Copyright © 2014 National Adult Literacy Agency
ISBN	978-1-907171-23-9
Published by: National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA...
1
General
Introduction 3
Vowels and consonants 4
100 most common words 5
Using a dictionary 6
Brushing up o...
2
Brushing up on grammar
Parts of speech 26
l Nouns 28
l Pronouns 29
l Adjectives 30
l Verbs 31...
3
Welcome to ‘Brushing Up’. This learning support workbook covers the basics of spelling,
grammar and punctuation. Many of...
4
In the English language there are 26 letters in the alphabet.
The 26 letters are made up of 5 vowels (in red below) and ...
5
These 100 words make up, on average, half of all the words we read and write.
Learning these words is a good place to st...
6
A dictionary lists words from A to Z and explains what each word means.
In a dictionary the words are arranged in alphab...
7
Brushing up
on
spelling
8
Spelling Tips
There is no one way to learn how to spell. As there are many different approaches you will have
to find wh...
9
5. Review and review some more!
If you already know some of the words on your list, practise them once or twice. Y...
10
Look at something you have written. Are there words that you think are not spelt right?
Choose a word you would like to...
11
Trace Copy Recall
Trace Copy Recall
word
A version of this method is: “Trace, Copy and Recall”
Get a piece of paper and...
12
l Within the word, are there smaller words?
Examples: together = to / get / her
shoelace = shoe / ...
13
A root word is a word that has nothing added at the beginning or the end.
New words can be made from root words by addi...
14
A suffix is added to the end of a root word to change its meaning or make a new word.
The most common suffixes are “ed”...
15
Rule 1: For words ending in “y”, keep the “y” when adding “ing” and “ish”.
Examples: carrying crying
...
16
Some root words double the last letter before adding a suffix which begins with a vowel –
such as “er”, “ed” or “ing”.
...
17
Watch out for the exceptions (words that don’t follow the above rule).
Exercise
Read this passage.
Going back t...
18
These suffixes usually mean “able to be …”
Examples: available: able to be used or obtained
...
19
Many words that we see have “i” before “e”.
Examples: achieve, believe, die, field, friend, piece, pier
Howeve...
20
There are many words in English that sound the same, but have different meanings and are
spelt differently. These words...
21
Plural means more than one.
To get the plural of most words, you just add “s”.
Examples: one computer two comp...
22
Read this extract from the book “Bruno, peanut and me” by Mary Stanley.
Read the piece again looking closely at the...
23
Fill in this crossword puzzle.
The answers are in the extract from “Bruno, peanut and me” on page 22.
Hint! W...
24
Your spelling dictionary
There are new words that you will come across. It is often useful to write these words down so...
25
Brushing up
on
grammar
26
It is important to understand and use basic grammar rules. In the following pages you will be
able to work on these.
Pa...
27
Adjectives describe or tell us
more about nouns or pronouns.
Some adjectives:
The blue coat.
The happy girl.
He is funn...
28
Nouns are the names of people, places, things, ideas and feelings.
Underline the nouns.
1. My hair grows very fa...
29
Pronouns are small words which take the place of a noun in a sentence.
Examples:
Underline the pronouns in the...
30
Adjectives describe or tell us more about nouns or pronouns.
Examples:
Underline the adjectives in the following sen...
31
Verbs are action or doing words.
Examples: I walk to work every day. He jogs once a week.
Peter went to the li...
32
Adverbs describe or tell us more about verbs. They may also describe
adjectives.
Most adverbs are used with verbs and a...
33
Conjunctions are words that join two words or groups of words.
Examples: The man and his dog went everywhere togethe...
34
Prepositions are words that show the relationship of a noun (or pronoun) to
another noun (or pronoun) in the sentence. ...
35
Interjections are words used to show strong feeling or emotion. It is a big
name for a little word!
Interjections are s...
36
Read the paragraph below. Decide what part of speech each word is.
Then check your answers in the boxes below.
Noun...
37
Read this article once all the way through.
Then read it again and underline the nouns and write them in the nou...
38
Nouns
Adjectives Adverbs
Verbs
The answers are on page 54.
Exercise: Reading an article
39
Brushing up
on
punctuation
40
Knowing where and when to use punctuation marks can greatly improve your writing.
Punctuation means the correct use of ...
41
Put a next to the lines that are sentences and X against those that are not.
1. John sent a picture to his frien...
42
Capital letters are used on the following occasions:
1. At the beginning of all sentences.
2. For the names of pe...
43
Full stop
A full stop is used:
- at the end of a sentence
- to show an abbreviation – Ms. Ave.,...
44
A comma is used:
Usually we don’t use a comma before the word ‘and’.
Example: We saw Mary and Peter at ...
45
The apostrophe can have two meanings:
1. It is used to show ownership – that something belongs to someone ...
46
Rewrite these sentences using an apostrophe to change the underlined text.
Note: The apostrophe here is showi...
47
Colon
Insert the colon in the following sentences.
1. This is what she said “Come on Ireland!”
2. Nev...
48
Brackets
Brackets are used to give extra information. They must be used in pairs.
Example: I don’t care ...
49
 
Read this extract from the book “The shorter Irish male” by Joseph O’Connor
Answer these questions.
How do you...
50
Read this extract from the book “An accident waiting to happen” by Vincent
Banville. Take your time reading it and whi...
51
Vowels and consonants [page 4]
Many of us are getting far more sodium (salt) in
our diet than is recommended. This coul...
52
Homonyms [page 20]
Fill in the gaps in these sentences.
1. right 6. to
2. write 7. male
3. wait 8.	...
53
Verbs [page 31]
Underline the verbs.
1. Sean jumped out of the plane.
2. The twins will start school next year.
3. S...
54
Answers
Nouns - proper
Notting Hill
Wellington, New Zealand
book
weekend
devices
brain
armchair
time
screen
idea
page...
55
Using capital letters [page 42]
GAA Senior Hurling Final 2014
Kilkenny and Tipperary played an incredible
draw in this ...
56
Colon [page 47]
Insert the colon.
1. This is what she said: “Come on Ireland!”
2. Never forget: think before you spea...
57
If you would like to brush up on your skills in reading, writing, numeracy or everyday
communication technology, you ca...
58
100 most common words 5
Adverbs 32
Adjectives 30
Apostrophe 45
Brackets, dashes and hyphens 48
Colon and semi...
59
Please give your name address and contact details
1. Name
2. Address
3. Telephone number
4. Email address
Tick the bo...
60
To apply for membership
1. Fill in the form.
2. Tick the box for type of membership.
3. If you applying for indiv...
National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA)
Sandford Lodge
Sandford Close
Ranelagh
Dublin 6
Tel: (01) 412 7900
Freeph...
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Nala brushing up_workbook
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Nala brushing up_workbook

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Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nala brushing up_workbook

  • 1. Copyright © 2014 National Adult Literacy Agency ISBN 978-1-907171-23-9 Published by: National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) Sandford Lodge Sandford Close Ranelagh Dublin 6 Tel: (01) 412 7900 Email: literacy@nala.ie NALA Freephone Support Line 1800 20 20 65 Web: www.nala.ie Learning website: www.writeon.ie Permission is given to reproduce parts of this publication for educational purposes only. Any other users must seek NALA’s permission to reproduce material. We wish to thank the authors Vincent Banville, Joseph O’Connor, Sheila O’Flanagan and Mary Stanley for allowing us to use extracts from their books. Thanks also to New Island, publishers of the Open Door series, for allowing us to use images of the book covers. What is NALA? The National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) is an independent membership organisation. We work to ensure that adults with literacy and numeracy difficulties can fully take part in society and have access to learning opportunities that meet their needs.
