Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West:1789—1900Chapter 24pgs. 601—623
LATIN AMERICAN PEOPLES WININDEPENDENCESection 1pgs. 603-608
Saint Domingue• First Latin Americanterritory to free itself fromEuropean rule• French Colony• StartedRevolution, lead byT...
Boukman• African Priest• Raised call forrevolution in SaintDomingue to freeitself from France–Within a fewdays, 100,000sla...
Toussaint L’Overture• Ex-slave• Untrained in the military and in diplomacy• Got name O’verture (opening in French) because...
Jean-Jacques Dessalines• Toussaint’s general• Took up the fight forfreedom where Toussaintleft off• January 1, 1804, decla...
Haiti• Re-named Haiti afterJean-JacquesDessalines declaredit independent fromSpain• Means mountainousland in the nativeAra...
Peninsulares• Top of Spanish Americansociety• Men who had been born inspain• Only ones who could holdhigh office on coloni...
Creoles• Spaniards born in Latin America• Ranked after the peninsulares• Couldn’t hold high-levelpolitical office• Could r...
Mestizos• Below thepeninsulares andcreoles• Persons of mixedEuropean andIndian ancestry
Mulattos• Below thepeninsulares, creoles, and the mestizos• Persons of mixedEuropean and Africanancestry• Africans• Econom...
Antonio Nariño• Colombian patriot• Publishedtranslation of theFrench Declarationof the Rights ofMen• Sentenced to exilein ...
Joseph Bonaparte• Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother• Made king of Spain byNapoleon– “puppet heir”– Spanish colonists felt no lo...
Simón Bolívar• Wealthy Venezuelan Creole• Called Libertador (liberator)• Brilliant general, whose leadership largely achie...
José de San Martín• Brilliant general, whose leadership largely achieved victory for the rebels• Simple modest man• Displa...
Battle of Ayacucho• Bolivar’s armywent to defeat theSpanish• December 9, 1824• Last major battleof the war forindependence...
Padre Miguel Hidalgo• Priest in small village of Dolores• Took the first step for independence• Poor but well educated man...
Grito de Dolores• Padre Miguel Hidalgobells of church• When peasantsgathered at thechurch, he issued a callfor rebellion a...
José María Morelos• Led the revolution for four years• In 1815, defeated by creole officer Augstin deIturbine• Called a Me...
Agustín de Iturbide• Defeated Jose MariaMorelos in 1815• Creole officer• Made peace with thelast rebel ruler– Proclaimedin...
King John & VI Prince John• As French troops approached Libson, Portugalwhere King John VI and Prince Henry werestaying, t...
Dom Pedro• King Johns son• On September 7, 1822officially declaredBrazil’s independence– Bloodless revolutionDrawing of Do...
REVOLUTIONS DISRUPT EUROPESection 2pgs. 609-612
Conservatives• Usually wealthy property owners and nobility• Argued for the protecting of traditionalmonarchies of Europe•...
Liberals• Mostly middle class business leaders andmerchants• Wanted to give more power to electedParliament– Only to Parli...
Radicals• Favored drastic change to extend democracyas a whole• Believed that government should practiceideals of the Fren...
NationalismBelief that one’s greatest loyaltyshould be-not to the king orempire-but instead to a nation ofpeople who share...
Nation-stateWhen a nation had its ownindependent government,it was called a nation-state
Balkans• Controlled (mostly) by the Ottomans• Region contains all or part of present-day1. Greece2. Yugoslavia3. Bulgaria4...
GREEK INDPENDENCE
Greek Nationalists• First people to win a self-ruling government• Part of the Balkans, controlled by the OttomanEmpire• Ke...
Greece gets help• The cause of Greek independence was popular withpeople around the world– Russians felt connection to Gre...
Lord Byron• British romantic poet• In 1823, he gave a large personal gift of $4,000to the Greek fleet• Went to Greece and ...
Battle of Navarino• A combined force of theBritish, French, andRussian fleet destroyedthe Ottoman fleet• Final battle, of ...
Dutch Revolution• Nationalist riots brokeout against Dutch rulein the Belgian city ofBrussels• November 1830, theBelgians ...
Italy’s Previous Rulers• Nationalist worked together to unite theseparate states on the Italian peninsula– Some were indep...
Minister Metternich• Prime Minister of Austria• Sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy• The uprising in Vienna com...
Polish Uprising• Poles living underRussian rule stages arevolt in Warsaw inlate 1830• Russian armies took awhole year to c...
Budapest• City in Hungary• Nationalist leader Louis Kossuth called forparliament and self-government for Hungary• This upr...
Louis KossuthCalled for parliamentand self-governmentfor Hungary during theBudapest uprisingPhotograph of Louis Kossuth
Prague Uprising• Czechs demanded Bohemian independence• This uprising combined with others, forcedMetternich to resign and...
Uprising in Vienna• An unruly mob in Vienna itself clashed withthe police• This uprising combined with others, forcedMette...
See-saw Government• Many liberal gains like the ones in Budapest,Vienna, and Prague, were lost to conservativeswithin a ye...
King Charles X• King of France in 1830s• Tried to restage an return to absolutemonarchy, after the goal of the Frenchrevol...
Louis Phillipe• Replaced Charles X• Long supported Liberal reforms in France• By 1848, Louis-Phillipe began to fall frompo...
Alphonsoe de Lamartino• One of France’s leading poets• Led France’s temporary republic, afteroverthrowing Louis-Phillipe• ...
Louis Blanc• Createdfaction, opposing thatof Alphonso deLamartine, with inFrance’s new republicDrawing of Louis Blanc
Louis Blanc vs. Alphonso de LamartinoLouis Blanc• Wanted political reform• Wanted social andeconomic reformAlphonso de Lam...
Louis Napoleon• Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte• Won presidential election, becoming leader ofFrance• Took title of Emperor N...
Reform in Russia• Had yet to make a lead into the modernindustrialized world in the 1800s• Serfs being bond to the land pr...
Czar Nicholas I• Eventually Russia lackof developmentbecame obvious toRussia and the rest ofthe world• Threatened to takeo...
