Cantilever array sensors
M.V.Mounika,
14204116
Cantilevers
• Cantilevers are typically rectangular-shaped bars of Si less than 1 µm
thick. Adsorption/recognition of mole...
• Microfabricated cantilevers are mainly used as force sensors to image the
topography of a surface by means of techniques...
• The bending of the cantilever is usually measured via optical detection of
the position of a laser beam deflected at the...
Principles of operation
• For sensing purposes neither a sharp tip nor a sample surface is required.
We simply use an arra...
• In a gaseous environment, this configuration may be used as an artificial
nose tocharacterize volatile vapors and odors....
Modes of Operation
• Cantilever sensors can beoperated
in three modes
 Static mode
 Dynamic mode
 Heat mode
Static Mode
• In static mode the mechanical response of a sensitive layer applied onto
one cantilever surface (e.g. the up...
Dynamic Mode
• The cantilever is oscillated externally at its resonance frequency using a
piezoelectric actuator.
• The ca...
Heat Mode
• In heat (bimetallic) mode the difference in the linear expansion coefficients
of the cantilever material.
• E....
Measurement setup
• Si cantilever sensor arrays are microfabricated using a dryetching
silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fabricat...
• The upper surface of these
cantilevers is generally coated
with 2 nm of Ti and 20 nm of Au
to provide a reflective surfa...
Applications
 Chemical Detection
 Biochemical Environment
 Microcantilever Sensors to Measure Physical Properties
Conclusion
• Cantilever-sensor array techniques have turned out tobe a very powerful
and highly sensitive tool to studyphy...
cantilever array sensors
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cantilever array sensors

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - cantilever array sensors

  • 1. Cantilever array sensors M.V.Mounika, 14204116
  • 2. Cantilevers • Cantilevers are typically rectangular-shaped bars of Si less than 1 µm thick. Adsorption/recognition of molecules on the surface of such micromechanical cantilevers functionalized with receptor molecules results in bending of the cantilever because of the surface stress. • The bending is detected by deflection of a laser beam. Cantilever sensors can be operated in various environments, such as vacuum, air, or liquids. • The major advantages of such miniaturized sensors are their small size, fast response times, high sensitivity, and direct transduction without the need for any labels.
  • 3. • Microfabricated cantilevers are mainly used as force sensors to image the topography of a surface by means of techniques such as scanning force microscopy (SFM) or atomic force microscopy (AFM). • A cantilever with a sharp tip is scanned across a conductive or nonconductive surface using an x-y-z actuator system (e.g. a piezoelectric scanner). • The sample’s surface is imaged in a rectangular or square pattern of parallel scan lines. The tip can be either in direct contact with the surface (contact mode) or oscillated to interact with the surface only for a short time during the oscillation cycle (dynamic, noncontactmode).
  • 4. • The bending of the cantilever is usually measured via optical detection of the position of a laser beam deflected at the apex of a cantilever, or via piezoresistive strain gauges. • The interaction of the cantilever tip with the surface is common to all SFM methods. This interaction may be used tocontrol the feedback loop that maintains a constant force orforce gradient between cantilever tip and sample surface. • By recording the correction signal applied to the z-actuation drive to keep the interaction between tip and sample surface constant, a topography image of the sample surface is obtained. AFM has developed into the most powerful and versatile surface-characterization tool of today to investigate surfaces at the molecular and atomic level.
  • 5. Principles of operation • For sensing purposes neither a sharp tip nor a sample surface is required. We simply use an array of eight cantilever beams,each coated with a sensitive layer for molecular recognition. • Such devices represent ultrasensitive nanomechanical sensors for the detection of chemical and biochemical reactions in both gas-phase and liquid environments. • The sensitive layer can be either highly specific for molecular recognition or only partially specific to produce response patterns for various analytes, provided that each of the cantilevers is coated with a different partially specific sensor layer
  • 6. • In a gaseous environment, this configuration may be used as an artificial nose tocharacterize volatile vapors and odors. • In liquid, the cantilever sensors allow rapid, quantitative,and qualitative detection of nonlabeled biomolecules, e.g. for sequence-specific DNA hybridization with single-base mismatch sensitivity or for molecular recognition.
  • 7. Modes of Operation • Cantilever sensors can beoperated in three modes  Static mode  Dynamic mode  Heat mode
  • 8. Static Mode • In static mode the mechanical response of a sensitive layer applied onto one cantilever surface (e.g. the upper one) to the adsorption or recognition of molecules from the environment produces a signal. • The surface stress occurring during the adsorption process results in a static bending of the cantilever. Surface stresses of several 10-3 N/m result in deflections of about10 nm for the cantilever sensors used here.
  • 9. Dynamic Mode • The cantilever is oscillated externally at its resonance frequency using a piezoelectric actuator. • The cantilever may be coated on its upper and lower surfaces with a molecular layer sensitized to recognize molecules from the environment. On adsorption of mass on the cantilever, the resonance frequency is shifted to a lowervalue. • From the shift in frequency, the adsorbed mass on the cantilever can be calculated provided that the mechanical properties of the cantilever do not change significantly because of the adsorbed mass.
  • 10. Heat Mode • In heat (bimetallic) mode the difference in the linear expansion coefficients of the cantilever material. • E.g. single-crystalline Si typically with a 100 nm thick metalliclayer applied to one of the surfaces, causes bending of the cantilever sensor if the temperature is changed. Temperature changes of 10-5 K produce cantilever deflections of several nanometers, which can be measured easily.
  • 11. Measurement setup • Si cantilever sensor arrays are microfabricated using a dryetching silicon-on-insulator (SOI) fabrication technique developed in the Micro-/Nanomechanics Department at IBM’s Zurich Research Laboratory. • One chip comprises eight cantilevers, each 500 µm long, 100 µm wide, and 0.5 µm thick, arranged at a pitch of 250 µm. The resonancefrequencies of the cantilevers vary by only 0.5%,demonstrating the high reproducibility and precision of thecantilever fabrication. • A scanning electron micrograph of a cantilever sensor array chip is shown in Fig.
  • 12. • The upper surface of these cantilevers is generally coated with 2 nm of Ti and 20 nm of Au to provide a reflective surface and an interface for attaching functional groups of probe molecules.
  • 13. Applications  Chemical Detection  Biochemical Environment  Microcantilever Sensors to Measure Physical Properties
  • 14. Conclusion • Cantilever-sensor array techniques have turned out tobe a very powerful and highly sensitive tool to studyphysisorption and chemisorption processes, as well as to determine material-specific properties such as heat transfer during phase transitions. • Experiments in liquids have provided new insights into such complex biochemical reactions as the hybridization of DNA or molecular recognition in antibody–antigen systems or proteomics

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