  • 2. 1 General Introduction 3 Vowels and consonants 4 100 most common words 5 Using a dictionary 6 Brushing up on spelling Spelling Tips 8 Ways to practise spellings 10 Spelling rules l Prefixes 13 l Suffixes 14 • Root words ending with an “e” 14 • Root words ending with a “y” 15 • Root words ending with an “ie” 15 • Doubling the final consonant 16 • When to use the suffix “able” or “ible” 18 l “ie” or “ei”? 19 l Homonyms 20 l Plurals 21 Exercise: Reading a novel 22 Exercise: Crossword puzzle 23 Your spelling dictionary 24 Contents
  • 3. 2 Brushing up on grammar Parts of speech 26 l Nouns 28 l Pronouns 29 l Adjectives 30 l Verbs 31 l Adverbs 32 l Conjunctions 33 l Prepositions 34 l Interjections 35 Exercise: Reading a paragraph 36 Exercise: Reading an article 37 Brushing up on punctuation Sentences 40 Using capital letters 42 When to use punctuation marks 43 l Full stop 43 l Question mark 43 l Exclamation mark 43 l Comma 44 l Inverted commas or quotation marks 44 l Apostrophe 45 l Colon and semi-colon 47 l Other symbols – brackets, dashes and hyphens 48 Exercises on punctuation 49 Exercise: Bringing it all together 50 Answers 51 How to improve your literacy and numeracy 57 Index 58 NALA Membership Form 59 Contents
  • 4. 3 Welcome to ‘Brushing Up’. This learning support workbook covers the basics of spelling, grammar and punctuation. Many of us find these difficult. It is designed as a starting point for you to use either on your own or with the support of a tutor. The workbook will give you information and tips about spelling, grammar and punctuation. It also provides you with exercises to practise over time so you can improve these skills. Starting off Many people struggled with learning spelling, grammar and punctuation. Once we finished in school, we may not have used these skills as much in everyday life and we may have forgotten them or be a little “rusty”. This workbook has tips to help you read and write more confidently. It does not cover every part of spelling, grammar or punctuation but it is a start. You can contact us if you would like to learn more. Where you see the pen symbol, these are exercises for you to do. The answers to the exercises are at the end of the book. You will find some tips where you see the lightbulb symbol. Introduction If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. If you call outside of these hours, please leave your name and number and we will be happy to call you back.
  • 5. 4 In the English language there are 26 letters in the alphabet. The 26 letters are made up of 5 vowels (in red below) and 21 consonants (in blue). To remember the 5 vowels – a e i o u - think of a sentence that uses them all. Examples: l An elephant is often upset. l You brought me to A E, now IOU. Fill in the missing vowels in these sentences. Salt in your diet M __ n y o f u s a r e g __ t t i n g f __ r m __ r e s __ d i u m (s __ l t) __ n o u r d i __ t t h a n i s r e c o m m e n d _ d. T h i s c __ u l d l e a d t o s e r i o __ s h e __ l t h p r __ b l e m s. Fill in the missing consonants in these sentences. Salt in your diet I t i __ r e c o m __ e n __ e d t h a t w e t a __ e 1 5 0 0 mg o __ s o __ i u __ p e r __ a y. T __ i s i s a b o u __ 3 /4 of a t e a __ p o o __ , o r 3 . 7 5 g r a m s, o f s a __ t. The answers are on page 51. A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [CAPITAL letters] a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z [lower case] Vowels and consonants
  • 6. 5 These 100 words make up, on average, half of all the words we read and write. Learning these words is a good place to start when working on your spellings. This list was originally compiled by Edward Dolch, University of Illinois. Edward Fry updated it more recently. We have listed the words in alphabetical order. a each it out to about find like part two all first long people up an for look said use and from made see was are get make she water as go many sit way at had may so we be has more some were been have my than what but he no that when by her not the which called him now their who can his number them will come how of then with could I oil there words day if on these would did in one they write do into or this you down is other time your The next time you finish writing something, check to see which of these words you have used. Use this list to see if you’ve written them correctly. Select a newspaper article and find some of these words.   100 most common words
  • 7. 6 A dictionary lists words from A to Z and explains what each word means. In a dictionary the words are arranged in alphabetical order. This means the words are arranged in the same order as the alphabet: words beginning with A come first, words beginning with B come second and so on through the alphabet. Example: Look at these words arranged in alphabetical order. Apple, Banana, Kiwi, Orange, Pear, Strawberry You should find a range of easy to use dictionaries in your local bookstore, your library or online. Put these words in alphabetical order. 1. ______________________ 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ 4. ______________________ 5. ______________________ The first letter of a word is the first clue. All the words that begin with that letter are grouped together. The next clue is the second letter, and so on. Put these words in alphabetical order. Note they begin with the same first letter so you need to check the second letter. 1. ______________________ 2. ______________________ 3. ______________________ Using a dictionary A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [CAPITAL letters] a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z [lower case] elephant dingo spider bear cougar train table teapot
  • 8. 7 Brushing up on spelling
  • 9. 8 Spelling Tips There is no one way to learn how to spell. As there are many different approaches you will have to find what works best for you. The spelling of some words is exactly as they sound – words such as “cat”, “ran” or “bus”. Sometimes there are rules that can be learnt, for example “i” before “e” except after “c”. However other times you just have to learn the word off! Improving your spelling takes time, practice and patience. The NALA freephone team is available to assist you. We are happy to hear from you, whether you need some support or would like to know more about going back to learning. 1. Practise, practise, practise. If you’re not sure how to spell a word, find out the correct spelling, then write it down and practise it. Keep a notebook of words you are learning and soon you will have your own personal dictionary. Then over time, as you practise these words, you will see your progress. 2. When you are practising spellings, use as many senses as you can. 3. Little and often! Practise words a few at a time rather than trying to do a large number all at once. Find out what works best for you – it may be one or two words or as many as three or four. Look out for those words in text around you. Each time you learn another word, go back and practise the ones you learned before. 4. Sound out the word. Words have one or more syllables or parts. A syllable is the number of beats in a word. Break up the words into syllables or parts. Examples: Spelling has two syllables: spell - ing Memory has three syllables: mem - or - y + + = Brushing up on spelling
  • 10. 9 5. Review and review some more! If you already know some of the words on your list, practise them once or twice. You can do this by spelling them out loud to yourself. You will be surprised how many words you already know. Reviewing the spellings transfers the knowledge from your short-term to your long-term memory. We need to get the spellings into our long-term memory to keep them. 6. Write it down. Practise spellings by writing them down. By looking at the letters and writing them down, you will become familiar with them and spot mistakes more easily. You want to train your hands to write the correct letters in the right order. Try out the ways to practise spellings on the next few pages. a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z Now you practise writing out the alphabet. 7. Read a lot. Read everything you see around you – not just books. For example, food packets, newspapers, catalogues, billboards, road signs and so on. This will fix the look of many common spelling patterns in your memory and this will help you to spot if one of your spellings doesn’t “look right”. 8. Use a mobile phone. If you have a mobile phone use it to help you with your spellings. l Save spellings in your notes on your phone and review them if you have a spare minute. l Download spelling apps and bookmark websites that you use. l Take photographs of any words you don’t know. l Record a word if you are not sure how to spell it and come back to it later when you have time. Make learning opportunities for yourself – a minute here and there during the day can help achieve your learning goals. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm.
  • 11. 10 Look at something you have written. Are there words that you think are not spelt right? Choose a word you would like to learn to spell. When you have chosen the word you want to spell, find out how to spell it. You can do this by: l looking up a dictionary l asking somebody When you have the correct spelling, how can you learn it? There are many ways of developing spelling skills. 1. Learn by doing (kinaesthetic approach) Look, say, trace, cover, write, check l Look at the word carefully. l Say the word. l Trace over each letter with a finger or a pen or make the shape of the letters in the air. l Cover the word and try to say the letters. l Write the word without looking at the trace column where the word is written. Use joined writing – this can be helpful as you see the word as one unit rather than a series of small letters. l Check if it has been written correctly. If not, repeat from the top. Practise the same word again after 10 minutes, at the end of the day and the following day until you are happy that you can spell it. Repetition is key to learning. Ways to practise spellings If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm.