Crimean War• Czar Nicolas I threatened to take over part ofthe Ottoman Empire• Russia’s industries and transportation syst...
Alexander II• Nicolas III’s son• Decided to move Russia towardsmodernization and social change– Through his reforms he bel...
Edict of Emancipation• Alexander II’s first and boldest reform wasfreeing the serfs on March 3, 1861– Peasant communities ...
Alexander III• Alexander II’s successor• Tightened czarist control on the country• Encouraged industrial development to ex...
NATIONALISMCASE STUDIES: ITALY AND GERMANYSection 3pgs. 613-618
Nationalism• When citizens were loyal to the people theyshared a common bond with, not their king• These bonds might inclu...
Nationalism Unity or Disunity?Unity• Could create new, unifiednation states• Could unify masses ofpeople• Nationalist spir...
Austro-Hungarian Empire• Brought together theo Hungarianso Italianso Slovakso Germanso Czechso Serbso ‘Poleso Croatso Slav...
North German Federation• Land gainedby Prussiaafterdefeating theAustrians inthe Austro-Prussian War Map of the North Germa...
Francis Joseph• Emperor of Prussia• Pressure by the Hungarians, he split hisempire in two after gaining the North GermanFe...
Russian Empire Crumbles• Nationalism helped break apart the 400 year old empire of the czars in Russia• The Russian czars ...
Russification• Imposing Russian culture on all ethnic groupsof an empire– Strengthened nationalist feelings• Helped disuni...
Romanov Dynasty• Reigning dynasty ofRussia until theWWIRomanov Dynasty family tree
Ottomans Weaken• Ottomans controlled the– Greeks– Slavs– Arabs– Bulgarians– Armenians– Turks• In 1856, under pressure from...
CASE STUDY: ITALY
Formation of ItalyItaly was one of thecountries to formfrom the territory ofcrumbling empireMap of the formation of Italy ...
Austrian Rule in Italy• After the Congress of Viennain 1815, Austria ruled theItalian provinces of Venetiaand Lombardy and...
Spanish Rule in Italy• The Spanish Bourbonfamily ruled the Kingdomof Two Sicilies• Between 1815 and1848, an increasingnumb...
Giuseppe Mazzini• Idealistic Italian• Organized a nationalist group called “YoungItaly”• During the violent years of 1848,...
Young Italy• Nationalist group• Created by GiuseppeMazzini• Only men under 40were allowed toenterPortrait of Young Italy f...
Piedomnt-Sardinia• After 1848, Italians looked to Piedmont-Sardina for leadership• Largest and most powerful of the Italia...
King Victor Emmanuel II• Sardinias king in 1852• Named Count Camillodi Cavour as his primeminister• Controlled all of Ital...
Camillo di Cavour• Named prime minister of Sardinia under KingVictor Emmanuel II• Wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat• Worked ...
Cavour gets help from France• At first, Cavour’s major goal was to get control ofnorthern Italy for Sardinia• Cavour reali...
Napoleon III• French emperor• Agreed to help Cavourhelp drive theAustrians out ofLombardy and Venetia– Gave Sardinia contr...
Cavour helps unite the south• As Cavour was unitingthe northern part ofItaly, he began toconsider controlling thesouth• Ca...
Garibaldi Conquers Sicily• Bold and romanticsoldier, GiuseppeGaribalidi that led a smallarmy of Italian nationalistswho ca...
Red Shirts• Garibaldi’s army• Known as RedShirts becausethey alwayswore red shirtsin battle “Red Shirts” fighting in a bat...
Garibaldi gives power to Emmanuel II• From Sicily, Garibaldi crossed to the Italianmainland and marched north, where volun...
Venetia• In 1866, theAustrianprovince ofVenetia, whichincluded the cityof Venice,became part ofItaly after theSeven WeeksW...
Papal States• In 1870, Italian forces took over the last partof territory known as the Papal States– With this victory, th...
Challenges after unification• Centuries of separation had bred fierce rivalries among thedifferent Italian provinces– The ...
CASE STUDY: GERMANY
German Confederation• Made up of 39, loosely grouped, German states• The two largest states, Austria-Hungary andPrussia do...
Fredrich Wilhelm IV• Like many other European powers, Prussiaexperienced the disorder of revolution• Berlin rioters forced...
Conservative Wilhelm I• Wilhelm I succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm IV• First reformed the army and doubled the alreadypowerful ...
Junkers• Members of Prussia’swealthy landowning class• Supported the views ofWilhelm I• Strongly conservative andopposed l...
Otto van Bismarck• Was master of realpolitik• Unable to command parliament to grantWilhelm’s desires, Bismarck, with the k...
realpolitik• German termmeaning, “thepolitics of reality”• Described toughpower politics withno room foridealism Otto von ...
Ambitious Bismarck• Bismarck was devoted to his king andcountry, but was also ambitious– “man who was striving after supre...
Prussian-Austrian Alliance• Bismarck’s first step towards molding an empirewas forming an alliance between Prussia andAust...
Seven Weeks War• To disable his powerful rival, Bismarck purposelystirred up border conflict with Austria overSchleswig an...
North German Confederation• With its victory in the Seven Weeks War,Prussia took control of northern Germany• For the firs...
Catholic South• By 1867, a few southern German statesremained independent of Prussia– The majority of southern Russia was ...
Franco Prussian War• Prussian army poured into Northern Franceand the Germans took 80,000 prisoners, oneof which was Napol...
Kaiser• German Emperor• From the Roman titleCeasar• King Wilhelm I was firstto be given the titleKaiserWilhelm I, the firs...
Second Reich• Title for theGerman Empire• Holy RomanEmpire was theFirst ReichFlag of the Second Reich
Shift in Balance of Power• Congress of Vienna established the five greatpowers in Europe:Britain, France, Austria, Prussia...
REVOLUTIONS IN THE ARTSSection 4pgs. 619-622
Romanticism
Lord Byron• One of the leadingromantic poets of histime• Fighter for freedom inGreece• Died at the age of 36
Ideals of Romanticism1. Emphasized inner feelings, emotions, and imagination2. Focused on the mysterious and the supernatu...
Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm• Concentrated on the history and the sense ofnational pride that romanticism fostered• Collected G...
Amandine Aurore Duplin• “George Sand”• French novelist• Described theFrenchcountryside andcountry lifePhotograph of “Georg...
Emily Bronte• Set her powerfulromanticnovel, WutheringHeights in thewindsweptmoors of EnglandBook cover to Emily Bronte’sW...
Wuthering Heights• Written by Emily Bronte• Set in the windsweptmoors of northernEnglandBook cover to Emily Bronte’sWuther...
William Blake• British poet• Believed he could, “seea World of in a Grain ofSand/And a Heaven in aWild Flower”
Joseph Turner• English romantic artist• Captured the raging ofthe sea in one of hispaintings
John Constable• English artist• Celebrated thepeaceful Englishcountryside
Johann Wolfgang von Goethe• German author• One of the greatest andearliest writers• Published The Sorrowsof Young Werther
Sorrows of Young Werther• Told of the sensitive youngman whose hopeless love for avirtuous man who drives himto commit sui...
Victor Hugo• Led the French romantics• Huge output of poems, plays, and novelsexpressed romanticism’s revolutionary spirit...
“Les Miserables”• Showed the strugglesof the individualsagainst a hostilesociety
Hunchback of Notre Dame• Showed the strugglesof the individualsagainst a hostilesociety
William Wordsworth• British romantic poet• Honored nature as a truesource of beauty• Believed that nature wasrichly alive
Samuel Taylor Coleridge• British romantic poet• Honored nature as a truesource of beauty• Put an accent of horrorand super...
The Rim ofAncient Mariner• Poem written bySamuel TaylorColeridge• Put accent ofhorror insupernatural innature
Gothic Novel• Often took place inmedieval gothiccastles• Filled withfearful, violent, sometimes supernaturalevents
Mary Shelley• Wife of poet PercyShelley• Wrote one of the firstand most successfulGothic horrornovels, Frankenstein• Died ...
Frankenstein• One of the earliestand most successfulgothic novels• Told the story of amonster created fromthe body parts o...
John KeatsWrote poemscelebrating rebelliousheroes, passionatelove, and the mysteryand beauty of nature
Ludwig van Beethoven• Lead the transitionbetween classicaland romantic music• Became deaf butcontinued tocompose
Romantic composers• Robert Schumann• Felix Mendlessohn• Fredric Chopin• Franz Liszt
RealismTried to show everydaylife as it was, not as itshould be
Honore deBalzack• Wrote a massiveseries of almost onhundred novelsentitled The HumanComedy
The Human Comedy• Written by Honore de Balzack• Series of almost one hundred novels• Detail the lives of over 2,000 people...
Emilie Zola• Realistic French author• Exposed the miseries of the French workers insmall shops, factories, and coal mines ...
Charles Dickens• Most famous realist author“The houses on either side were high and large, but very old; and tenantedby pe...
Daguerreotypes• The first practicalphotographs• Named after their Frenchinventor, Louis Daguerre• “startlingly real” and w...
Louis Daguerre• Created the Daguerreotype• Artist who created scenery for theaters– To improve the realism his scenert, he...
William Talbot• British inventor• Invented light-sensitive paper that he used toproduce photographic negatives– Many print...
ImpressionismInstead of showing life “as itreally is” it showed theimpression of a subject atthat moment of time, catch am...
Impressionist artists• Edouard Manet• Claude Monet• Edgar Degas• Pierre-Auguste Renoir• Showed the more positive views of ...
The Dance Class
Glass of Absinthe
At the Races
The Theater Box
The Swing
On the Terrace
The Bohemian
Nationalist revolutions sweep the west
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Nationalist revolutions sweep the west
Nationalist revolutions sweep the west
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Nationalist revolutions sweep the west

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
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Transcripts - Nationalist revolutions sweep the west

  • 1. Nationalist Revolutions Sweep the West:1789—1900Chapter 24pgs. 601—623
  • 2. LATIN AMERICAN PEOPLES WININDEPENDENCESection 1pgs. 603-608
  • 3. Saint Domingue• First Latin Americanterritory to free itself fromEuropean rule• French Colony• StartedRevolution, lead byToussaint L’Overture to end slavery
  • 4. Boukman• African Priest• Raised call forrevolution in SaintDomingue to freeitself from France–Within a fewdays, 100,000slaves rose in revolt
  • 5. Toussaint L’Overture• Ex-slave• Untrained in the military and in diplomacy• Got name O’verture (opening in French) because hewas so good at finding openings in the enemy lines• 1801-moved into Spanish Santo Domingo, tookcontrol, & freed the slaves• Agreed to halt the revolution if the french would endslavery– Despite agreement, the French accused him of planninganother revolution and sent him to prison in the FrenchAlps, where he died in April 1803
  • 6. Jean-Jacques Dessalines• Toussaint’s general• Took up the fight forfreedom where Toussaintleft off• January 1, 1804, declaredSaint Domingo anindependent country– First black colony to free itsfrom European control– Renamed country “Haiti”,• “mountainous land” in thelanguage of the native Arawakinhabitants of the island
  • 7. Haiti• Re-named Haiti afterJean-JacquesDessalines declaredit independent fromSpain• Means mountainousland in the nativeArawak inhabitantsof the island• First black colony tofree itself fromEuropean control
  • 8. Peninsulares• Top of Spanish Americansociety• Men who had been born inspain• Only ones who could holdhigh office on colonialgovernment– Spain could keep loyalty of itscolonial leaders• Together with the Creoles theycontrolled the wealth andpower in the Spanish colonies
  • 9. Creoles• Spaniards born in Latin America• Ranked after the peninsulares• Couldn’t hold high-levelpolitical office• Could rise as officers in theSpanish colonial army• Together with the peninsularesthey controlled the wealth andpower in the Spanish colonies
  • 10. Mestizos• Below thepeninsulares andcreoles• Persons of mixedEuropean andIndian ancestry
  • 11. Mulattos• Below thepeninsulares, creoles, and the mestizos• Persons of mixedEuropean and Africanancestry• Africans• Economic value to theSpaniards
