgement Page(s) A One Describe attachment behaviours and patterns of behaviours of children in an ECE service. One – Attachment Behaviour Describes attachment behaviours seen in relationships between adults and children (one secure and one insecure, for each age category). 11 Two – Secure and Insecure Attachment Selects two attachment behaviours from the range of attachment behaviours available (one secure and one insecure attachment behaviour required). States the selected secure and insecure attachment behaviours in the spaces provided. Identifies and describes patterns of behaviour that may be exhibited by children in an ECE service, in terms of secure attachment for each age category (one pattern of behaviour for each age category). Identifies and describes patterns of behaviour that may be exhibited by children in an ECE service, in terms of insecure attachment for each age category (one pattern of behaviour for each age category). 12 Three – Responses and Feelings One child is selected from the given short-term separation scenario; name and age category of the child is stated. For the given scenario; identifies and describes the selected child’s responses to and feelings about the short term separation scenario and describes what feelings might be associated with the selected child’s response and why. For the given scenario; identifies and describes the mothers, educators and the granddads responses to and feelings about the short term separation scenario and describes what feelings might be associated with the adults responses and why. 14 Two Describe techniques for strengthening relationships between adults and a child during short-term separation. Four – Assessing Short-term Separation Situations States the type of ECE service provided, the type of whanau/family involved, and the age category of the child involved in the short-term separation situation. Outlines how each of these tolerance measures are used to assess the sort of short-term separation the child appears ready to tolerate (in accordance with current ECE practice). Describes the tolerance measures: child’s age, stage of development, personality, family characteristics and history. 17 Five – Relationship Strengthening Techniques The techniques for strengthening relationships between adults and the child, during short term separation: reflective listening; comforting; sharing information; redirecting; are described in accordance with current ECE practice. 22 Six – Coping with Short-Term Separation Describes a short-term separation situation experienced or observed in an ECE service. Describes three actions that assisted the child to cope in the described short-term separation situation. Selects two techniques (reflective listening, comforting, sharing information, redirecting) used in the short-term situation and describes how the techniques assisted in the short-term separation situation described (one point required for each technique). 23 Seven – Understanding the Situation Describes how at least two of the relationship strengthening techniques are used, when short term separation occurs, in terms of expressing and responding with empathy towards the whanau/family, and the child. 28 Marking Criteria Unit Standard 10022 version 4 | level 2 | credits 3 Demonstrate knowledge of attachment patterns and short-term separation in an ECE service Assessor’s signature Date achieved