  • 12. 11 Trace Copy Recall Trace Copy Recall word A version of this method is: “Trace, Copy and Recall” Get a piece of paper and draw three columns. Put a heading in each - as shown here. Then fold over the “Recall” part to hide it. Now you only see the first two columns. Then l Choose a word you want to learn to spell. l Trace it in the first column, saying each letter as you trace. l Go to the second column and copy the word. Check the word – did you copy it correctly? If not, copy again, focusing on the part you need to remember. l Cover those two columns by flipping the paper over to the “Recall” column and write out the word from memory. l Then check the spelling. • If you got it right, well done – now write the word in a sentence. • If you got it wrong, underline which part of the word you need to focus on and try again. 2. Learn by seeing (visual approach) Look at the word and ask yourself… l What does the word look like? - How many tall letters are there and where do they come in the word? - Is there a shape to the word that will help you to remember it? l Can I break the word up? Examples: party breaks up as par / ty forgetful breaks up as for / get / ful (remember there is only one “l”) Ways to practise spellings
  • 13. 12 l Within the word, are there smaller words? Examples: together = to / get / her shoelace = shoe / lace l Does the word have a familiar beginning or ending? Example: unkind = un + kind helpful = help + ful (remember there is only one “l”) singing = sing + ing 3. Learn by hearing, saying and sounding l Sound out the word. Example: in – de – pend – ent l Say the word as it is written. Examples: k – nee lam – b l Look out for words that have sound patterns or rhymes. Example: hand, sand, land, stand, understanding 4. Memory aids It’s also helpful to make up funny memory aids. Examples: Do you have trouble remembering which has two s’s – desert (arid land) or dessert (a sweet treat)? Remember that with dessert, you’d like seconds – so the dessert you eat has 2 s’s. Do you have trouble remembering how to spell separate? Remember there is “a rat” in the middle of separate. Do you have trouble remembering to spell teacher? Remember there is an “ache” in teacher. Ways to practise spellings
  • 14. 13 A root word is a word that has nothing added at the beginning or the end. New words can be made from root words by adding beginnings (prefixes) and endings (suffixes). Prefixes A prefix is added to the beginning of a root word to change its meaning or to make a new word. The most common prefixes are “un” and “dis”. Both of these prefixes mean not. Example: “un” + happy = unhappy prefix root word new word Some words can have both “un” or “dis” in front of them. Examples: able: disable or unable satisfied: dissatisfied or unsatisfied Write the opposite of these words using the prefixes “un” or “dis”. 1. true __________________ 2. believable __________________ 3. appear __________________ 4. certain __________________ 5. aware __________________ Other common prefixes include: “in”, “under”, “re”, “sub”, “im”, “mis” Match the prefixes on the left to the root words on the right to make new words. Prefix Root word im estimate under mature dis take mis marine sub trust Some of these prefixes can go with more than one word. The answers are on page 51. 6. expected __________________ 7. healthy __________________ 8. honest __________________ 9. lucky __________________ 10. agree __________________ Spelling rules
  • 15. 14 A suffix is added to the end of a root word to change its meaning or make a new word. The most common suffixes are “ed” and “ing”. In the these sentences the root word is walk. I walk every day. We can add the suffixes “ed” or “ing” to make new words. I walked yesterday. I am walking to the shop. Other examples of common suffixes are: “ary”, “ery”, “ory”, “less” – These suffixes usually make adjectives. “ed”, “ing”, “ise” – These suffixes are used with verbs. “er”, “ship”, “ism” – These suffixes usually form nouns. Adding a suffix to root words ending with an “e” 1. When a root word ends in “e” and the suffix begins with a consonant, keep the “e” when adding the suffix. 2. When a root word ends in “e” and the suffix begins with a vowel, drop the “e” when adding the suffix. There are some exceptions. This means they don’t follow the above rule. Examples: argue – argument nine – ninth true – truly Note: The final “e” is not dropped from words ending in “ee”, “oe” and “ye”. Examples: agree – agreeing see – seeing canoe – canoeing hoe – hoeing dye – dyeing eye – eyeing Root word +“ful” +“ment” +“less” care careful careless excite excitement use useful Root word +“ing” +“ed” care care + ing = caring care + ed = cared love love + ing = loving love + ed = loved use use + ing = using use + ed = used Suffixes
  • 16. 15 Rule 1: For words ending in “y”, keep the “y” when adding “ing” and “ish”. Examples: carrying crying funnyish heavyish Rule 2: When a vowel comes before the final “y” in a word, keep the “y” when adding the suffix. Examples: Exceptions day – daily lay – laid pay – paid say – said Rule 3: When a consonant comes before the final “y” in a word, change the “y” to an “i” when adding the suffix. Examples: Adding a suffix to root words ending with an “ie” When a root word ends in “ie”, change the “ie” to “y” when adding “ing”. Examples: lie – lying die – dying tie – tying Remember the more you read, the more you will become familiar with words. Then you will know if they don’t “look right”. Root word +“ed” +“ing” +“ment” delay delayed delaying employ employed employing employment stay stayed staying Root word +“er” +“est” +“ed” funny funnier funniest carry carrier carried heavy heavier heaviest Adding a suffix to root words ending with a “y”
  • 17. 16 Some root words double the last letter before adding a suffix which begins with a vowel – such as “er”, “ed” or “ing”. These root words are those that end in a single vowel + a consonant. Example: Swim: Swim ends in a single vowel (i) + a consonant (m) single vowel consonant So when adding ‘ing’ you have to double the last letter. s w i m + “ing” = swimming Put a next to the words that double the last letter and X against those that don’t. vowel consonant run (vc) o shop ( ) o wash (cc) o clap ( ) o sun (vc) o want ( ) o help (cc) o stop ( ) o Add “er”, “ed” and “ing” to these root words to make new words. +“er” +“ed” +“ing” Bat ______________ ______________ ______________ Pot ______________ ______________ ______________ Skip ______________ ______________ ______________ Trip ______________ ______________ ______________ Slip ______________ ______________ ______________ Fit ______________ ______________ ______________ Wet ______________ ______________ ______________ The answers are on page 51. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Doubling the final consonant
  • 18. 17 Watch out for the exceptions (words that don’t follow the above rule). Exercise Read this passage. Going back to learning Underline the prefixes and suffixes. Read the text again. This time, underline the prefixes and suffixes. Write out the prefixes and suffixes here. The answers are on page 51. When I look back now I was very scared and unsure of taking that first step. Of course it was the best thing I ever did. I began learning with a one-to-one tutor for two hours a week. Then after a while I moved into a small group and had more hours. I loved coming to the centre for my classes and made some great friends. Over a year I worked on my spelling, reading, writing and maths. One day the tutor introduced us to computers and we went on the internet. I was amazed at all the information you could look up. My kids are unhappy with this as they now can’t get me away from the laptop at home. Root word Adding suffix ‘ing’ Adding suffix ‘ed’ saw sawing sawed box boxing boxed snow snowing snowed
  • 19. 18 These suffixes usually mean “able to be …” Examples: available: able to be used or obtained breakable: able to be broken audible: able to be heard visible: able to be seen Words ending in “able” l When a word ends in “able” the main part of the word is usually a complete word which makes sense on its own. Examples: drink + able = drinkable laugh + able = laughable l When a word ends with a “y”, the “y” usually changes to “i” before adding the suffix “able”. Examples: rely + able = reliable envy + able = enviable l When the word ends with an “e”, you usually drop the “e” before adding the suffix “able”. Examples: believe + able = believable value + able = valuable Words ending in “ible” l When a word ends in “ible” you usually can’t break them into separate words that make sense on their own. Examples: sens + ible = sensible horr + ible = horrible l Most words with “s” or “ss” before the ending take “ible”. Examples: possible responsible Put the following words into sentences. 1. believable _________________________________________________________________ 2. edible _________________________________________________________________ 3. impossible _________________________________________________________________ 4. acceptable _________________________________________________________________ 5. accessible _________________________________________________________________ When to use the suffix “able” or “ible”
  • 20. 19 Many words that we see have “i” before “e”. Examples: achieve, believe, die, field, friend, piece, pier However there are some rules you need to know: Rule 1: “i” before “e” except after “c” This means use “ei” after “c”. Examples: ceiling, conceit, deceit, perceive, receipt, receive Rule 2: “ie” after “c” with a ‘shen’ sound Examples: ancient, efficient, sufficient, conscience Rule 3: “ei” where “ei” sounds like ‘ay’ Examples: freight, neighbour, reign, rein, weight Watch out for the exceptions (words that don’t follow the above rules). either neither height leisure foreign science Fill in “ie” or “ei” in these words. 1. I hope to ach _____ ve a good result in my exam. 2. Mrs. Smith makes a great shepherd’s p _____ . 3. When will I rec _____ ve the deposit back? 4. What a lovely p _____ ce of furniture! 5. I bought some for _____ gn exchange in the bank. Put the following words into sentences. 1. weird _________________________________________________________________ 2. receipt _________________________________________________________________ 3. neighbour _________________________________________________________________ 4. weight _________________________________________________________________ 5. leisure _________________________________________________________________ The answers are on page 51. “ie” or “ei”?