  • 12. Antonio Nariño• Colombian patriot• Publishedtranslation of theFrench Declarationof the Rights ofMen• Sentenced to exilein AfricaDrawing of Antonio Nariño
  • 13. Joseph Bonaparte• Napoleon Bonaparte’s brother• Made king of Spain byNapoleon– “puppet heir”– Spanish colonists felt no loyaltyto him & rebelled• Even after the return ofFerdinand, the rebellioncontinued• creoles had begun their drivefor independence andwouldn’t stop until victoryDrawing of Joeseph Bonaparte
  • 14. Simón Bolívar• Wealthy Venezuelan Creole• Called Libertador (liberator)• Brilliant general, whose leadership largely achieved victory for therebels• Romantic and practical, a writer, and a fighter• First helped free Venezuela• Had to go into exile twice• Led over 2,000 men through the Andes into what is now Columbia,taking the Spanish army be surprise, and winning a decisive battle• Liberated Bolivia , Venezuela , Colombia , Ecuador , Panama, andPeru• Took control of San Martin’s army• Defeated the Spanish at the Battle of Ayachucho
  • 15. José de San Martín• Brilliant general, whose leadership largely achieved victory for the rebels• Simple modest man• Displayed great courage in battle• Born in Argentina, but spent most of his youth in Spain, as a militaryofficer• Believed in strict discipline for his troops– Showed concern for well being of troops• Met up with Bolivar and helped free Ecuador• Led his army on a grueling march across the Andes to Chile where he, withthe help of O’Higgins, freed Chile• 1821, took his army north by sea to Lima, Peru, planning to force theSpanish out– Needed larger army• What caused Bolivar and San Martin to merge their armies and work together• Left his army for Bolivar to command• After giving army to Bolivar he sailed to Europe where he died, almostforgotten, on French soil in 1822
  • 16. Battle of Ayacucho• Bolivar’s armywent to defeat theSpanish• December 9, 1824• Last major battleof the war forindependencebefore the Spanishcolonies won theirfreedomPortrait of Battle of Ayaucho
  • 17. Padre Miguel Hidalgo• Priest in small village of Dolores• Took the first step for independence• Poor but well educated man• Firmly believed in enlightenment ideals• September 16, 1810 “Grito de Dolores”– Rang bells of church– When peasants gathered at the church, he issued acall for rebellion against the Spanish• next day, army of 60,000 Indians and mestizo began a marchtowards Mexico City
  • 18. Grito de Dolores• Padre Miguel Hidalgobells of church• When peasantsgathered at thechurch, he issued a callfor rebellion against theSpanish– next day, army of 60,000Indians and mestizobegan a march towardsMexico CityPainting of Grito de Dolores
  • 19. José María Morelos• Led the revolution for four years• In 1815, defeated by creole officer Augstin deIturbine• Called a Mexican congress to set up ademocratic government• Stayed behind when the Spanish caught up withthe congress, while rebels fled– Captured and shot– Napoleon said, “Give me three generals like him, andI can conquer the world
  • 20. Agustín de Iturbide• Defeated Jose MariaMorelos in 1815• Creole officer• Made peace with thelast rebel ruler– Proclaimedindependence in 1821Drawing of Agustín de Iturbide
  • 21. King John & VI Prince John• As French troops approached Libson, Portugalwhere King John VI and Prince Henry werestaying, they boarded ships in order to escape andsailed to Brazil– Also took the royal treasury and court• When royal family returned to Brazil after 14years the Brazilians were upset– Brazilians had developed their own uniqueness– Many couldn’t imagine their colony becoming a colony
  • 22. Dom Pedro• King Johns son• On September 7, 1822officially declaredBrazil’s independence– Bloodless revolutionDrawing of Dom Pedro
  • 23. REVOLUTIONS DISRUPT EUROPESection 2pgs. 609-612
  • 24. Conservatives• Usually wealthy property owners and nobility• Argued for the protecting of traditionalmonarchies of Europe• In certain cases, as in France, approved ofconstitutional monarchies
  • 25. Liberals• Mostly middle class business leaders andmerchants• Wanted to give more power to electedParliament– Only to Parliament in which the educated andlandowners could vote
  • 26. Radicals• Favored drastic change to extend democracyas a whole• Believed that government should practiceideals of the French Revolution– Still radical idea, even 30 years after theRevolution
  • 27. NationalismBelief that one’s greatest loyaltyshould be-not to the king orempire-but instead to a nation ofpeople who share a commonculture and history
  • 28. Nation-stateWhen a nation had its ownindependent government,it was called a nation-state
  • 29. Balkans• Controlled (mostly) by the Ottomans• Region contains all or part of present-day1. Greece2. Yugoslavia3. Bulgaria4. Albania5. Romania6. Turkey• (GaY BART)
  • 30. GREEK INDPENDENCE
  • 31. Greek Nationalists• First people to win a self-ruling government• Part of the Balkans, controlled by the OttomanEmpire• Kept alive the memory of their ancient historyand culture• Spurred on the nationalist spirit, Greeksdemanded that their country takes place amongthe nation-states of Europe– Because of this movement a major Greek revolt brokeout against the Ottoman Turks in 1821• Ottomans, the most powerful government of the timeopposed the revolution
  • 32. Greece gets help• The cause of Greek independence was popular withpeople around the world– Russians felt connection to Greek OrthodoxChristians, who were ruled by the Muslim Ottomans– Educated Europeans and Americans loved and respectedthe Greek culture– Lord Byron personally gave the Greek army $4,000 andvolunteered as a soldier– Eventually, with growing sympathy for Greece, thepowerful nations of Europe took the side of the Greeks• In 1827, a combined British, French, and Russian fleet destroyedthe Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Navarino• By 1830, Britain, France, and Russia signed a treaty recognizing thefull independence of Greece
  • 33. Lord Byron• British romantic poet• In 1823, he gave a large personal gift of $4,000to the Greek fleet• Went to Greece and volunteered as a soldier• In February of 1824, a cold Greek raindrenched him and gave him a fever– Died from illness in April 1824• Never got to see the victory of the cause he wasfighting for
