Population Ecology Chapter 53 Campbell & Reece
Population group of a single species in the same area Density Dispersion Video of GYE bears
Density <ul><li>Dynamic (immigration, emigration, birth death) </li></ul><ul><li>Mark-recapture method </li></ul><ul><li>I...
Patterns of Dispersion <ul><li>Clustered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors unevenly distributed </li></ul></ul><...
<ul><li>Image from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Population_distribution.svg </li></ul>
 
 
Survivorship Curves http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/survivorship.gif
Tioga Pass, California (3,031m) home of the Belding’s ground squirrel <ul><li>_3,031 m </li></ul>
 
Reproductive Output <ul><li>“ Big-bang” reproduction – “semelparity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce 1x in life then die <...
Repeat reproduction (iteroparity) – <ul><ul><li>* common in more dependable, predictable environments </li></ul></ul><ul><...
Trade-offs <ul><li>Ideal = many offspring, well-cared for, repeatedly over lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>This does not exist ...
Growth Curves <ul><li>Exponential growth (geometric) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal, limitless growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul...
Limiting Factors  Carrying Capacity <ul><li>FWARPS </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity (K) = max # of individuals of a ...
Kaibab Plateau , Arizona http://depts.alverno.edu/nsmt/youngcc/research/kaibab/story3.html
Rule of 70 <ul><li>70 / growth rate = doubling time! </li></ul><ul><li>Learn this, avoid massive debt </li></ul>
K-selection <ul><li>Sensitive to population density </li></ul><ul><li>More successful in crowded environments </li></ul><u...
R-selection <ul><li>Maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments </li></ul><ul><li>Density-independent </li></u...
Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>r- Selected (maximum growth rate, below carrying capacity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early rep...
Limits on Population Growth <ul><li>Density Dependent Limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water <...
Limiting Factors <ul><li>Density Independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires, floods, drought, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>...
Population Dynamics <ul><li>Isle Royale Moose and Wolves </li></ul>
Human Population <ul><li>Look at 53.22…seriously look at it </li></ul>
http://economicedge.blogspot.com/2009_05_17_archive.html
 
 
Demographic Transition <ul><li>HIGH birth rate, HIGH Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH Birth Rate, Low Death Rate </li></u...
Age Structure Pyramids http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php
 
 
Ecological Footprint <ul><li>footprint as homework </li></ul>
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Population ecology ch 53

Chapter 53 in Cambpell & Reece Biology, 8th edition.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Published in: Education      Technology      News & Politics      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Population ecology ch 53

  • 1. Population Ecology Chapter 53 Campbell & Reece
  • 2. Population group of a single species in the same area Density Dispersion Video of GYE bears
  • 3. Density <ul><li>Dynamic (immigration, emigration, birth death) </li></ul><ul><li>Mark-recapture method </li></ul><ul><li>Index of population size (scat, burrows,etc “sign surveys”) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Glacier NP DNA study podcast or MSNBC </li></ul></ul>
  • 4. Patterns of Dispersion <ul><li>Clustered </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Environmental factors unevenly distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mating </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Defense/predation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Uniform </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Territoriality </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absence of strong attraction/repulsion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Key environmental factors evenly distributed </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Random – not that common </li></ul>
  • 5. <ul><li>Image from Wikipedia, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Population_distribution.svg </li></ul>
  • 8. Survivorship Curves http://www.bio.miami.edu/dana/pix/survivorship.gif
  • 9. Tioga Pass, California (3,031m) home of the Belding’s ground squirrel <ul><li>_3,031 m </li></ul>
  • 11. Reproductive Output <ul><li>“ Big-bang” reproduction – “semelparity” </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reproduce 1x in life then die </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Favored with poor survival of either parent or offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Often occur with highly variable, unpredictable environments </li></ul></ul>Image from scienceblogs.com
  • 12. Repeat reproduction (iteroparity) – <ul><ul><li>* common in more dependable, predictable environments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High parental care, low numbers of offspring, high survival </li></ul></ul>Tasmanian Devil, from http://news.mongabay.com/2008/0714-hance_devils.html
  • 13. Trade-offs <ul><li>Ideal = many offspring, well-cared for, repeatedly over lifespan </li></ul><ul><li>This does not exist </li></ul><ul><li>Reproduction is costly (increased maternal mortality) </li></ul>
  • 14. Growth Curves <ul><li>Exponential growth (geometric) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Ideal, limitless growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Must be temporary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>J-shaped curve </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exponential Growth Simulator http://nortonbooks.com/college/biology/animations/ch34a01.htm </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistic Growth </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Carrying capacity – There are limits to growth! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>S-curve (sigmoid) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logistic Growth Simulator : http://nortonbooks.com/college/biology/animations/ch34a02.htm </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. Limiting Factors  Carrying Capacity <ul><li>FWARPS </li></ul><ul><li>Carrying Capacity (K) = max # of individuals of a species that can occupy a certain habitat </li></ul><ul><li>Lag time, Boom & bust (rough transition) </li></ul>
  • 16. Kaibab Plateau , Arizona http://depts.alverno.edu/nsmt/youngcc/research/kaibab/story3.html
  • 17. Rule of 70 <ul><li>70 / growth rate = doubling time! </li></ul><ul><li>Learn this, avoid massive debt </li></ul>
  • 18. K-selection <ul><li>Sensitive to population density </li></ul><ul><li>More successful in crowded environments </li></ul><ul><li>Often iteroparous </li></ul>http://z.about.com/d/healing/1/0/7/N/gtotem_koala.jpg
  • 19. R-selection <ul><li>Maximize reproductive success in uncrowded environments </li></ul><ul><li>Density-independent </li></ul><ul><li>Often semelparous </li></ul><ul><li>Disturbed habitats </li></ul>http://www.hot-screensaver.com/wp-myimages/cockroach.jpg
  • 20. Reproductive Strategies <ul><li>r- Selected (maximum growth rate, below carrying capacity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Early reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Short life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>High mortality rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Little or no parental care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large investment in producing large numbers of offspring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Below carrying capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Bony fish </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Grasshoppers </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>K-Selected (maximizes population size near carrying capacity) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Late reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Long life span </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Low mortality rate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extensive parental care </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Greater investment in maintenance and survival of adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>At or near carrying capacity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Examples: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Sharks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Elephants </li></ul></ul></ul>Slide adapted from BioEd Online BioEd Online
  • 21. Limits on Population Growth <ul><li>Density Dependent Limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Food </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Shelter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Density Independent Limits </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Weather </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Climate </li></ul></ul>Water and shelter are critical limiting factors in the desert. Fire is an example of a Density independent Limiting factor. Slide adapted from BioEd Online BioEd Online
  • 22. Limiting Factors <ul><li>Density Independent </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires, floods, drought, etc </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Can be exacerbated by density </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Density Dependent </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disease, territoriality, competition, predation, toxic waste, intrinsic factors (physiological) </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Population Dynamics <ul><li>Isle Royale Moose and Wolves </li></ul>
  • 24. Human Population <ul><li>Look at 53.22…seriously look at it </li></ul>
  • 25. http://economicedge.blogspot.com/2009_05_17_archive.html
  • 28. Demographic Transition <ul><li>HIGH birth rate, HIGH Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>HIGH Birth Rate, Low Death Rate </li></ul><ul><li>Low Birth Rate, Low Death Rate </li></ul>
  • 29. Age Structure Pyramids http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idb/country.php
  • 32. Ecological Footprint <ul><li>footprint as homework </li></ul>