  • 21. 20 There are many words in English that sound the same, but have different meanings and are spelt differently. These words are called homonyms. Examples: to too two by buy bye through threw aloud allowed Look at these pairs of homonyms. Homonym Meaning of the word Homonym Meaning of the word dear • expensive • a polite greeting in a letter deer a fast-running graceful animal pain hurt caused by an injury or illness pane a sheet of glass in a window right • correct • on or towards the right hand side write put letters or words on paper Use words from the box below to fill in the gaps in these sentences. 1. That is not the ________________ way to do that. 2. Will you ________________ to me soon? I like hearing the news. 3. I can’t __________________ to hear from my friend in Australia. 4. She has lost a lot of _________________ recently. 5. I sent _________________ emails yesterday. 6. I am sorry I have not written _______________ you for so long. 7. A ________________ swan is called a cob. 8. I have no _____________________ in my inbox. 9. I do not like the _________________of that perfume. 10. He _______________ a letter to his son in France. The answers are on page 52. Homonyms right mail sent to wait weight two write scent male
  • 22. 21 Plural means more than one. To get the plural of most words, you just add “s”. Examples: one computer two computers one dog two dogs However for words that end in “ch” “z” “sh” “s” “x” or “ss” you make the plural by adding “es”. Examples: one kiss two kisses one lunch two lunches For words ending in “y” l If there is a vowel before the “y”, you just add “s”. Examples: one boy two boys one day two days l If there is a consonant before the “y”, drop the “y” and add “ies”. Examples: one daisy two daisies one family two families Add “s” or “es” to make the words plural. Note: Remember what happens to some words ending in “y”. 1. monitor ____________________ 5. baby ____________________ 2. way ____________________ 6. switch ____________________ 3. box ____________________ 7. brush ____________________ 4. crash ____________________ 8. party ____________________ The answers are on page 52. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Plurals
  • 23. 22 Read this extract from the book “Bruno, peanut and me” by Mary Stanley. Read the piece again looking closely at the words. Did you understand them all? Underline the words you had difficulty with. Look those words up in a dictionary and then try to learn to spell them. Check your local library or bookshop for this book and more titles from the Open Door series. Exercise: Reading a novel CHAPTER TWO We lived in a house by the sea. From the windows in our house we could see the railway line, a high wall and then the sea. In the summer we swam and played in the water. In the winter we watched the sea going in and out, pulling back across the sand until it almost disappeared, then slowly washing in again until all the rocks were under water. In spring, the tides were so high they splashed over the wall and on to the railway track. “Hah,” said Bruno. “I wonder will it keep coming in, until the tracks are covered and it comes right up to our house.” “Oh, no,” said Peanut, with one more thing to worry about. “What will happen then?” “We’ll be flooded and we’ll be washed away,” said Bruno, happily. “Oh, no,” repeated Peanut. “Don’t worry, Peanut,” I said to my little sister. “We’ll get an ark and sail away, like Noah did.”
  • 24. 23 Fill in this crossword puzzle. The answers are in the extract from “Bruno, peanut and me” on page 22. Hint! Watch out for the clue numbers and check if they are across or down. Across 4. These can be single or double glazed. (7 letter word) 6. They lived in a ________ by the sea. (5 letter word) 8. “Don’t worry, Peanut,” I said to my little ________. (6 letter word) 9. The coldest season. (6 letter word) Down 1. We will be ------- and washed away. (7 letter word) 2. The opposite to appeared. Hint: use a prefix (11 letter word) 3. He built the ark. (4 letter word) 5. The warmest season. (6 letter word) 7. The season between the answers to 9 across and 5 down. (6 letter word) Enjoy the crossword. If you get stuck, give yourself a break and then come back to it. Remember the crossword is fun and looking up the answer is not cheating. The answers are on page 52. Exercise: Crossword puzzle 8 6 7 3 9 8 S 4 2 5 1
  • 25. 24 Your spelling dictionary There are new words that you will come across. It is often useful to write these words down so you can look them up if you need to. You can keep your own spelling dictionary and jot down new words you find. This is laid out in alphabetical order. A a B b C c D d E e F f G g H h I i J j K k L l M m N n O o P p Q q R r S s T t U u V v W w X x Y y Z z If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm.
  • 26. 25 Brushing up on grammar
  • 27. 26 It is important to understand and use basic grammar rules. In the following pages you will be able to work on these. Parts of speech Every word is part of a word group or parts of speech. There are eight parts of speech. Nouns are the names of people, places, things, ideas and feelings. Some nouns: People – boy, mother Place – bank, road, Dublin Thing – card, pen, shoe Idea – anger, belief, kindness Example: Sean ate his lunch. More on nouns on page 28. Verbs are action or doing words. Some verbs: dance jump run drive cook paint am was will be Example: Mary ate her dinner. More on verbs on page 31. Adverbs describe or tell us more about verbs. They may also describe adjectives. Some adverbs: clearly fast always very slowly loudly Example: She ate her dinner quickly. More on adverbs on page 32. Brushing up on grammar Pronouns are small words which take the place of a noun in a sentence. Some pronouns: I me mine we us ours you yours who he him his it she her hers they them theirs that these this those Example: He ate his lunch. More on pronouns on page 29.
  • 28. 27 Adjectives describe or tell us more about nouns or pronouns. Some adjectives: The blue coat. The happy girl. He is funny. Example: The man and his lively dog walked through the park. More on adjectives on page 30. Conjunctions are words that join two words or groups of words. Some conjunctions: and but or although so unless because neither either Example: The man and his lively dog walked through the park. More on conjunctions on page 33. Prepositions are words that show the relationship between a noun (or pronoun) to another noun (or pronoun) in the sentence. Some prepositions: at in on across beside under against Example: The man and his lively dog walked through the park. More on prepositions on page 34. Interjections are words used to show strong feeling or emotion. Some interjections: Ouch! Oh! Ow! Ahem Hurrah! Gosh! Example: Ouch! The dog bit me! More on interjections on page 35. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Parts of speech
  • 29. 28 Nouns are the names of people, places, things, ideas and feelings. Underline the nouns. 1. My hair grows very fast. 2. He is a carpenter. 3. Please park your car in the garage. 4. I felt delighted when I passed the test. 5. She ate her breakfast quickly. There are different types of nouns. Common nouns name people, places or things. Common nouns: People – girl, father, cousin Place – hospital, shop, river, street Thing – card, pen, shoe, umbrella Common nouns are written in lower case letters. Proper nouns name a particular person, place or thing. Proper nouns: People – John Doyle, Mr. Owens Place – Mater Hospital, Arnotts, River Lee, Henry Street Thing – Friday, July, Christmas Day For proper nouns, the first letter is a capital letter. Abstract nouns may be ideas or activities or feelings. Abstract nouns: anger courage laughter calm height length kindness dark She is full of kindness. Kindness is an abstract noun because you can’t physically touch, feel, hear, taste, smell or see it. Collective nouns describe groups of people, animals or things. Collective nouns: A group of ships is called a fleet. A group of cows is called a herd. A group of players is called a team. A group of ants is called a colony. Nouns
  • 30. 29 Pronouns are small words which take the place of a noun in a sentence. Examples: Underline the pronouns in the following sentences. 1. They go swimming every Saturday. 2. The puppy ate it. 3. The politician annoyed me. 4. They were very satisfied with the meal. 5. We stayed in it for a week. A pronoun may be first, second or third person. It can also be singular and plural. Some examples are: In each sentence below, fill the gaps with a suitable pronoun. 1. I enjoyed my holiday but __________ sounded better. 2. The girl listens to her mother because she likes ___________ . 3. Is that child ___________ ? 4. Don’t forget to bring ___________ . 5. Vegetables are good for you so you should eat ___________ . The answers are on page 52. The man arrived at 10. He arrived at 10. The girls sang in the musical. They sang in the musical. The horse ate the hay. The horse ate it. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Pronouns I me mine we us ours you yours who he him his it she her hers they them theirs that these this those
  • 31. 30 Adjectives describe or tell us more about nouns or pronouns. Examples: Underline the adjectives in the following sentences. 1. Several old folk caught an awful flu. 2. The baby slept soundly for the first night. 3. You should eat some healthy food each day. 4. The fast river flowed through the green countryside. 5. The young girl stayed out late last night. Use the adjectives in the box to fill in the gaps. anxious careful foolish showery thirsty 1. I am very ____________ with money. 2. Scotland gets very _____________ weather. 3. I drank lots after the marathon as I was very __________. 4. Jack feels __________ when he has to speak in public. 5. It would be ___________ to drive through a red traffic light. Fill the gaps with suitable adjectives. There are many adjectives you can use here. 1. Some people think that Cork is the __________ city in Ireland. 2. She bought a ___________ present. 3. The ___________ weather spoiled a __________ trip. 4. Mary scored ___________ goals in the ___________ minute. 5. Did that ___________ book win the ___________ award? The answers are on page 52. Adjectives Tom is happy. Happy is an adjective describing the proper noun Tom. It was bad. Bad is an adjective describing the pronoun it. The fast athlete. Fast is an adjective telling us more about the noun athlete.