  • 34. Battle of Navarino• A combined force of theBritish, French, andRussian fleet destroyedthe Ottoman fleet• Final battle, of the Greekrevolution, winning theGreeks theirindependence Portrait of a scene from the Battle of Navarino
  • 35. Dutch Revolution• Nationalist riots brokeout against Dutch rulein the Belgian city ofBrussels• November 1830, theBelgians finallydeclared theirindependence fromDutch controlPortrait of a scene from the Dutch revolution
  • 36. Italy’s Previous Rulers• Nationalist worked together to unite theseparate states on the Italian peninsula– Some were independent– Others ruled by Austria– Others ruled by the pope
  • 37. Minister Metternich• Prime Minister of Austria• Sent Austrian troops to restore order in Italy• The uprising in Vienna combined withothers, forced Metternich to resign and set offliberal uprisings throughout the German state
  • 38. Polish Uprising• Poles living underRussian rule stages arevolt in Warsaw inlate 1830• Russian armies took awhole year to crushthe uprisingSymbol of Polish uprising
  • 39. Budapest• City in Hungary• Nationalist leader Louis Kossuth called forparliament and self-government for Hungary• This uprising combined with others, forcedMetternich to resign and set off liberaluprisings throughout the German state
  • 40. Louis KossuthCalled for parliamentand self-governmentfor Hungary during theBudapest uprisingPhotograph of Louis Kossuth
  • 41. Prague Uprising• Czechs demanded Bohemian independence• This uprising combined with others, forcedMetternich to resign and set off liberaluprisings throughout the German state
  • 42. Uprising in Vienna• An unruly mob in Vienna itself clashed withthe police• This uprising combined with others, forcedMetternich to resign and set off liberaluprisings throughout the German state
  • 43. See-saw Government• Many liberal gains like the ones in Budapest,Vienna, and Prague, were lost to conservativeswithin a year• In one country after another, the revolutionsfailed to unite themselves or their nations• Conservatives regained their nerve and theirpower• By 1849, Europe had practically returned to theconversatism that controlled the governmentbefore 1848
  • 44. King Charles X• King of France in 1830s• Tried to restage an return to absolutemonarchy, after the goal of the Frenchrevolution was to get a democraticgovernment– Attempt sparked revolts that forced Charles toflee to great Britain
  • 45. Louis Phillipe• Replaced Charles X• Long supported Liberal reforms in France• By 1848, Louis-Phillipe began to fall frompopular favor• The Paris mob overturned a monarchy andestablished a republic– Alphonsoe de Lamartino was the new leader
  • 46. Alphonsoe de Lamartino• One of France’s leading poets• Led France’s temporary republic, afteroverthrowing Louis-Phillipe• Began to develop own faction in therepublic, causing the government to fall apart
  • 47. Louis Blanc• Createdfaction, opposing thatof Alphonso deLamartine, with inFrance’s new republicDrawing of Louis Blanc
  • 48. Louis Blanc vs. Alphonso de LamartinoLouis Blanc• Wanted political reform• Wanted social andeconomic reformAlphonso de Lamartino• Wanted only politicalreform•Differences set off bloody battles in the streets of Paris•The violence turned French citizens away from theRadicalso As a result, a moderate constitution was drawn uplater, calling for a parliament and strong president tobe elected by the leader
  • 49. Louis Napoleon• Nephew of Napoleon Bonaparte• Won presidential election, becoming leader ofFrance• Took title of Emperor Napoleon III– Surprisingly accepted by large majority of France’spopulation• Built railroads, encouraged industrialization andpromoted an ambitious program of public works– Unemployment decreased in France and the countryexperienced real prosperity
  • 50. Reform in Russia• Had yet to make a lead into the modernindustrialized world in the 1800s• Serfs being bond to the land prevented theempire from advancing economically– Many czars were reluctant to free the serfsbecause it would anger the landowners, whosesupport the czars needed
  • 51. Czar Nicholas I• Eventually Russia lackof developmentbecame obvious toRussia and the rest ofthe world• Threatened to takeover part of theottoman empire inthe Crimean WarPortrait of Czar Nicholas I
  • 52. Crimean War• Czar Nicolas I threatened to take over part ofthe Ottoman Empire• Russia’s industries and transportation systemsfailed to provide adequate supplies for thecountries troops– As a result, in 1856, Russia lost the war against acombined force of France, GreatBritain, Sardinia, and the Ottoman Empire• Humiliating defeat for the czars
  • 53. Alexander II• Nicolas III’s son• Decided to move Russia towardsmodernization and social change– Through his reforms he believed that Russia wouldcompete with Western Europe for world power• His first and boldest reform was freeing theserfs in 1861• Assassinated in 1881 by terrorists
  • 54. Edict of Emancipation• Alexander II’s first and boldest reform wasfreeing the serfs on March 3, 1861– Peasant communities received half of the noblesland, paid for by the government, and had 49years to pay the government back• When serfs were still legally “free” they were still tiedto the land
  • 55. Alexander III• Alexander II’s successor• Tightened czarist control on the country• Encouraged industrial development to expandRussia’s power• Nationalism was a main force behind Russia’sdrive towards industrial expansion
  • 56. NATIONALISMCASE STUDIES: ITALY AND GERMANYSection 3pgs. 613-618
  • 57. Nationalism• When citizens were loyal to the people theyshared a common bond with, not their king• These bonds might include– Common history– Language– Culture– World-view• Nationalism helped to form nation states
  • 58. Nationalism Unity or Disunity?Unity• Could create new, unifiednation states• Could unify masses ofpeople• Nationalist spirit inspiredthe French citizens armiesto conquer the armies ofthe European powers• Gave rise to the nation-state that is basic to ourworld todayDisunity• Capable of tearing apartlong established empires• Conservatives reasonedthat if a each ethnic groupwanted its ownstate, empires would splitand crumble
  • 59. Austro-Hungarian Empire• Brought together theo Hungarianso Italianso Slovakso Germanso Czechso Serbso ‘Poleso Croatso SlavsH I S Good Choice Stopped People from Committing Suicide
  • 60. North German Federation• Land gainedby Prussiaafterdefeating theAustrians inthe Austro-Prussian War Map of the North German Confederation
  • 61. Francis Joseph• Emperor of Prussia• Pressure by the Hungarians, he split hisempire in two after gaining the North GermanFederation in the Austro-Prussian War– Austria and Hungary became two separate states,both ruled by Francis Joseph
  • 62. Russian Empire Crumbles• Nationalism helped break apart the 400 year old empire of the czars in Russia• The Russian czars ruled over, each having their own culture– Jews– Russian– Ukrainians– Armenians– Estonians– Georgians– Turks– Finns– RomaniansJustin Reminded Us About Every Good Thing Finn Ruined
  • 63. Russification• Imposing Russian culture on all ethnic groupsof an empire– Strengthened nationalist feelings• Helped disunity Russia• The disunited and weakened empire couldn’twith hand the double shock of WWI and thecommunist revolution and the last of theRomanov czar fell in 1917
  • 64. Romanov Dynasty• Reigning dynasty ofRussia until theWWIRomanov Dynasty family tree
  • 65. Ottomans Weaken• Ottomans controlled the– Greeks– Slavs– Arabs– Bulgarians– Armenians– Turks• In 1856, under pressure from the British and French, theOttomans issued reforms to grant equal citizenship to allthe people under their rule– Angered conservative Turks who wanted no change in thesituation and created tensions in the empire• In response to the nationalism in Amenians, the Ottomans carried outmassacres and deportations of the Armenians• Like Austria-Hungary, the Ottoman Empire soon broke apartafter WWI
  • 66. CASE STUDY: ITALY
  • 67. Formation of ItalyItaly was one of thecountries to formfrom the territory ofcrumbling empireMap of the formation of Italy from separate states
  • 68. Austrian Rule in Italy• After the Congress of Viennain 1815, Austria ruled theItalian provinces of Venetiaand Lombardy and severalsmall states in the north• Between 1815 and 1848, anincreasing number of Italianswere no longer content to liveunder foreign rulersVenetia (top) andLombardia (bottom)
  • 69. Spanish Rule in Italy• The Spanish Bourbonfamily ruled the Kingdomof Two Sicilies• Between 1815 and1848, an increasingnumber of Italians wereno longer content to liveunder foreign rulersKingdom of Two Sicilies in green
  • 70. Giuseppe Mazzini• Idealistic Italian• Organized a nationalist group called “YoungItaly”• During the violent years of 1848, revolt broke outin eight states on the Italian peninsula andMazzini briefly headed a republic government atRome• Believed that nation-state were the best hope forsocial justice, democracy, and peace in Europe• Rebellions in Italy failed in 1848 and Mazzini andother nationalist rulers were driven into exile
  • 71. Young Italy• Nationalist group• Created by GiuseppeMazzini• Only men under 40were allowed toenterPortrait of Young Italy fighting in battle
  • 72. Piedomnt-Sardinia• After 1848, Italians looked to Piedmont-Sardina for leadership• Largest and most powerful of the Italian states• Adopted a liberal constitution, so to the Italianmiddle class, unification under the PiedmontSardina seemed a sensible alternative toMazzini’s democratic idealism
  • 73. King Victor Emmanuel II• Sardinias king in 1852• Named Count Camillodi Cavour as his primeminister• Controlled all of Italyafter Garibaldi giveshim that land heconquered in thesouth Drawing of Victor Emmanuel II
  • 74. Camillo di Cavour• Named prime minister of Sardinia under KingVictor Emmanuel II• Wealthy, middle-aged aristocrat• Worked tirelessly to expand Piedmont-Sardina’spower– With careful diplomacy and well chosen alliances, heachieved that goal• Also, almost as a coincidence, he achieved unification of Italy• Distrusted by Mazzini, who believed correctlythat Cavour wanted to strengthen Sardiniaspower, not unite Italy
  • 75. Cavour gets help from France• At first, Cavour’s major goal was to get control ofnorthern Italy for Sardinia• Cavour realized that greatest roadblock to conqueringSardinia was Austria• To help him expel the Austrians from the north Cavourfound an ally in France– Napoleon III agreed to help drive Austria out of thenorthern provinces of Lombardy and Venetia• Cavour soon provoked war with Austria– A combined French-Sardinian won two quick victoriesagainst Austria• Sardinia then succeeded in controlling all of northern Italy, exceptfor Venetia, from the Austrians
  • 76. Napoleon III• French emperor• Agreed to help Cavourhelp drive theAustrians out ofLombardy and Venetia– Gave Sardinia control ofall of Italy exceptVenetiaPortrait of Napoleon III
  • 77. Cavour helps unite the south• As Cavour was unitingthe northern part ofItaly, he began toconsider controlling thesouth• Cavour secretly startedhelping nationalist rebelsin southern ItalyPhotograph of Camillo di Cavour
  • 78. Garibaldi Conquers Sicily• Bold and romanticsoldier, GiuseppeGaribalidi that led a smallarmy of Italian nationalistswho captured Sicily for Italy• Garibaldi, or “the red one”always wore red shirts– Became known as “RedShirts”Portrait of Giuseppe Garibaldi
  • 79. Red Shirts• Garibaldi’s army• Known as RedShirts becausethey alwayswore red shirtsin battle “Red Shirts” fighting in a battle
  • 80. Garibaldi gives power to Emmanuel II• From Sicily, Garibaldi crossed to the Italianmainland and marched north, where volunteersflocked to his banner• In an election voters gave Garibaldi permission tounite the southern areas he conquered with thekingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia• Cavour arranged for King Victor Emmanuel II tomeet Garibaldi in Naples– Garibaldi agreed to step aside and let King VictorEmmanuel rule
  • 81. Venetia• In 1866, theAustrianprovince ofVenetia, whichincluded the cityof Venice,became part ofItaly after theSeven WeeksWarThe city of Venice, part of Venetia