  • 32. 31 Verbs are action or doing words. Examples: I walk to work every day. He jogs once a week. Peter went to the library. The woman drives to town. She is angry with Jack. She has a cold. The time of the action is called the tense. The three main tenses are: 1. Past tense = the action has already happened. 2. Present tense = the action is taking place now – in the present. 3. Future tense = the action will take place in the future. Examples: Underline the verbs in the following sentences. 1. Sean jumped out of the plane. 2. The twins will start school next year. 3. She plans a holiday every year. 4. The bank sent a statement last week. 5. I broke my leg on Tuesday. Fill the gaps with suitable verbs. There are many verbs you can use here. 1. His nephew ____________ a new car. 2. The letter was ___________ by express post. 3. I ____________ the robin singing this morning. 4. The garda _______________ the area for clues to the crime. 5. _________ the car boot and put the shopping in there. Past tense Present tense Future tense I walked I walk I will walk I jogged I jog I will jog I went I go I will go I drove I drive I will drive I was I am I will be I had I have I will have Verbs
  • 33. 32 Adverbs describe or tell us more about verbs. They may also describe adjectives. Most adverbs are used with verbs and are formed by adding ‘ly’ to the adjective. Examples: clear – clearly brave – bravely slow – slowly Adverbs tell us: Time We will meet tomorrow. Place He came here yesterday. Manner They tiptoed quietly into the house. Degree I am very weak. Number (amount) She often goes to the cinema. Underline the adverbs in the following sentences. 1. She sang sweetly. 2. They seldom meet anymore. 3. The baby slept very badly. 4. Olive was very hungry after her swim. 5. I carefully opened the package. Fill the gaps with suitable adverbs. There are many adverbs you can use here. 1. They arrived _________ to the party. 2. He spoke ____________ to the canvasser at the door. 3. They lived _____________ in a big old farmhouse. 4. She danced _______________ with her partner. 5. The passengers waited ___________ in line to get on the train. The answers are on page 53. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Adverbs
  • 34. 33 Conjunctions are words that join two words or groups of words. Examples: The man and his dog went everywhere together. It was bulky but light. She will wait until you arrive. I will go to the party if you come too. Write a sentence using the following conjunctions. 1. although _____________________________________________________________________ 2. because______________________________________________________________________ 3. before _______________________________________________________________________ 4. since ________________________________________________________________________ 5. unless________________________________________________________________________ Use the conjunctions in the box to fill in the gaps in the sentences below. 1. She didn’t go out _________________ it stopped raining. 2. Close the window _________________ you go out. 3. He hates fruit _________________ he eats plenty of vegetables. 4. You don’t have to queue ________________ you buy your tickets in advance. 5. I need to see your proof of age ______________ I can’t sell alcohol to anyone under 18. The answers are on page 53. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. as but if until when Conjunctions
  • 35. 34 Prepositions are words that show the relationship of a noun (or pronoun) to another noun (or pronoun) in the sentence. It also shows position or location. Examples: The dog ran across the street. We arrived at the wedding. Patrick lives by the beach. The computer is on the table. Use the prepositions in the box to fill in the gaps. 1. The woman fell _________ her bike. 2. The boy placed his coat __________ the chair. 3. Kate works ____________ the summer. 4. I went to the cinema ____________ my friends. 5. The boy walked ____________ the woods. Fill each gap with a suitable preposition. 1. Martina moved the sofa _________ the window. 2. The girl divided the winnings _____________ the family. 3. The bicycle crashed __________ the Luas. 4. I received a letter ___________ my uncle. 5. The people walked ______________ the bridge. Put the following prepositions into sentences. 1. around ______________________________________________________________________ 2. beside ______________________________________________________________________ 3. in ______________________________________________________________________ 4. near ______________________________________________________________________ 5. off ______________________________________________________________________ The answers are on page 53. across during off through with Prepositions
  • 36. 35 Interjections are words used to show strong feeling or emotion. It is a big name for a little word! Interjections are short exclamations like Oh! Um! or Ah! We use them quite often, usually more in speaking than in writing. They are included in a sentence (usually at the start) to express a feeling such as surprise, disgust, joy, excitement or enthusiasm. Examples: Hey! Stop that cat! Oh, that is shocking. Dear me! Jeepers, that was close. Yes and No Introductory expressions such as yes, no, indeed, and well are also classed as interjections. Examples: Indeed, this happens all the time. Yes, I will apply for that job. Some interjections are sounds. Examples: Phew! I’m never going there again. Yum! My compliments to the chef. Use the interjections in the box to fill in the gaps. 1. “ _______ ! This sandwich is lovely,” said Mary. 2. “ ________ ! The bus is about to leave,” he cried. 3. John arrived at his surprise party. “ ________________ !” he said. 4. “ _________! I could have told you that,” Jake replied. 5. “ ________ , I’m not going tomorrow night,” she said. The answers are on page 54. I’m sure I don’t know half the people who come to my house. Indeed, for all I hear, I shouldn’t like to. Oscar Wilde Humph Hurry No Oh my gosh Yum Phew Interjections
  • 37. 36 Read the paragraph below. Decide what part of speech each word is. Then check your answers in the boxes below. Nouns ---------------------- Common ---------------------- ------- Proper ------- woman accident passenger O’Connell Street minibus shock cuts Abbey Street car corner bruises Mary Jones city hospital driver Crumlin centre ambulance yesterday intensive care Pronouns she Verbs was injured crashed happened moved is taken treated Adjectives young nearby minor Conjunctions and Adverbs seriously quickly also Prepositions after in on from to by with for Other words a the of Exercise: Reading a paragraph A young woman was seriously injured after a minibus and a car crashed in the city centre yesterday. The accident happened on the corner of O’Connell Street and Abbey Street. The woman, Mary Jones from Crumlin, was quickly moved to a nearby hospital by ambulance and she is in intensive care. A passenger was also taken to hospital with minor cuts and bruises. The driver was treated for shock. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm.
  • 38. 37 Read this article once all the way through. Then read it again and underline the nouns and write them in the noun box on the next page. Do the same for the adjectives, verbs and adverbs. If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. UNPLUG AND OPEN A BOOK … THE JOY OF SLOW READING Why not try this over the weekend – switch off your devices and switch on your brain. Grab that book, curl up in a comfy armchair and lose yourself. At a time when much of what we read is on a screen, the idea of leafing through the pages of a good book is a dying art form. Slow reading is the new game in town, with claims that it benefits your brain and cuts stress. Slow reading clubs are popping up all over, from Notting Hill to Wellington, New Zealand. They all follow the same format – people arrive at a cafe, grab a drink and shut off their mobile phones. Then they sink into cozy chairs and read in silence for an hour. The point of the club isn’t to talk about literature, but to get away from pinging electronic devices and read without interruption. Slow reading promotes a return to the focused reading habits of years gone by, before smartphones and social media started eating into our time and attention spans. Slow readers list many benefits from improving their ability to concentrate, reducing stress levels and deepening their ability to think, listen and empathise. Now, where did I Ieave that book? Exercise: Reading an article
  • 39. 38 Nouns Adjectives Adverbs Verbs The answers are on page 54. Exercise: Reading an article
  • 40. 39 Brushing up on punctuation
  • 41. 40 Knowing where and when to use punctuation marks can greatly improve your writing. Punctuation means the correct use of the following: Sentences A sentence is always made up of at least one noun (or pronoun) and at least one verb. A sentence has a complete thought. Examples: Siobhan sings. John eats. We arrived. They won! A sentence can also be a question. Example: How many pictures will I take? A sentence normally starts with a capital letter and ends with a full stop. Sometimes the full stop is replaced by a question mark (?) or an exclamation mark (!). Examples: Mary wore a dress. She wore a lovely blue dress to the party. What colour was the dress. Brushing up on punctuation If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Full stop Colon Question mark Semi-colon Exclamation mark Brackets Comma Dash Inverted commas or quotation marks Hyphen Apostrophe . ? ! : _ _
  • 42. 41 Put a next to the lines that are sentences and X against those that are not. 1. John sent a picture to his friend. o 2. I went to the town and I bought o 3. Mary Jones o 4. Can I have the camera? o 5. I saw a picture in the paper. o 6. It’s raining here because o Complete each sentence by selecting the correct ending. I went to America on my holidays so I left work early. I have learned to use a computer so I did not enjoy it. I had a bad headache I can now book my own tickets. I went to a film last night but at the end of a sentence. You always put a full stop and I really enjoyed it. Finish the following sentences. Remember to put in a full stop or a question mark. 1. My camera is very ____________________________________________________________ 2. What time can you ___________________________________________________________ 3. Computers are ______________________________________________________________ 4. How much is the _____________________________________________________________ 5. I need to buy a digital camera because _________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________________________ The answers are on page 54. Sentences
  • 43. 42 Capital letters are used on the following occasions: 1. At the beginning of all sentences. 2. For the names of people. Examples: Ann, Derek, Ryan, Murphy. 3. For the names of places. Examples: Dublin, Cork, Paris, Henry Street. 4. For the title of a person. Examples: Mr., Mrs., Dr. 5. For the names of the days of the week and months of the year. Examples: Monday, April. 6. For titles of books, films and newspapers. Examples: Treasure Island, Titanic 7. For abbreviations or shortened words. Examples: Rd., Ave. 8. For the word “I” when it refers to yourself. Example: I will buy the ticket when I get paid. Remember, “I” is always a capital letter no matter where it comes in a sentence. Underline the words below that should have a capital letter. Then re-write the sentences. gaa senior hurling final 2014 kilkenny and tipperary played an incredible draw in this year’s all-ireland senior hurling final at croke park. the score was kilkenny 3-22 to tipperary 1-28. two weeks later kilkenny beat tipperary by 2-17 to 2-14 in a replay on saturday 27 september at croke park. cycling capers i never liked to cycle and kate knew it. she asked me how i was going to get to school without a lift from mr. turner next door. “if i were you i would get on the bike”, she sniggered. the last time i had cycled with my best friend tom i had landed at the doorstep of doctor smith. The answers are on page 55.   If you have any questions as you are using this book, call the NALA freephone support line, 1800 20 20 65, Monday to Friday, 9.30 am – 5 pm. Using capital letters
  • 44. 43 Full stop A full stop is used: - at the end of a sentence - to show an abbreviation – Ms. Ave., T.D. Example: Ms. Murphy lives on Kildare Ave. Question mark The question mark is used at the end of a question. Examples: What is your address? Where are you going? Exclamation mark An exclamation mark is used to show strong feeling such as surprise, excitement, anger or joy. Examples: Ah! She’s so cute. Read out loud the following paragraph from ‘Maggie’s Story’ by Sheila O’Flanagan. Mark where you think the full stops, question marks and exclamation marks should go. Remember to put in the capital letters at the beginning of each sentence. the kitchen door opened tom strode into the room he sat down on the chair and stretched his legs out in front of him “What’s for tea” he asked maggie turned to look at her twenty-year-old son he was glancing through the paper ignoring her she stirred the pot on the hob “Curry” she said. he looked up from the paper “what sort” “Chicken curry” “With fruit” “Yes” “Good” said Tom in satisfaction “I’m starving” The answers are on page 55. When to use punctuation marks ? !