  • 82. Papal States• In 1870, Italian forces took over the last partof territory known as the Papal States– With this victory, the city of Rome came underItalian control, and soon after Rome became thecapital of the united Kingdom of Italy• The Papal States had been governed by theRoman Catholic Popes as both its spiritual andearthly rulers– The pope would remain to rule over a section ofRome known as the Vatican City
  • 83. Challenges after unification• Centuries of separation had bred fierce rivalries among thedifferent Italian provinces– The greatest tension arose between the industrialized north and theagricultural south• Had two different ways of life• Couldn’t understand the others way of speaking Italian– In Italian parliament, disorganized parties, with vague policies oftensquabbled• As a result, prime ministers and cabinets were changed frequently• Also faced severe economic problems– Bloody revolts broke out in the south– At the same time, strikes and riots troubled the northern cities– Meanwhile, the Italian government couldn’t deal with the countrieseconomics• As a result, Italy entered the 20th century as a poor country
  • 84. CASE STUDY: GERMANY
  • 85. German Confederation• Made up of 39, loosely grouped, German states• The two largest states, Austria-Hungary andPrussia dominated the confederation• Prussia enjoyed several advantages that wouldeventually help it forge a strong German state– Unlike Austria-Hungary, Prussia had a mainly Germanpopulation• As a result nationalism unified Prussia, while ethnic groups inAustria-Hungary tore it apart– Prussia’s army was by far, the most powerful in centralEurope– Prussia industrialized more quickly than other Germanstates
  • 86. Fredrich Wilhelm IV• Like many other European powers, Prussiaexperienced the disorder of revolution• Berlin rioters forced the frightened andunstable Prussian King, Friedrich Wilhelm IVto call a constitutional convention– The convention then drew up a liberal constitutionfor the kingdom
  • 87. Conservative Wilhelm I• Wilhelm I succeeded Friedrich Wilhelm IV• First reformed the army and doubled the alreadypowerful Prussian military– Liberal parliament refused him the money for his reforms– Wilhelm saw the Parliaments refusal as a challenge to hisauthority• Supported in his views by the Junkers• Wilhelm drew all his ministers and army officers fromthe Junker class• Named conservative Otto von Bismarck prime minister
  • 88. Junkers• Members of Prussia’swealthy landowning class• Supported the views ofWilhelm I• Strongly conservative andopposed liberal ideas– For that reason, Wilhelmdrew all his minister andarmy officials from theJunker classPhotograph of a typical Junker
  • 89. Otto van Bismarck• Was master of realpolitik• Unable to command parliament to grantWilhelm’s desires, Bismarck, with the kingsapproval, declared that he would rule withoutthe consent of parliament and without a legalbudget– Actions were in direct violation of the constitution
  • 90. realpolitik• German termmeaning, “thepolitics of reality”• Described toughpower politics withno room foridealism Otto von Bismarck, one of themost famous users of realpolitik
  • 91. Ambitious Bismarck• Bismarck was devoted to his king andcountry, but was also ambitious– “man who was striving after supremepower, including military power”• By working to expand Prussia, Bismarck couldsatisfy his patroitism and his desire for power
  • 92. Prussian-Austrian Alliance• Bismarck’s first step towards molding an empirewas forming an alliance between Prussia andAustria• Bismarck then went to war with Austria, againstDemark, in order to win two border provinces:Schleswig and Holstein– Victory increased national pride among the Prussians– Also won Prussia respect from other Germans and lentsupport for Prussia as the head of a unified Germany– After victory, Prussia governed Schleswig and Austriacontrolled Holstein• Bismarck suspected that this arrangement would lead tofriction between the two powers
  • 93. Seven Weeks War• To disable his powerful rival, Bismarck purposelystirred up border conflict with Austria overSchleswig and Holstein– Tensions provoked Austria into declaring war onPrussia in 1866• This conflict became known as the Seven Weeks War• Prussians used their superior training andequipment to win a smashing victory– Prussia humiliated Austria– Austrians lost Venetia, which was given to Italy
  • 94. North German Confederation• With its victory in the Seven Weeks War,Prussia took control of northern Germany• For the first time, the eastern and westernparts of the Prussian kingdom were joined• In 1867, the remaining states of the northjoined a North German Confederation, whichPrussia dominated completely
  • 95. Catholic South• By 1867, a few southern German statesremained independent of Prussia– The majority of southern Russia was Catholics• Many of in the regoin resisted Protestant Prussia• Bismarck believed he could win the support ofthe outsiders if they faced a outside threat– Reasoned that war with France would rally thesouth• Bismarck insulted the French and they declared war onPrussia on July 19, 1870
  • 96. Franco Prussian War• Prussian army poured into Northern Franceand the Germans took 80,000 prisoners, oneof which was Napoleon III– French could only with stand 4 months of Germansiege, until hunger forced them to surrender• Franco-Prussian War was final step in Germanunification, as the catholic southerners gotcaught up in German nationalism andaccepted Prussian leadership
  • 97. Kaiser• German Emperor• From the Roman titleCeasar• King Wilhelm I was firstto be given the titleKaiserWilhelm I, the first kaiser
  • 98. Second Reich• Title for theGerman Empire• Holy RomanEmpire was theFirst ReichFlag of the Second Reich
  • 99. Shift in Balance of Power• Congress of Vienna established the five greatpowers in Europe:Britain, France, Austria, Prussia, and Russia; allnearly equal in strength• By 1817, Germany and Britain were clearlystronger, militarily and economically• Austria, Russia, and Italy lagged far behind• France struggled in the middle
  • 100. REVOLUTIONS IN THE ARTSSection 4pgs. 619-622
  • 101. Romanticism
  • 102. Lord Byron• One of the leadingromantic poets of histime• Fighter for freedom inGreece• Died at the age of 36
  • 103. Ideals of Romanticism1. Emphasized inner feelings, emotions, and imagination2. Focused on the mysterious and the supernatural; alsoon the odd, exotic, and grotesque or horrifying3. Loved the beauties of untamed nature4. Idealized the past as simpler and nobler time5. Glorified heroes and heroic actions6. Cherished folk traditions, music, and stories7. Valued the common people and the individual8. Promoted radical change and democracy
  • 104. Jakob and Wilhelm Grimm• Concentrated on the history and the sense ofnational pride that romanticism fostered• Collected German fairy tales• Created a dictionary and grammar of theGerman language– Both the tales and the dictionary of the Grimmbrothers celebrated the spirit of being German• Celebrated long before Germany united as one country
  • 105. Amandine Aurore Duplin• “George Sand”• French novelist• Described theFrenchcountryside andcountry lifePhotograph of “George Sand”
  • 106. Emily Bronte• Set her powerfulromanticnovel, WutheringHeights in thewindsweptmoors of EnglandBook cover to Emily Bronte’sWuthering Heights
  • 107. Wuthering Heights• Written by Emily Bronte• Set in the windsweptmoors of northernEnglandBook cover to Emily Bronte’sWuthering HeightsMoors of England whereWuthering Heights takes place
  • 108. William Blake• British poet• Believed he could, “seea World of in a Grain ofSand/And a Heaven in aWild Flower”
  • 109. Joseph Turner• English romantic artist• Captured the raging ofthe sea in one of hispaintings
  • 110. John Constable• English artist• Celebrated thepeaceful Englishcountryside
  • 111. Johann Wolfgang von Goethe• German author• One of the greatest andearliest writers• Published The Sorrowsof Young Werther
  • 112. Sorrows of Young Werther• Told of the sensitive youngman whose hopeless love for avirtuous man who drives himto commit suicide
  • 113. Victor Hugo• Led the French romantics• Huge output of poems, plays, and novelsexpressed romanticism’s revolutionary spirit• Works reflected the romantic fascination withhistory and support for the individual• Novels The Hunchback of Notre Dame and LesMiserables showed the struggles of theindividuals against a hostile society
  • 114. “Les Miserables”• Showed the strugglesof the individualsagainst a hostilesociety
  • 115. Hunchback of Notre Dame• Showed the strugglesof the individualsagainst a hostilesociety
  • 116. William Wordsworth• British romantic poet• Honored nature as a truesource of beauty• Believed that nature wasrichly alive
  • 117. Samuel Taylor Coleridge• British romantic poet• Honored nature as a truesource of beauty• Put an accent of horrorand supernatural innature• Wrote poem “The Rimeof the Ancient Mariner”
  • 118. The Rim ofAncient Mariner• Poem written bySamuel TaylorColeridge• Put accent ofhorror insupernatural innature
  • 119. Gothic Novel• Often took place inmedieval gothiccastles• Filled withfearful, violent, sometimes supernaturalevents
  • 120. Mary Shelley• Wife of poet PercyShelley• Wrote one of the firstand most successfulGothic horrornovels, Frankenstein• Died at the age of 29
  • 121. Frankenstein• One of the earliestand most successfulgothic novels• Told the story of amonster created fromthe body parts ofdead human beings
  • 122. John KeatsWrote poemscelebrating rebelliousheroes, passionatelove, and the mysteryand beauty of nature
  • 123. Ludwig van Beethoven• Lead the transitionbetween classicaland romantic music• Became deaf butcontinued tocompose
  • 124. Romantic composers• Robert Schumann• Felix Mendlessohn• Fredric Chopin• Franz Liszt
  • 125. RealismTried to show everydaylife as it was, not as itshould be
  • 126. Honore deBalzack• Wrote a massiveseries of almost onhundred novelsentitled The HumanComedy
  • 127. The Human Comedy• Written by Honore de Balzack• Series of almost one hundred novels• Detail the lives of over 2,000 people from alllevels of French society following therevolution• Describe the brutal struggle for wealth andpower among France’s buisness calss
  • 128. Emilie Zola• Realistic French author• Exposed the miseries of the French workers insmall shops, factories, and coal mines in hisworks– Shocked readers– Spurred reforms of labor laws and workingconditions in France
  • 129. Charles Dickens• Most famous realist author“The houses on either side were high and large, but very old; and tenantedby people of the poorest class. [...] A great many of the tenements […]which had become insecure from age and decay, were prevented fromfalling into the street by huge beams of wood which were reared againstthe tottering walls, and firmly planted in the road; but even these crazydens seemed to have been selected as the nightly haunts of somehouseless wretches, for many of the rough boards which supplied the placeof door and window, were wrenched from their positions to afford anaperture wide enough for the passage of a human body. The kennel wasstagnant and filthy; the very rats that here and there lay putrefying in itsrottenness, were hideous with famine.”
  • 130. Daguerreotypes• The first practicalphotographs• Named after their Frenchinventor, Louis Daguerre• “startlingly real” and wonDaguerre worldwide fame• Made on metal
  • 131. Louis Daguerre• Created the Daguerreotype• Artist who created scenery for theaters– To improve the realism his scenert, he developedthe daguerreotype• Gained worldwide fame after invention ofdaguerreotype
  • 132. William Talbot• British inventor• Invented light-sensitive paper that he used toproduce photographic negatives– Many prints could be made out of one negative– Allowed photographs to be reproduced in booksand newspapers• Gained wide audience for the realism of photography
  • 133. ImpressionismInstead of showing life “as itreally is” it showed theimpression of a subject atthat moment of time, catch amoment at a glance
  • 134. Impressionist artists• Edouard Manet• Claude Monet• Edgar Degas• Pierre-Auguste Renoir• Showed the more positive views of new urbansociety– Instead of abused workers, they showed shopkeepers– Glorified life in the middle class
  • 135. The Dance Class
  • 136. Glass of Absinthe
  • 137. At the Races
  • 138. The Theater Box
  • 139. The Swing
  • 140. On the Terrace
  • 141. The Bohemian

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