  • 45. 44 A comma is used: Usually we don’t use a comma before the word ‘and’. Example: We saw Mary and Peter at the park. Read the following paragraph out loud. Mark where you think the full stops, commas and capital letters should go. john bought the paper and read all the ads for flats as soon as he saw one that looked nice he went there immediately even though the ad said after six o clock he knew if the flat was a good one he would probably find a queue of people all down the street finding a good flat in dublin at a good price was like finding a needle in a haystack Inverted commas or quotation marks Inverted commas are used to show what someone has said (direct speech). Example: “Will you meet me later?” Put the inverted commas into the following sentences. 1. Please open the window, she said. It’s very hot. 2. Jake isn’t available today, he explained. Can you come back tomorrow? 3. Yes, said Maud. I am free. 4. Help! she cried. Stop that man! 5. Will we go to the film at 6 pm? he asked. The answers are on page 55. When listing three or more words I bought coffee, tea, sugar and milk. To divide up a sentence Her cat, Felix, ran away yesterday Jane Smyth, the nurse, went home early. Before direct speech “Would you like a drink?” he asked. “Thanks, I’ll have tea,” she replied. Comma
  • 46. 45 The apostrophe can have two meanings: 1. It is used to show ownership – that something belongs to someone or something. 2. It is used to show that one or more letters have been left out. 1. Showing ownership For one owner (singular) Insert ’s The girl’s coat is on the stand. The boy’s shoes are dirty. Mary’s house is around the corner. For one owner (singular) and word ends in “s” Place only the apostrophe after the word or add ’s James’ school is closed tomorrow. or James’s school is closed tomorrow. For more than one owner (plural) Insert ’s The girls’ coats are on the stand. The boys’ shoes are dirty. The sisters’ house is close by. For more than one owner (plural) and word does not end in “s” Add ’s to the plural word The children’s school is closed. The men’s hats were blown off. Use a coloured pen to mark in the apostrophe in these sentences. Note: The apostrophe here is showing ownership. 1. Janes hair is very dark. 2. He found Toms book on the floor. 3. The babies clothes were put into the washing machine. 4. I think my friends writing is very neat. 5. She read Tonys work yesterday and said it was excellent. 6. Mr. Murphys house is larger than Mr. O’Briens. 7. Patrick washed the boys football jerseys yesterday. 8. His mothers cooking is excellent. 9. The mans legs were tired after the marathon. 10. The ships hooter sounded. The answers are on page 55. Apostrophe
  • 47. 46 Rewrite these sentences using an apostrophe to change the underlined text. Note: The apostrophe here is showing ownership. Example: The bag was packed with clothes for women. The bag was packed with women’s clothes. 1. The husband of Jess died. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. He listened to the singing of the choir. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Tom had work for seven days. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 4. The hands of the clock moved. _______________________________________________________________________________________ 2. Showing that one or more letters have been left out. The apostrophe is placed where the missing letter or letters are. This is called a contraction. Examples: I am – I’m I would not – I wouldn’t is not – isn’t you are – you’re Rewrite these sentences using the apostrophe. Hint: Use the apostrophe to show where letters are left out. 1. Do not go. ___________________________________________________________________ 2. I cannot drive. _______________________________________________________________ 3. He did not do it. _____________________________________________________________ 4. We have not got a new car. ____________________________________________________ 5. They are in bed. ______________________________________________________________   The answers are on page 55. Apostrophe
  • 48. 47 Colon Insert the colon in the following sentences. 1. This is what she said “Come on Ireland!” 2. Never forget think before you speak. 3. This house has everything I need two bedrooms, a backyard and a garage. 4. Here are three cities that begin with C Copenhagen, Cairo and Cork. Semi-colon A semi-colon is used to separate sentences that have a link to each other. Example: His bicycle was old; the bell didn’t work. Some people drive to work; others use public transport. Mark the semi-colon in the following sentences. 1. She got the train into the city after work the shops were open late. 2. He got a bargain it was in the sale. 3. Her car was old the wipers don’t work. 4. The rain lasted all day the clothes didn’t dry. 5. I have finished the main course now I have to make dessert. 6. We made too many mistakes we lost the game. 7. You should stop eating so much food you’ll burst. 8. Mary loves the sofa it’s very comfortable. The answers are on page 56. A colon is used: Example When introducing a statement There are two choices: run away or stay. When introducing a list The main cities in Ireland are: Dublin, Cork and Galway. Before a direct quotation or direct speech The postman said: “The parcel won’t fit.” Colon and semi-colon :
  • 49. 48 Brackets Brackets are used to give extra information. They must be used in pairs. Example: I don’t care if he (John) won the prize, I want some of it. The top teams were: Mary’s (80 points) and Paul’s (100 points). Mark the brackets in the following sentences. 1. She got a nice bonus €200. 2. James Ann’s boyfriend bought the tickets. 3. He was an active member of the GAA Gaelic Athletic Association. Dashes The dash is used to divide up a sentence. Examples: Things have changed – mainly for the better. This job – it’s not urgent – can be finished later. Here the dash adds in a piece of information that is not essential to the sentence. Mark the brackets or dashes in the following sentences. 1. She painted the room yellow everyone hates it. 2. He packed his lunch sandwich, apple and drink. 3. The playground was cold and wet it was deserted. Hyphens The hyphen is half the size of a dash. It links words together. Examples: I got a present of a four-pound cake. I am long-sighted. Rewrite the following sentences with correct punctuation. Remember to put in the capital letters at the beginning of a sentence. 1. i hope you pass the driving test ________________________________________________ 2. are you both going away for your holidays ______________________________________ 3. she had one wish to win the lotto ______________________________________________ 4. please don’t make a mess said his mother _______________________________________ _ _ Other symbols – brackets, dashes and hyphens
  • 50. 49   Read this extract from the book “The shorter Irish male” by Joseph O’Connor Answer these questions. How do you think this person felt about maths? And why? ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Think of a strong memory from your teenage years. What is it? ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Check your local library or bookshop for this book and more titles from the Open Door series. Exercises on punctuation My Leaving Certificate maths exam has haunted my nights for the last thirteen years. I was always desperate at maths. I could never understand it. Teenage life seemed so full of real problems that inventing ones in order to solve them seemed absurd. Why was it important to know how quickly a half-full train doing average speed would get to Limerick Junction via Portarlington when I could spend my days dreaming up witty things to murmur during the slow sets at the Prez? (“Listen, Concepta, can I buy you a fizzy orange after ‘Freebird’ or would you rather just have the money?”) Even now, I only remember one mathematical fact. The Square on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the squares of the other two sides. The other two sides of what, I never knew. (Smoked salmon, is it?)
  • 51. 50 Read this extract from the book “An accident waiting to happen” by Vincent Banville. Take your time reading it and while you are reading it think about the spellings and the punctuation marks. If you do not understand any words mark them and look them up in a dictionary. Also think about the words that you would like to learn to spell. Fill in the gaps in the following extract from “An accident waiting to happen” We were in the________________ room,________________the Teletubbies and ________________rice crispies, when my wife Annie came down. She has red hair and a temper to match. She also has definite views on how____________should be brought up. Now ________________ her head, she said, “What did I tell you? No television, no comfort food. You’ll have the child ________________. If we don’t train her in before she comes _______the age of reason” -. “Train her in?” I cut in. “Why can’t we let her be a free spirit? Do her own thing.” “At the age of ___________?” “Well, she can ________________ and ________________. Sing, dance, say her abc’s. I know she sometimes puts her shoes on the wrong feet, but that can happen to anyone.” We were in the sitting room, watching the Teletubbies and eating rice crispies, when my wife Annie came down. She has red hair and a temper to match. She also has definite views on how Emily should be brought up. Now shaking her head, she said, “What did I tell you? No television, no comfort food. You’ll have the child spoiled. If we don’t train her in before she comes to the age of reason” – “Train her in?” I cut in. “Why can’t we let her be a free spirit? Do her own thing.” “At the age of two?” “Well, she can walk and talk. Sing, dance, say her abc’s. I know she sometimes puts her shoes on the wrong feet, but that can happen to anyone.” Exercise: Bringing it all together
  • 52. 51 Vowels and consonants [page 4] Many of us are getting far more sodium (salt) in our diet than is recommended. This could lead to serious health problems. It is recommended that we take 1500mg of sodium per day. This is about 3/4 of a teaspoon, or 3.75 grams, of salt. Using a dictionary [page 6] 1. Bear 2. Cougar 3. Dingo 4. Elephant 5. Spider 1. table 2. teapot 3. train Prefixes [page 13] Put the prefix before the word. 1. untrue 6. unexpected 2. unbelievable 7. unhealthy 3. disappear 8. dishonest 4. uncertain 9. unlucky 5. unaware 10. disagree Match the prefixes. immature underestimate distrust mistake submarine Doubling the final consonant [page 16] Put to double the last letter and X if not. run (vc) shop (vc) wash (cc) X clap (vc) sun (vc) want (cc) X help (cc) X stop (vc) Add “er”, “ed” and “ing”. Bat Batter Batted Batting Pot Potter Potted Potting Skip Skipper Skipped Skipping Trip Tripper Tripped Tripping Slip Slipper Slipped Slipping Fit Fitter Fitted Fitting Wet Wetter Wetted Wetting Exercise [page 17] Underline the prefixes and suffixes. When I look back now I was very scared and unsure of taking that first step. Of course it was the best thing I ever did. I began learning with a one-to-one tutor for two hours a week. Then after a while I moved into a small group and had more hours. I loved coming to the centre for my classes and made some great friends. Over a year I worked on my spelling, reading, writing and maths. One day the tutor introduced us to computers and we went on the internet. I was amazed at all the information you could look up. My kids are unhappy with this as they now can’t get me away from the laptop at home. “able” and “ible” [page 18] Put the following words into sentences. [Please note: There are many sentences you could make with the words. These are just examples.] 1. Her story is very believable. 2. Are those flowers edible? 3. It is impossible for me to run a marathon! 4. It is acceptable to call in. 5. The restaurant is accessible. “ie” or “ei” [page 19] Fill in “ie” or “ei” in these words. 1. I hope to achieve a good result in my exam. 2. Mrs. Smith makes a great shepherd’s pie. 3. When will I receive the deposit back? 4. What a lovely piece of furniture! 5. I bought some foreign exchange in the bank. Put the following words into sentences. [Please note: There are many sentences you could make with the words. These are just examples.] 1. That was a weird experience. 2. You get a receipt when you pay. 3. Our neighbour dropped in her keys. 4. I put on some weight over Christmas. 5. We have a new leisure centre in the town. Answers
  • 53. 52 Homonyms [page 20] Fill in the gaps in these sentences. 1. right 6. to 2. write 7. male 3. wait 8. mail 4. weight 9. scent 5. two 10. sent Plurals [page 21] Add “s” or “es” to make the words plural. 1. monitors 5. babies 2. ways 6. switches 3. boxes 7. brushes 4. crashes 8. parties Crossword [page 23] Nouns [page 28] Underline the nouns. 1. My hair grows very fast. 2. He is a carpenter. 3. Please park your car in the garage. 4. I felt delighted when I passed the test. 5. She ate her breakfast quickly. Pronouns [page 29] Underline the pronouns. 1. They go swimming every Saturday. 2. The puppy ate it. 3. The politician annoyed me. 4. They were very satisfied with the meal. 5. We stayed in it for a week. Fill the gaps with a suitable pronoun. [Please note: These are just examples, other pronouns may fit in.] 1. I enjoyed my holiday but yours sounded better. 2. The girl listens to her mother because she likes her. 3. Is that child yours? 4. Don’t forget to bring them. 5. Vegetables are good for you so you should eat them. Adjectives [page 30] Underline the adjectives. 1. Several old folk caught an awful flu. 2. The baby slept soundly for the first night. 3. You should eat some healthy food each day. 4. The fast river flowed through the green countryside. 5. The young girl stayed out late last night. Use the words in the box to fill in the gaps. 1. careful 2. showery 3. thirsty 4. anxious 5. foolish Fill the gaps with suitable adjectives. [Please note: These are just examples, other adjectives may fit in.] 1. Some people think that Cork is the best city in Ireland. 2. She bought a beautiful present. 3. The rainy weather spoiled a great trip. 4. Mary scored two goals in the final minute. 5. Did that awful book win the big award? Answers 8 S I S T E R 6 H O U 7 S E P A 3 N O G I N 9 W I T E R 8 S N 4 W D W A I S E P P 2 D M U M E R 5 SO L O D D E 1 F E D A
  • 54. 53 Verbs [page 31] Underline the verbs. 1. Sean jumped out of the plane. 2. The twins will start school next year. 3. She plans a holiday every year. 4. The bank sent a statement last week. 5. I broke my leg on Tuesday. Fill the gaps with suitable verbs. [Please note: These are just examples, other verbs may fit in.] 1. His nephew bought a new car. 2. The letter was sent by express post. 3. I heard the robin singing this morning. 4. The garda scanned the area for clues to the crime. 5. Open the car boot and put the shopping in there. Adverbs [page 32] Underline the adverbs in the following sentences. 1. She sang sweetly. 2. They seldom meet anymore. 3. The baby slept very badly. 4. Olive was very hungry after her swim. 5. I carefully opened the package. Fill the gaps with suitable adverbs. [Please note: These are just examples, other adverbs may fit in.] 1. They arrived early to the party. 2. He spoke angrily to the canvasser at the door. 3. They lived peacefully in a big old farmhouse. 4. She danced happily with her partner. 5. The passengers waited patiently in line to get on the train. Conjunctions [page 33] Write a sentence using the following conjunctions. [Please note: There are many sentences you could make with the words. These are just examples.] 1. I had porridge for breakfast although I usually have cornflakes. 2. She got the bus because her car broke down. 3. Please ring us before you make the booking. 4. It is a long time since I saw him. 5. Peter will get the 5 o’clock train unless he is delayed. Use the conjunctions to fill in the gaps. 1. until 2. when 3. but 4. if 5. as Prepositions [page 34] Use the prepositions to fill in the gaps. 1. off 2. across 3. during 4. with 5. through Fill each gap with a suitable preposition. 1. Martina moved the sofa under the window. 2. The girl divided the winnings between the family. 3. The bicycle crashed into the Luas. 4. I received a letter from my uncle. 5. The people walked over the bridge. Put the following prepositions into sentences. [Please note: There are many sentences you could make with the words. These are just examples.] 1. I walked around the park. 2. Mary lives beside the shops. 3. We live in a very old cottage. 4. He works near the train station. 5. Please get off in the city centre. Answers
  • 55. 54 Answers Nouns - proper Notting Hill Wellington, New Zealand book weekend devices brain armchair time screen idea pages art form game claims town stress clubs format people café drink mobile phones chairs silence hour point literature electronic devices interruption return habits years smart phones social media benefits attention spans Reading an article [page 37 and 38] Nouns - common slow comfy good dying new same cozy pinging focused Adjectives unplug open try switch off switch on grab curl lose read is leafing benefits reading popping follow arrive shut off sink isn’t talk get away promotes started eating list improving concentrate reducing deepening think listen empathise did leave Verbs Sentences [page 41] Put a next to the lines that are sentences and X against those that are not. 1. John sent a picture to his friend. 2. I went to the town and I bought X 3. Mary Jones X 4. Can I have the camera? 5. I saw a picture in the paper. 6. It’s raining here because X Complete each sentence. I went to America on my holidays and I really enjoyed it. I have learned to use a computer so I can now book my own tickets. I had a bad headache so I left work early. I went to a film last night but I did not enjoy it. You always put a full stop at the end of a sentence. Finish the following sentences. [Please note: There are many sentences you could make with the words. These are just examples.] 1. My camera is very old. 2. What time can you pick me up tomorrow? 3. Computers are great when you know how to use them! 4. How much is the fare to town? 5. I need to buy a digital camera because I’m going on holiday and would love to take good pictures. why all over not up off without on many AdverbsInterjections [page 35] Use the interjections to fill in the gaps. 1. Yum 2. Hurry 3. Oh my gosh 4. Humph 5. No
  • 56. 55 Using capital letters [page 42] GAA Senior Hurling Final 2014 Kilkenny and Tipperary played an incredible draw in this year’s All-Ireland Senior Hurling Final at Croke Park. The score was Kilkenny 3-22 to Tipperary 1-28. Two weeks later Kilkenny beat Tipperary by 2-17 to 2-14 in a replay on Saturday 27 September at Croke Park. Cycling Capers I never liked to cycle and Kate knew it. She asked me how I was going to get to school without a lift from Mr. Turner next door. “If I were you I would get on the bike”, she sniggered. The last time I had cycled with my best friend, Tom, I had landed at the doorstep of Doctor Smith. Punctuation marks [page 43] Mark in the full stops, question marks, exclamation marks and capital letters. The kitchen door opened. Tom strode into the room. He sat down on the chair and stretched his legs out in front of him. “What’s for tea?” he asked Maggie turned to look at her twenty-year -old son. He was glancing through the paper, ignoring her. She stirred the pot on the hob. “Curry,” she said. He looked up from the paper. “What sort?” “Chicken curry.” “With fruit?” “Yes.” “Good,” said Tom in satisfaction. “I’m starving.” Comma [page 44] Mark the punctuation. John bought the paper and read all the ads for flats. As soon as he saw one that looked nice, he went there immediately, even though the ad said after six o clock. He knew if the flat was a good one he would probably find a queue of people all down the street. Finding a good flat in Dublin at a good price was like finding a needle in a haystack. Inverted commas or quotation marks [page 44] Mark the inverted commas in the following sentences. 1. “Please open the window,” she said. “It’s very hot.” 2. “Jake isn’t available today,” he explained. “Can you come back tomorrow?” 3. “Yes,” said Maud. “I am free.” 4. “Help! ” she cried. “Stop that man!” 5. “Will we go to the film at 6 pm?” he asked. Apostrophe [page 45 and 46] Mark in the apostrophe. 1. Jane’s hair is very dark. 2. He found Tom’s book on the floor. 3. The babies’ clothes were ... 4. I think my friend’s writing is very neat. 5. She read Tony’s work ... 6. Mr. Murphy’s house is ... 7. Patrick washed the boys’ football jerseys yesterday. 8. His mother’s cooking is excellent. 9. The man’s legs were tired after the marathon. 10. The ship’s hooter sounded. Rewrite these sentences using an apostrophe. 1. Jess’s husband died. 2. He listened to the choir’s singing. 3. Tom had seven days’ work. 4. The clock’s hands moved. Rewrite these sentences using the apostrophe. 1. Don’t go. 2. I can’t drive. 3. He didn’t do it. 4. We haven’t got a new car. 5. They’re in bed. Answers
  • 57. 56 Colon [page 47] Insert the colon. 1. This is what she said: “Come on Ireland!” 2. Never forget: think before you speak. 3. This house has everything I need: two bedrooms, a backyard and a garage. 4. Here are three cities that begin with C: Copenhagen, Cairo and Cork. Semi-colon [page 47] Mark the semi-colon. 1. She got the train into the city after work; the shops were open late. 2. He got a bargain; it was in the sale. 3. Her car was old; the wipers don’t work. 4. The rain lasted all day; the clothes didn’t dry. 5. I have finished the main course; now I have to make dessert. 6. We made too many mistakes; we lost the game. 7. You should stop eating so much food; you’ll burst. 8. Mary loves the sofa; it’s very comfortable. Other symbols [page 48] Mark the brackets. 1. She got a nice bonus (€200). 2. James (Ann’s boyfriend) bought the tickets. 3. He was an active member of the GAA (Gaelic Athletic Association). Mark the brackets or dashes. 1. She painted the room yellow – everyone hates it. 2. He packed his lunch – sandwich, apple and drink. 3. The playground was cold and wet – it was deserted. Rewrite the following sentences with correct punctuation. 1. I hope you pass the driving test. 2. Are you both going away for your holidays? 3. She had one wish: to win the lotto. 4. “Please don’t make a mess,” said his mother. Answers
  • 58. 57 If you would like to brush up on your skills in reading, writing, numeracy or everyday communication technology, you can do that through: l NALA’s Distance Learning Service, and l the Adult Literacy Services in your local Education and Training Board. NALA Distance Learning Service You can study online by yourself or work with a tutor over the phone. Or you can do a combination of these to suit your lifestyle. We have designed the service so you can decide what, where and when you want to learn. Call our friendly operators on our freephone support line at 1800 20 20 65 for further information. We are open Monday to Friday, from 9.30 am to 5 pm. We will talk you through all your learning options in complete confidence. We can put you in touch with one of our trained adult literacy tutors who will work with you over the telephone, through the post or on the internet. The distance learning service is free. We can also put you in contact with your local Adult Literacy Service. Adult Literacy Services There are over 100 Adult Literacy Services throughout the country delivered through the Education and Training Boards (ETBs). Adults can attend a local centre to work with trained tutors on a one to one basis or in small groups. You can attend classes for between two and six hours per week. The service is free and confidential. The local Adult Literacy Organiser will meet you and find a suitable tutor for you. There are currently about 55,000 adults learning in literacy centres around the country with 3,700 trained adult literacy tutors. For information on Adult Literacy Services in or near your area contact the NALA freephone support line on 1800 20 20 65 or check out the NALA website at www.nala.ie Awards If you are learning with the NALA Distance Learning Service and or Adult Literacy Services, you can choose to work towards a certificate. Quality and Qualifications Ireland (QQI) is the national awarding body for further education and training in Ireland. They make awards at different levels. How to improve your literacy and numeracy
  • 59. 58 100 most common words 5 Adverbs 32 Adjectives 30 Apostrophe 45 Brackets, dashes and hyphens 48 Colon and semi-colon 47 Comma 44 Conjunctions 33 Exclamation Mark 43 Full stop 43 Interjections 35 Inverted commas or quotation marks 44 Nouns 28 Parts of speech 26 Pronouns 29 Prepositions 34 Question Mark 43 Sentences 40 Spelling rules Doubling the final consonant 16 Homonyms 20 “ie” or “ei” 19 Plurals 21 Prefixes 13 Suffixes 14 Root words ending with an “e” 14 Root words ending with a “y” 15 Root words ending with an “ie” 15 When to use the suffix “able” or “ible” 18 Spelling tips 8 Using capital letters 42 Using a dictionary 6 Verbs 31 Vowels and consonants 4 Ways to practise spellings 10 Your spelling dictionary 24 Index
  • 60. 59 Please give your name address and contact details 1. Name 2. Address 3. Telephone number 4. Email address Tick the box for type of membership NALA Membership Form Where did you hear about NALA? Event o Media o Word of mouth o Print o Online o Other o Individual membership €25 • Attend one of our conferences free – worth €30. • Access our online bookstore. • Receive our monthly e-zine, annual report and ‘Literacy Matters’ magazine. • Strengthen our organisation. • Vote at our AGM. o Free membership • Receive our monthly e-zine by email. • Vote at our AGM. o
  • 61. 60 To apply for membership 1. Fill in the form. 2. Tick the box for type of membership. 3. If you applying for individual membership, tick how you will pay below. 4. Send the form to: Membership National Adult Literacy Agency Sandford Lodge Sandford Close Ranelagh Dublin 6 How to pay as individual member 1. I have included a cheque here with this form, for the amount of €_______ paid to “NALA Ltd”. o 2. I have filled out this form and paid online at www.nala.ie using a credit card. o 3. I want NALA to send me an invoice before I pay. o Thank you very much for your support.
  • 62. National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) Sandford Lodge Sandford Close Ranelagh Dublin 6 Tel: (01) 412 7900 Freephone support line: 1800 20 20 65 Email: info@nala.ie Websites: www.nala.ie Literacy learning websites: www.writeon.ie www.helpmykidlearn.ie Plain English website: www.simplyput.ie Follow us on: