A collaboration among universities, agri-businesses,
and the U.S. Pork Center of Excellence.
National Swine Nutrition Guid...
PAGE 1 PIG 07-02-09
The National Swine Nutrition Guide was produced
by the U.S. Pork Center of Excellence
in collaboration...
National Swine Nutrition GuideTables on Nutrient Recommendations,
Ingredient Composition, and Use Rates1,2
National Swine
...
PAGE 3 PIG 07-02-09
exist that require significant deviations from the recommendations presented.
Although crude protein v...
PAGE 4 PIG 07-02-09
Steering Committee
Duane Reese, University of Nebraska (Chair of Development)
BobThaler, South Dakota ...
PAGE 5 PIG 07-02-09
Table 1. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for nursery pigs (as-fed basis)a
Type of d...
PAGE 6 PIG 07-02-09
Table 2. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for HIGHa
lean gain lines of growing-finis...
PAGE 7 PIG 07-02-09
Table 3. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for MEDIUMa
lean gain lines growing-
finis...
PAGE 8 PIG 07-02-09
Table 4. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for LOWa
lean gain lines of growing-finish...
PAGE 9 PIG 07-02-09
Table 5. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed higher energy diet...
PAGE 10 PIG 07-02-09
Table 6. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed lower energy diet...
PAGE 11 PIG 07-02-09
Table 7. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for lactating swine (as-fed basis)ab
Pari...
PAGE 12 PIG 07-02-09
Table 8. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for breeding boars (as-fed basis)a
Body w...
PAGE 13 PIG 07-02-09
Table 9. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for maternal-line replacement gilts (as-
...
PAGE 14 PIG 07-02-09
Table 10. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for terminal-line replacement boars
(as-...
PAGE 15 PIG 07-02-09
Table 11. Recommended dietary additions of lactose, trace minerals and vitamins from concentrates,
ba...
PAGE 16 PIG 07-02-09
Table 13.Vitamin premix specifications for nursery dietsabc
Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix
V...
PAGE 17 PIG 07-02-09
Table 15.Vitamin premix specifications for sow and breeding boar dietsabc
Nutrient Units Potency per ...
PAGE 18 PIG 07-02-09
PAGE 19 PIG 07-02-09
Ingredient composition and use rate
Individual ingredients can vary widely in composition because of ...
PAGE 20 PIG 07-02-09
Table 16. Chemical composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab
Ingredient Dry
mat-
te...
PAGE 21 PIG 07-02-09
Table 16. Chemical composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab
(continued)
Ingredient...
PAGE 22 PIG 07-02-09
Table 17. Amino acid composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent standardized i...
PAGE 23 PIG 07-02-09
Table 17. Amino acid composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent standardized i...
PAGE 24 PIG 07-02-09
Table 18. Chemical composition of manufactured amino acids sources for swine (as-fed basis).ab
Amino ...
PAGE 25 PIG 07-02-09
Table 19. Chemical composition of fats, oils and crude glycerol for swine (as-fed basis).ab
Ingredien...
PAGE 26 PIG 07-02-09
Table 20. Mineral composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent bio-availablity a...
PAGE 27 PIG 07-02-09
Table 20. Mineral composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent bio-availablity a...
PAGE 28 PIG 07-02-09
Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
PAGE 29 PIG 07-02-09
Table 21. Mineral concentrations in macro mineral sources for swine (as-fed basis)a. Percent bio-avai...
PAGE 30 PIG 07-02-09
Table 22. Mineral concentrations in micro or trace mineral sources for swinea*
Mineral element Source...
PAGE 31 PIG 07-02-09
Table 22. Mineral concentrations in micro or trace mineral sources for swinea*
(continued)
Mineral el...
PAGE 32 PIG 07-02-09
Table 23. Vitamin composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab
Ingredient Dry
mat-
ter...
PAGE 33 PIG 07-02-09
Table 23. Vitamin composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab
(continued)
Ingredient ...
PAGE 34 PIG 07-02-09
Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
PAGE 35 PIG 07-02-09
Table 24.Vitamin concentration in manufactured vitamin sources for swineab
Vitamin Concentration/meth...
PAGE 36 PIG 07-02-09
Table 25. Recommended upper limits of usage (% of the diet) for feed ingredients in swine diets. An *...
PAGE 37 PIG 07-02-09
Table 25. Recommended upper limits of usage (% of the diet) for feed ingredients in swine diets. An *...
PAGE 38 PIG 07-02-09
U.S. Pork Center of Excellence
1202 NSRIC
Iowa State University
Ames, IA 50011
Ph: 515-294-2490
Fax: ...
National swine nutrition guide
of 40

National swine nutrition guide

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - National swine nutrition guide

  • 1. A collaboration among universities, agri-businesses, and the U.S. Pork Center of Excellence. National Swine Nutrition Guide Tables on Nutrient Recommendations, Ingredient Composition, and Use Rates Version 1.2
  • 2. PAGE 1 PIG 07-02-09 The National Swine Nutrition Guide was produced by the U.S. Pork Center of Excellence in collaboration with: University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Iowa State University Kansas State University University of Minnesota University of Missouri University of Nebraska-Lincoln North Carolina State University Purdue University South Dakota State University © 2010 U.S. Pork Center of Excellence Dr. David J. Meisinger - Editor
  • 3. National Swine Nutrition GuideTables on Nutrient Recommendations, Ingredient Composition, and Use Rates1,2 National Swine Nutrition Guide PAGE 2 PIG 07-02-09 Introduction Swine nutrition and feeding management is a complex process. Feed is the largest single item among the costs of producing pork, historically accounting for about 60% of all costs in farrow-to-finish systems. Pork producers are encouraged to employ a comprehensive feeding program based on sound principles and tailored to the operation.The National Swine Nutrition Guide (NSNG), which includes the Diet Formu- lation and Evaluation CD to allow direct application of its contents to practical feeding situations, provides the basis for the development and management of such swine feeding programs. The purpose of the NSNG is to enhance the understanding of basic nutrition, feeding principles and re- lated management practices and to serve as a reference for pork producers, students, educators and allied industry personnel. Users of the NSNG will be able to estimate the nutritional needs of pigs by consider- ing specific factors that affect nutrient recommendations. The NSNG consists of 35 factsheets and the Diet Formulator CD. For those seeking only nutrient recom- mendations for various classes of swine and ingredient composition and use rates, we prepared this sum- mary. More details regarding nutrient recommendations, ingredient composition, formulating diets, and feeding program management are presented in the factsheets and on the Diet Formulator CD. General explanation of nutrient recommendations Nutrient requirements established by the 1998 National Research Council (NRC) and research results published since then were used as the basis for nutrient recommendations in the NSNG. Values published by the NRC do not include any intentional surpluses; they are the committee’s best estimates of minimum requirements for nutrients.Those requirements are based on pigs fed corn and soybean meal-based diets under experimental conditions that normally provide ideal growing conditions. In commercial production situations, a margin of safety is added to the published nutrient requirements; in the NSNG those levels are referred to as “recommendations”. A margin of safety was applied to each nutrient in order to estab- lish a recommendation for that nutrient in the NSNG. Margins of safety are necessary to account for any number of factors that affect nutrient needs (see PIG Factsheet # 07-01-07, Factors Affecting Nutrient Re- quirements) and variability in nutrient composition and in nutrient bioavailability of feed ingredients (see PIG factsheet #07-07-09, Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets). Nutrient cost and environmental issues surrounding nutrient excretion were also considered when determining safety margins. Nutrient recommendations in the NSNG were established according to predetermined pig performance standards; for example, daily weight gain, feed intake, carcass lean gain, litter size and litter weaning weight.Those standards accompany the nutrient recommendations in the NSNG to provide transparency and to allow individuals to tailor recommendations to specific situations. The nutrient recommendations presented herein should result in a “best cost” feeding strategy for most pork producers the majority of the time. However, certain conditions (i.e., specific genetic populations, economics, environmental conditions, nutrient availability, nutrient profile, and nutrient interactions) may
  • 4. PAGE 3 PIG 07-02-09 exist that require significant deviations from the recommendations presented. Although crude protein values still appear on feed labels and in some feeding recommendations, we did not list dietary protein recommendations because pigs do not require protein in their diet. Instead they require amino acids, which are found in protein. Recommended levels for six of the most critical amino ac- ids are provided inTables 1 to 10. Lysine is the first limiting amino acid in grain soybean meal based diets. Lysine recommendations are provided on a total and a standardized ileal digestible (SID) basis. Recom- mendations for total lysine are applicable to corn-soybean meal based diets only. Formulating diets on a SID basis allows one to account for differences in the usable amino acids present in the diet and more closely meets the pig’s amino acid needs while minimizing excess nitrogen excretion. The recommendations for threonine, methionine, methionine+cysteine, tryptophan, isoleucine and valine are also expressed on an SID basis. These recommendations were derived from an optimal pattern or ratio among amino acids that we established (see PIG Factsheet # 07-02-03, Understanding Swine Nutrient Recommendations). Recommendations for phosphorus are expressed on a total, available and digestible basis. Like amino acids, a certain proportion of the phosphorus in a feedstuff cannot be utilized by pigs. In order to more closely meet the pig’s phosphorus requirements while minimizing phosphorus excretion, swine diets should be formulated on an available or digestible phosphorus basis.The total phosphorus recommenda- tions presented in this factsheet should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible basis. Also, the total phosphorus recommendations in this factsheet will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations are expressed both as percentage of the total content of the diet and amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy concentration. When expressing nutrient recommendations on a percentage of the diet basis, dietary energy density or feed intake must be considered. Otherwise, it is likely that the animal’s nutrient needs will not be met as intended. Expressing nutrient recommendations relative to dietary energy ensures nutrient concentrations are altered in accor- dance to changes in dietary energy density, for example when fat is added to the diet. Recommendations for trace mineral and vitamin additions to swine diets are shown inTable 11.The values represent our best estimate of trace mineral and vitamin needs of pigs in practical situations.These values are based on NRC requirements to which a safety margin has been added. While there are vitamins and trace minerals in grain and protein sources, it is necessary to fortify swine diets with additional quantities of several vitamins and trace minerals to ensure deficiencies do not occur. Information gaps exist in trace mineral and vitamin nutrition of pigs, making it difficult to establish firm recommendations.Therefore, we feel it is important to offer feed manufacturers and producers some flex- ibility in preparing and utilizing products based on our recommendations.Thus, we established ranges for recommended additions of salt, trace mineral and vitamin additions to swine diets (see PIG Factsheet #07- 02-06,Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets). Tables 12 to 15 contain nutritional information for the manufacturing of basemixes and premixes for swine diets.The recommended trace mineral and vitamin additions shown inTable 11 are met or exceeded with the trace mineral premix and three vitamin premixes shown. 1 This booklet of tables was compiled to provide users with a quick reference to all the tables from the National Swine Nutrition Guide (NSNG).The NSNG is a perfect example of collaboration made possible by the US Pork Center of Excellence (USPCE) which has as its mission to add value to the pork industry by facilitating research and learning for U.S. pork producers through national collaboration. The steering committee can be very proud of this work.This tables booklet, the NSNG book and the Diet Formulation and Evalua- tion CD will be widely accepted and utilized by the pork industries in the US and, indeed, around the world.This national collabora- tion could only be possible with the input, writing, reviewing, commitment and a lot of hard work by several people including many academic and industry swine nutritionists. I have attempted to list all of these individuals who have contributed so much of their time to make this effort a success.The Steering Committee would like to extend a special thank you to Katie Beeler, communications specialist with the US Pork Center of Excellence, for all her hard work in staffing the Committee and in formatting all the fact sheets for publication. David J. Meisinger Executive Director US Pork Center of Excellence
  • 5. PAGE 4 PIG 07-02-09 Steering Committee Duane Reese, University of Nebraska (Chair of Development) BobThaler, South Dakota State University (Chair of Outreach) Brian Richert, Purdue University (PIG Swine Nutrition Domain Leader) Scott Carter, Oklahoma State University Garland Dahlke, Iowa State University Joel DeRouchey, Kansas State University John Patience, Iowa State University Marcia Carlson Shannon, University of Missouri Hans Stein, University of Illinois Eric van Heugten, North Carolina State University Mark Whitney, University of Minnesota Charlotte Kirk Baer, USDA/NIFA ex-officio Authors All of the Steering Committee members were involved as authors of NSNG fact sheets. In addition, the following individuals also contributed as authors or co-authors on several papers: Gary Allee, University of Missouri Jason Apple, University of Arkansas Justin Benz, Kansas State University Gary Cromwell, University of Kentucky Steve Dritz, Kansas State University Bob Goodband, Kansas State University Lee Johnston, University of Minnesota Claire Masker, Iowa Corn Growers Association Gretchen Myers Hill, Michigan State University Jim Nelssen, Kansas State University Allan Schinckel, Purdue University Jerry Shurson, University of Minnesota Alan Sutton, Purdue University Ken Stalder, Iowa State University MikeTokach, Kansas State University Theo van Kempen, Provimi Reviewers All of the Steering Committee members provided critical reviews of the fact sheets for the NSNG. In addition, many other academi- cians and industry representatives assisted with input, modifications and helpful advice in their critical reviews.They are listed as follows: Samuel Baidoo, University of Minnesota Eric Berg, North Dakota State University Bart Borg, Murphy Brown LLC R. Dean Boyd,The Hanor Company Mike Brumm, Brumm Consulting Tom Burkey, University of Nebraska Wayne Cast, Production Input Solutions Donnie Campbell, DSM Nutritional Products Kevin Cera, Akey Joe Crenshaw, APC Functional Proteins Mark Crenshaw, Mississippi State University Tommy Crenshaw, University of Wisconsin Dustin Dean, International Ingredients Corp. Robert Dove, University of Georgia Jerry Faber, ADM Alliance Nutrition Tim Fakler, Kerber Milling Jason Frank, University of Arkansas Aaron Gaines,The Maschhoffs John Goihl, Agri-Nutrition Services, Inc. Bob Goodband, Kansas State University Gene Gourley, Swine Graphics Enterprises Ross Hamilton, Darling International Gretchen Myers Hill, Michigan State University Palmer Holden, Iowa State University Chris Hostetler, South Dakota State University Roger Johnson, Farmland Foods Brian Kerr, USDA/ARS /SOMMRU David Kirstein, Darling International Don Levis, University of Nebraska Merlin Lindemann, University of Kentucky Dennis Liptrap, Ralco Nutrition Leland McKinney, Kansas State University Charles Maxwell, University of Arkansas Terry Meyer, Land O’ Lakes Purina Feed LLC Phil Miller, University of Nebraska Ronny Moser, JBS United, Inc. Rob Musser, Soda Ingredients Betsy Newton, Akey Rob Payne, Evonik Degussa Corporation Scott Radcliffe, Purdue University Dale Rozeboom, Michigan State University Kari Sadorris, Akey Tom Sauber, Pioneer Wayne Schiefelbein, Elite Swine Program Allan Schinckel, Purdue University Jerry Shurson, University of Minnesota Jim Smith, Hubbard Feeds Joel Spencer, JBS United, Inc. Charles Stark, North Carolina State University Dave Stender, Iowa State University Alan Sutton, Purdue University MikeTokach, Kansas State University W. Randy Walker, DPI Global Bryan Wiegand, University of Missouri Noel Williams, PIC Gawain Willis, Land 0’ Lakes Purina Feed LLC Mark Wilson, Zinpro Corporation Bob Woerman, Woerman’s Animal Nutrition Consulting LLC Ruurd Zijlstra, University of Alberta 2 At the outset of the project, the NSNG Steering Committee queried the feed industry to obtain their input on a number of questions in a survey including their willingness to be involved in some aspect of reviewing the individual fact sheets.The response was 100% from these polled individuals.The names of these responders who provided the initial guidance for the program outline were as fol- lows: Bart Borg, Murphy Brown LLC Stewart Galloway, Hubbard Feeds Bruce Aversman, Kent Feeds Wayne Cast, Production Input Solutions Ken Ferrell, MFA Chris Sparks, ADM Wayne Schiefelbein, Elite Swine Program Janet Snow, Exseed Genetics Craig Maloney, Seaboard Foods John Eggert, Monsanto Dale Kavan, Akey Bob Woerman, Woerman’s Animal Nutrition Consulting LLC Neil Allen, Goldsboro Milling John Sondermann, DanBred NA Ronny Moser, JBS United Feeds John Goihl, Agri-Nutrition Services Dean Koehler, Vita Plus David Funderburke, Cape Fear Consulting Patrick O’Quinn, Prestage Farms Dustin Kendall, Murphy Brown LLC JohnThompson, Wilson Milling
  • 6. PAGE 5 PIG 07-02-09 Table 1. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for nursery pigs (as-fed basis)a Type of diet Body weight, lb Assumed daily feed intake, lb Assumed daily gain, lb Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb Phase 1 9 to 11 0.35 0.32 1.59 Phase 2 11 to 15 0.55 0.45 1.58 Phase 3 15 to 25 1.10 0.80 1.50 Phase 4 25 to 45 2.20 1.25 1.50 --------------------------% of diet -------------------------- Lysine, total 1.70 1.65 1.44 1.38 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.56 1.51 1.31 1.25 Threonine 0.97 0.94 0.81 0.78 Methionine 0.44 0.42 0.37 0.35 Methionine + cysteine 0.90 0.88 0.76 0.73 Tryptophan 0.27 0.26 0.22 0.21 Isoleucine 0.86 0.83 0.72 0.69 Valine 1.01 0.98 0.85 0.81 Calcium 0.90 0.85 0.85 0.75 Phosphorus, totalc 0.75 0.70 0.70 0.65 Phosphorus, available 0.60 0.55 0.45 0.37 Phosphorus, digestible 0.57 0.53 0.40 0.33 -------------------------- g/Mcal MEb ------------------------ Lysine, total 4.85 4.74 4.35 4.17 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 4.45 4.34 3.96 3.78 Threonine 2.77 2.70 2.45 2.36 Methionine 1.26 1.21 1.12 1.06 Methionine + cysteine 2.57 2.53 2.30 2.21 Tryptophan 0.77 0.75 0.67 0.64 Isoleucine 2.45 2.38 2.18 2.09 Valine 2.88 2.81 2.57 2.45 Calcium 2.57 2.44 2.57 2.27 Phosphorus, totalc 2.14 2.01 2.12 1.97 Phosphorus, available 1.71 1.58 1.36 1.12 Phosphorus, digestible 1.63 1.52 1.21 1.00 a All diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-08 (Nursery Swine Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations. c Total phosphorus values will be reduced with increasing levels of added phytase in each diet. However, P release from phytase is reduced 30% when growth promoting levels of Zn are added.
  • 7. PAGE 6 PIG 07-02-09 Table 2. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for HIGHa lean gain lines of growing-finish- ing swine (as-fed basis)b Type of diet Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 5 + RACc Phase 6+ RACc Body weight, lb 45 to 90 90 to 135 135 to 180 180 to 225 225 to 270 225 to 270 270 to 315 Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.70 (125) 0.76 (135) 0.87 (155) 0.84 (150) 0.76 (136) 1.01 (180) 0.91 (162) Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 3.1 4.2 4.0 5.1 4.7 5.8 5.3 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.7 6.4 5.9 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 -----------------------------------------------% ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 1.24 1.24 1.06 1.11 0.93 1.01 0.82 0.90 0.73 0.79 0.94 1.02 0.83 0.90 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.10 1.10 0.93 0.98 0.81 0.88 0.72 0.78 0.63 0.69 0.83 0.90 0.72 0.79 Threonine 0.69 0.69 0.59 0.61 0.52 0.56 0.47 0.51 0.42 0.46 0.55 0.60 0.49 0.53 Methionine 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.28 0.24 0.26 0.21 0.23 0.19 0.21 0.25 0.27 0.22 0.24 Methionine+cysteine 0.64 0.64 0.54 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.43 0.47 0.39 0.43 0.51 0.56 0.46 0.50 Tryptophan 0.18 0.18 0.15 0.16 0.13 0.14 0.11 0.13 0.10 0.11 0.13 0.14 0.12 0.13 Isoleucine 0.60 0.60 0.51 0.54 0.45 0.49 0.39 0.43 0.35 0.38 0.45 0.49 0.40 0.43 Valine 0.71 0.71 0.60 0.63 0.53 0.57 0.47 0.51 0.41 0.45 0.54 0.58 0.47 0.51 Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, totale 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20 Phosphorus, digestible 0.33 0.33 0.27 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.19 0.21 0.16 0.18 0.22 0.24 0.19 0.20 -----------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEf ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 3.70 3.70 3.16 3.31 2.78 3.01 2.45 2.69 2.18 2.36 2.81 3.04 2.48 2.69 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 3.28 3.28 2.78 2.92 2.42 2.63 2.15 2.33 1.88 2.06 2.48 2.69 2.15 2.36 Threonine 2.06 2.06 1.76 1.82 1.55 1.67 1.40 1.52 1.25 1.37 1.64 1.79 1.46 1.58 Methionine 0.95 0.95 0.81 0.84 0.72 0.78 0.63 0.69 0.57 0.63 0.75 0.81 0.66 0.72 Methionine+cysteine 1.91 1.91 1.61 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.28 1.40 1.16 1.28 1.52 1.67 1.37 1.49 Tryptophan 0.54 0.54 0.45 0.48 0.39 0.42 0.33 0.39 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.36 0.39 Isoleucine 1.79 1.79 1.52 1.61 1.34 1.46 1.16 1.28 1.04 1.13 1.34 1.46 1.19 1.28 Valine 2.12 2.12 1.79 1.88 1.58 1.70 1.40 1.52 1.22 1.34 1.61 1.73 1.40 1.52 Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, totale 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60 Phosphorus, digestible 0.98 0.98 0.81 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.57 0.63 0.48 0.54 0.66 0.72 0.57 0.60 a >0.80 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. b All diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. c Ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). d B = barrows and G = gilts. e Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. f Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.
  • 8. PAGE 7 PIG 07-02-09 Table 3. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for MEDIUMa lean gain lines growing- finishing swine (as-fed basis)b Type of diet Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 5 + RACc Phase 6+ RACc Body weight, lb 45 to 90 90 to 135 135 to 180 180 to 225 225 to 270 225 to 270 270 to 315 Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.60 (107) 0.65 (116) 0.75 (133) 0.73 (129) 0.66 (117) 0.87 (155) 0.78 (139) Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 3.1 4.2 4.0 5.1 4.7 5.8 5.3 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.7 6.4 5.9 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 -----------------------------------------------% ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 1.06 1.06 0.92 0.96 0.82 0.88 0.72 0.79 0.64 0.69 0.82 0.89 0.71 0.77 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 0.93 0.93 0.80 0.84 0.71 0.77 0.62 0.68 0.55 0.59 0.71 0.78 0.61 0.67 Threonine 0.59 0.59 0.51 0.53 0.45 0.49 0.41 0.44 0.37 0.40 0.48 0.52 0.42 0.45 Methionine 0.27 0.27 0.23 0.24 0.21 0.22 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.18 0.21 0.23 0.19 0.21 Methionine+cysteine 0.54 0.54 0.47 0.49 0.43 0.46 0.37 0.41 0.34 0.37 0.44 0.48 0.39 0.42 Tryptophan 0.15 0.15 0.13 0.13 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.10 0.11 0.12 0.10 0.11 Isoleucine 0.51 0.51 0.44 0.46 0.39 0.42 0.34 0.38 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.43 0.34 0.37 Valine 0.60 0.60 0.52 0.55 0.46 0.50 0.41 0.44 0.35 0.39 0.46 0.50 0.40 0.43 Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, totale 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20 Phosphorus, digestible 0.29 0.29 0.24 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.17 0.19 0.14 0.15 0.19 0.20 0.15 0.17 -----------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEf ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 3.16 3.16 2.75 2.86 2.45 2.63 2.15 2.36 1.91 2.06 2.45 2.66 2.12 2.30 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 2.78 2.78 2.39 2.51 2.12 2.30 1.85 2.03 1.64 1.76 2.12 2.33 1.82 2.00 Threonine 1.76 1.76 1.52 1.58 1.34 1.46 1.22 1.31 1.10 1.19 1.43 1.55 1.25 1.34 Methionine 0.81 0.81 0.69 0.72 0.63 0.66 0.54 0.60 0.48 0.54 0.63 0.69 0.57 0.63 Methionine+cysteine 1.61 1.61 1.40 1.46 1.28 1.37 1.10 1.22 1.01 1.10 1.31 1.43 1.16 1.25 Tryptophan 0.45 0.45 0.39 0.39 0.33 0.36 0.30 0.33 0.27 0.30 0.33 0.36 0.30 0.33 Isoleucine 1.52 1.52 1.31 1.37 1.16 1.25 1.01 1.13 0.90 0.98 1.16 1.28 1.01 1.10 Valine 1.79 1.79 1.55 1.64 1.37 1.49 1.22 1.31 1.04 1.16 1.37 1.49 1.19 1.28 Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, totale 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60 Phosphorus, digestible 0.87 0.87 0.72 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.45 0.57 0.60 0.45 0.51 a 0.65 to 0.80 lb of fat free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. b All diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. c Ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). d B = barrows and G = gilts. e Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. f Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.
  • 9. PAGE 8 PIG 07-02-09 Table 4. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for LOWa lean gain lines of growing-finish- ing swine (as-fed basis)b Type of diet Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 5 + RACc Phase 6+ RACc Body weight, lb 45 to 90 90 to 135 135 to 180 180 to 225 225 to 270 225 to 270 270 to 315 Estimated lean gain, lb/d (protein deposition, g/d) 0.50 (89) 0.55 (97) 0.62 (111) 0.60 (107) 0.55 (97) 0.72 (129) 0.65 (115) Sexd B G B G B G B G B G B G B G Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 3.1 4.2 4.0 5.1 4.7 5.8 5.3 6.2 5.7 6.2 5.7 6.4 5.9 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 -----------------------------------------------% ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 0.87 0.87 0.78 0.82 0.70 0.76 0.62 0.68 0.54 0.59 0.69 0.75 0.59 0.64 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 0.76 0.76 0.68 0.71 0.61 0.66 0.53 0.58 0.46 0.50 0.60 0.65 0.51 0.55 Threonine 0.48 0.48 0.43 0.45 0.39 0.42 0.35 0.38 0.31 0.34 0.40 0.44 0.34 0.37 Methionine 0.22 0.22 0.20 0.21 0.18 0.19 0.15 0.17 0.14 0.15 0.18 0.20 0.16 0.17 Methionine+cysteine 0.44 0.44 0.39 0.41 0.36 0.39 0.32 0.35 0.29 0.31 0.37 0.40 0.32 0.35 Tryptophan 0.12 0.12 0.11 0.11 0.10 0.11 0.09 0.09 0.07 0.08 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.09 Isoleucine 0.42 0.42 0.37 0.39 0.33 0.36 0.29 0.32 0.25 0.28 0.33 0.36 0.28 0.30 Valine 0.49 0.49 0.44 0.46 0.39 0.43 0.35 0.38 0.30 0.33 0.39 0.42 0.33 0.36 Calcium 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, totale 0.71 0.71 0.61 0.65 0.56 0.61 0.52 0.57 0.49 0.53 0.51 0.55 0.48 0.52 Phosphorus, available 0.32 0.32 0.26 0.28 0.23 0.25 0.20 0.22 0.19 0.20 0.21 0.22 0.19 0.20 Phosphorus, digestible 0.24 0.24 0.20 0.21 0.17 0.19 0.14 0.16 0.12 0.13 0.16 0.17 0.12 0.13 -----------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEf ----------------------------------------------- Lysine, total 2.60 2.60 2.33 2.45 2.09 2.27 1.85 2.03 1.61 1.76 2.06 2.24 1.76 1.91 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 2.27 2.27 2.03 2.12 1.82 1.97 1.58 1.73 1.37 1.49 1.79 1.94 1.52 1.64 Threonine 1.43 1.43 1.28 1.34 1.16 1.25 1.04 1.13 0.93 1.01 1.19 1.31 1.01 1.10 Methionine 0.66 0.66 0.60 0.63 0.54 0.57 0.45 0.51 0.42 0.45 0.54 0.60 0.48 0.51 Methionine+cysteine 1.31 1.31 1.16 1.22 1.07 1.16 0.95 1.04 0.87 0.93 1.10 1.19 0.95 1.04 Tryptophan 0.36 0.36 0.33 0.33 0.30 0.33 0.27 0.27 0.21 0.24 0.30 0.30 0.24 0.27 Isoleucine 1.25 1.25 1.10 1.16 0.98 1.07 0.87 0.95 0.75 0.84 0.98 1.07 0.84 0.90 Valine 1.46 1.46 1.31 1.37 1.16 1.28 1.04 1.13 0.90 0.98 1.16 1.25 0.98 1.07 Calcium 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, totale 2.12 2.12 1.82 1.94 1.67 1.82 1.55 1.70 1.46 1.58 1.52 1.64 1.43 1.55 Phosphorus, available 0.95 0.95 0.78 0.84 0.69 0.75 0.60 0.66 0.57 0.60 0.63 0.66 0.57 0.60 Phosphorus, digestible 0.72 0.72 0.60 0.63 0.51 0.57 0.42 0.48 0.36 0.39 0.48 0.51 0.36 0.39 a < 0.65 lb of fat-free lean/day from 45 to 270 lb. b All diets are full fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-09 (Growing-Finishing Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. c Ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). d B = barrows and G = gilts. e Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. f Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.
  • 10. PAGE 9 PIG 07-02-09 Table 5. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed higher energy diets (as-fed basis)a Parity 0 and 1b Parity 2 or greaterc Litter size, total born 10.5 12.5 12 14 Assumed daily feed intake, lbd 4.6 4.7 4.1 4.2 Assumed total weight gain, lb 115 125 80 90 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 -------------------------------------------% of diet ------------------------------------------ Lysine, total 0.68 0.70 0.58 0.60 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 0.58 0.60 0.50 0.52 Threonine 0.44 0.46 0.38 0.40 Methionine 0.16 0.16 0.14 0.14 Methionine+cysteine 0.41 0.42 0.35 0.37 Tryptophan 0.11 0.11 0.09 0.10 Isoleucine 0.33 0.34 0.29 0.30 Valine 0.40 0.41 0.34 0.36 Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.85 Phosphorus, totale 0.80 0.80 0.75 0.75 Phosphorus, available 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40 Phosphorus, digestible 0.39 0.39 0.35 0.35 -------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEf ----------------------------------------- Lysine, total 2.04 2.10 1.76 1.82 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.76 1.82 1.51 1.57 Threonine 1.34 1.38 1.15 1.19 Methionine 0.48 0.49 0.42 0.42 Methionine+cysteine 1.23 1.27 1.06 1.10 Tryptophan 0.32 0.33 0.27 0.29 Isoleucine 1.00 1.04 0.86 0.89 Valine 1.20 1.24 1.03 1.07 Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.57 Phosphorus, totale 2.42 2.42 2.27 2.27 Phosphorus, available 1.36 1.36 1.21 1.21 Phosphorus, digestible 1.18 1.18 1.06 1.06 -------------------------------- Calculated daily intake, g -------------------------------- Metabolizable energy, Mcal 6.90 7.05 6.15 6.30 Lysine, total 14.3 15.0 10.8 11.4 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 12.2 12.8 9.3 9.9 Calcium 18.8 19.2 15.8 16.2 Phosphorus, total 16.7 17.1 14.0 14.3 Phosphorus, available 9.4 9.6 7.4 7.6 Phosphorus, digestible 8.1 8.3 6.5 6.7 a All diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-11 (Gestating Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Parity 0 = first gestation period (female has not farrowed a litter); parity 1 = second gestation period (female has farrowed one litter previously). c Parity 2 = third gestation period (female has farrowed two litters previously). d Adjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. e Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when for- mulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommen- dations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. f Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07- 07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.
  • 11. PAGE 10 PIG 07-02-09 Table 6. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for gestating swine fed lower energy diets (as-fed basis)a Parity 0 and 1b Parity 2 or greaterc Litter size, total born 10.5 12.5 12 14 Assumed daily feed intake, lbd 5.1 5.2 4.6 4.7 Assumed total weight gain, lb 115 125 80 90 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.35 1.35 1.35 1.35 -------------------------------------------% of diet ------------------------------------------ Lysine, total 0.62 0.64 0.52 0.53 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 0.53 0.54 0.44 0.46 Threonine 0.40 0.41 0.33 0.35 Methionine 0.14 0.15 0.12 0.12 Methionine+cysteine 0.37 0.38 0.31 0.32 Tryptophan 0.10 0.10 0.08 0.08 Isoleucine 0.31 0.31 0.25 0.26 Valine 0.36 0.37 0.30 0.31 Calcium 0.81 0.81 0.76 0.76 Phosphorus, totale 0.72 0.72 0.67 0.67 Phosphorus, available 0.41 0.41 0.35 0.35 Phosphorus, digestible 0.36 0.36 0.31 0.31 -------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEf ----------------------------------------- Lysine, total 2.08 2.15 1.75 1.78 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.78 1.81 1.48 1.55 Threonine 1.35 1.38 1.12 1.18 Methionine 0.48 0.49 0.40 0.42 Methionine+cysteine 1.25 1.27 1.04 1.08 Tryptophan 0.32 0.32 0.27 0.28 Isoleucine 1.01 1.03 0.84 0.88 Valine 1.21 1.23 1.01 1.05 Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.56 2.56 Phosphorus, totale 2.42 2.42 2.25 2.25 Phosphorus, available 1.38 1.38 1.18 1.18 Phosphorus, digestible 1.21 1.21 1.04 1.04 -------------------------------- Calculated daily intake, g -------------------------------- Metabolizable energy, Mcal 6.88 7.02 6.21 6.34 Lysine, total 14.3 15.0 10.8 11.4 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 12.2 12.8 9.3 9.9 Calcium 18.8 19.2 15.8 16.2 Phosphorus, total 16.7 17.1 14.0 14.3 Phosphorus, available 9.4 9.6 7.4 7.6 Phosphorus, digestible 8.3 8.5 6.5 6.6 a All diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; PIG factsheet #07-01-11 (Gestating Swine Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Parity 0 = first gestation period (female has not farrowed a litter); parity 1 = second gestation period (female has farrowed one litter previously). c Parity 2 = third gestation period (female has farrowed two litters previously). d Adjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. e Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be obtained when for- mulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommen- dations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. f Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07- 07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations
  • 12. PAGE 11 PIG 07-02-09 Table 7. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for lactating swine (as-fed basis)ab Parity 1c Parity 2 or greaterc Assumed sow lactation wt change, lb -25 -10 -10 +5 Assumed sow daily feed intake, lb 11.8 10.1 14.2 12.3 Assumed daily piglet wt gain, lb 0.49 0.40 0.49 0.40 Assumed litter size weaned 11 10 12 11 Assumed litter weaning wt, lb 145 115 160 125 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.50 1.50 1.50 1.50 -------------------------------------------% of diet ------------------------------------------ Lysine, total 1.13 0.95 1.04 0.88 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.00 0.83 0.92 0.76 Threonine 0.59 0.52 0.57 0.50 Methionine 0.25 0.22 0.24 0.21 Methionine+cysteine 0.46 0.41 0.44 0.39 Tryptophan 0.18 0.16 0.17 0.15 Isoleucine 0.54 0.47 0.52 0.45 Valine 0.82 0.71 0.78 0.68 Calcium 0.90 0.90 0.85 0.85 Phosphorus, totald 0.80 0.80 0.75 0.75 Phosphorus, available 0.45 0.45 0.40 0.40 Phosphorus, digestible 0.39 0.39 0.35 0.35 -------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEe ----------------------------------------- Lysine, total 3.42 2.87 3.14 2.66 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 3.02 2.51 2.78 2.30 Threonine 1.78 1.58 1.72 1.52 Methionine 0.76 0.68 0.72 0.64 Methionine+cysteine 1.39 1.23 1.34 1.17 Tryptophan 0.54 0.48 0.50 0.46 Isoleucine 1.63 1.43 1.59 1.36 Valine 2.48 2.16 2.36 2.05 Calcium 2.72 2.72 2.57 2.57 Phosphorus, totald 2.42 2.42 2.27 2.27 Phosphorus, available 1.36 1.36 1.21 1.21 Phosphorus, digestible 1.18 1.18 1.06 1.06 a All diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-12 (Lactating Swine Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details; parity 1 = first lactation period, parity 2 = second lactation period, etc. b Sow performance assumptions: 21-day lactation length, initial piglet weight = 3 lb, sow weight at weaning = = 350 - 400 lb (parity 1) and 400 - 450 lb (parity 2+). c Parity 1 = first lactation period; parity 2 = second lactation period. d Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be ob- tained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. e Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calcula- tions.
  • 13. PAGE 12 PIG 07-02-09 Table 8. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for breeding boars (as-fed basis)a Body weight, lb 300 to 400 400 to 650 Assumed daily feed intake, lbb 5.4 6.0 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal//b 1.50 1.50 -------------------------------------- % of diet -------------------------------------- Lysine, total 0.75 0.75 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 0.64 0.64 Threonine 0.47 0.47 Methionine 0.17 0.17 Methionine + cysteine 0.45 0.45 Tryptophan 0.12 0.12 Isoleucine 0.36 0.36 Valine 0.44 0.44 Calcium 0.85 0.85 Phosphorus, totalc 0.75 0.75 Phosphorus, available 0.40 0.40 Phosphorus, digestible 0.35 0.35 -------------------------------------- g/Mcal MEd -------------------------------------- Lysine, total 2.27 2.27 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.94 1.94 Threonine 1.43 1.43 Methionine 0.52 0.52 Methionine + cysteine 1.35 1.35 Tryptophan 0.35 0.35 Isoleucine 1.10 1.10 Valine 1.32 1.32 Calcium 2.57 2.57 Phosphorus, totalc 2.27 2.27 Phosphorus, available 1.21 1.21 Phosphorus, digestible 1.06 1.06 a All diets are limit-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-13 (Breeding Boar Nutrient Recom- mendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Adjust to achieve a desired body condition or weight gain. c Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be ob- tained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. d Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calcula- tions.
  • 14. PAGE 13 PIG 07-02-09 Table 9. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for maternal-line replacement gilts (as- fed basis)ab Type of diet Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6F Phase 6L Body weight, lb 45 to 90 90 to 135 135 to 180 180 to 225 225 to 270 270 to breeding 270 to flush Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 5.0 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 -------------------------------------------% of diet ------------------------------------------ Lysine, total 1.15 1.04 0.95 0.85 0.74 0.65 0.77 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.02 0.92 0.84 0.74 0.64 0.56 0.67 Threonine 0.64 0.58 0.54 0.48 0.43 0.38 0.46 Methionine 0.30 0.27 0.24 0.22 0.19 0.17 0.21 Methionine + cysteine 0.59 0.53 0.50 0.45 0.40 0.35 0.42 Tryptophan 0.16 0.15 0.13 0.12 0.10 0.09 0.11 Isoleucine 0.56 0.51 0.46 0.41 0.35 0.31 0.37 Valine 0.66 0.60 0.54 0.48 0.42 0.36 0.44 Calcium 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.65 0.65 0.75 Phosphorus, totalc 0.81 0.75 0.71 0.67 0.65 0.65 0.75 Phosphorus, available 0.38 0.34 0.32 0.29 0.29 0.29 0.34 Phosphorus, digestible 0.35 0.32 0.29 0.26 0.26 0.26 0.32 -------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEd ----------------------------------------- Lysine, total 3.43 3.10 2.83 2.54 2.21 1.94 2.30 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 3.04 2.74 2.50 2.22 1.92 1.67 2.00 Threonine 1.92 1.73 1.60 1.44 1.29 1.14 1.36 Methionine 0.88 0.80 0.72 0.64 0.58 0.52 0.62 Methionine + cysteine 1.77 1.59 1.50 1.33 1.19 1.05 1.26 Tryptophan 0.49 0.44 0.40 0.36 0.31 0.27 0.32 Isoleucine 1.67 1.51 1.37 1.22 1.06 0.92 1.10 Valine 1.98 1.78 1.62 1.44 1.25 1.09 1.30 Calcium 2.42 2.24 2.12 2.00 1.94 1.94 2.24 Phosphorus, totalc 2.42 2.24 2.12 2.00 1.94 1.94 2.24 Phosphorus, available 1.13 1.01 0.95 0.87 0.87 0.87 1.01 Phosphorus, digestible 1.04 0.95 0.87 0.78 0.78 0.78 0.95 a All diets are full-fed under themoneutral conditions except diet 6L, which is limit-fed and is used in place of diet 6F for limit-feeding programs; see PIG factsheet #07-01-10 (Replacement Gilt and Boar Nutrient Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Sufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those inTable 11 for animals of these weights. Provide breeding herd levels of trace minerals and vitamins beginning at about 270 lb. c Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be ob- tained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. d Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calculations.
  • 15. PAGE 14 PIG 07-02-09 Table 10. Amino acid, calcium and phosphorus recommendations for terminal-line replacement boars (as-fed basis)ab Type of diet Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Phase 4 Phase 5 Phase 6 Body weight, lb 45 to 90 90 to 135 135 to 180 180 to 225 225 to 270 270 to 300 Assumed daily feed intake, lb 3.1 4.0 4.7 5.3 5.7 5.9 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 -------------------------------------------% of diet ------------------------------------------ Lysine, total 1.35 1.20 1.12 0.99 0.88 0.79 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 1.20 1.07 0.99 0.87 0.77 0.69 Threonine 0.76 0.67 0.64 0.57 0.52 0.47 Methionine 0.35 0.31 0.29 0.25 0.23 0.21 Methionine + cysteine 0.70 0.62 0.60 0.52 0.48 0.43 Tryptophan 0.19 0.17 0.16 0.14 0.12 0.11 Isoleucine 0.66 0.59 0.55 0.48 0.42 0.38 Valine 0.78 0.69 0.64 0.57 0.50 0.45 Calcium 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.68 Phosphorus, totalc 0.86 0.80 0.76 0.72 0.68 0.68 Phosphorus, available 0.46 0.39 0.34 0.31 0.30 0.30 Phosphorus, digestible 0.45 0.38 0.33 0.30 0.29 0.29 -------------------------------------------g/Mcal MEd ----------------------------------------- Lysine, total 4.03 3.58 3.34 2.95 2.63 2.36 Standardized ileal digestible Lysine 3.59 3.18 2.96 2.61 2.30 2.06 Threonine 2.26 2.00 1.90 1.69 1.54 1.40 Methionine 1.04 0.92 0.86 0.76 0.69 0.64 Methionine + cysteine 2.08 1.84 1.78 1.56 1.43 1.30 Tryptophan 0.57 0.51 0.47 0.42 0.37 0.33 Isoleucine 1.98 1.75 1.63 1.43 1.27 1.13 Valine 2.33 2.07 1.92 1.69 1.50 1.34 Calcium 2.57 2.39 2.27 2.15 2.03 2.03 Phosphorus, totalc 2.57 2.39 2.27 2.15 2.03 2.03 Phosphorus, available 1.37 1.16 1.01 0.93 0.90 0.90 Phosphorus, digestible 1.34 1.13 0.98 0.90 0.87 0.87 a All diets are full-fed under thermoneutral conditions; see PIG factsheet #07-01-10 (Replacement Gilt and Boar Nutri- ent Recommendations and Feeding Management) for more details. b Sufficient data are not available to indicate that requirements for other nutrients are different from those inTable 11 for animals of these weights. Provide breeding herd levels of trace minerals and vitamins beginning at about 270 lb. c Total phosphorus recommendations should be used as a guideline only; those recommendations may not be ob- tained when formulating practical diets on an available or digestible phosphorus basis which is recommended. Also, total phosphorus recommendations will not be achieved when phytase is included in the diet. d Recommended amount relative to dietary metabolizable energy (ME) density; energy values of ingredients from PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) were used in the calcula- tions.
  • 16. PAGE 15 PIG 07-02-09 Table 11. Recommended dietary additions of lactose, trace minerals and vitamins from concentrates, base mixes or premixes Type of diet Nursery Grower Finisher-1 Finisher-2 Finisher + RACa Sows Breeding boars Body weight, lb 9 to 45 45 to 135 135 to 225 225 to 315 225 to 315 Dietary metabolizable energy, Mcal/lb 1.54 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.52 1.50 1.50 Lactose, % 23 to 0b 0 0 0 0 0 0 Minerals Sodium, %c,d 0.25 to 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.2 0.2 Chloride, %c,d 0.25 to 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.15 0.2 0.2 Copper, ppme 16 12 10 8 12 16 16 Iodine, ppm 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25 0.30 0.30 Iron, ppm 165 125 100 75 125 165 165 Manganese, ppm 10 6 5 4 6 30 30 Selenium, ppmf 0.3 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.25 0.3 0.3 Zinc, ppme 165 125 100 75 125 165 165 Vitamins Vitamin A, IU/lb 3000 2500 2000 1500 2500 4000 4000 Vitamin D3 , IU/lb 300 250 200 150 250 300 300 Vitamin E, IU/lb 30 15 12 9 15 30 30 Vitamin K, mg/lbg 2 1 0.8 0.6 1 2 2 Riboflavin, mg/lb 4 4 3 2 4 4 4 Niacin, mg/lb 22 11 9 7 11 15 15 Pantothenic acid, mg/lb 12 7 6 5 7 10 10 Choline, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 250 250 Biotin, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0.1 0.1 Vitamin B12 , mg/lb 0.02 0.01 0.008 0.006 0.01 0.01 0.01 Folic acid, mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0.75 0.75 Vitamin B6 ,mg/lb 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 a Ractopamine hydrochloride (Paylean®). b 23, 18, 7.2 and 0% for phase 1 (9 to 11 lb), phase 2 (11 to 15 lb), phase 3 (15 to 25 lb) and phase 4 (25 to 45 lb), respec- tively. c Salt is usually added at the rate of 5 to 7 lb/ton in nursery diets, 6 to 7 lb/ton in grower-finisher diets and 10 lb/ton in sow and breeding boar diets to help provide a significant portion of the total dietary sodium and chloride recommen- dations. d Recommendations for sodium and chloride represent total dietary amounts, not additions; 0.25, 0.20, 0.20 and 0.15% for nursery phase 1 (9 to 11 lb), nursery phase 2 (11 to 15 lb), nursery phase 3 (15 to 25 lb) and nursery phase 4 (25 to 45 lb), respectively. e Levels of 3,000 ppm Zn for Phases 1 and 2 ( 9 to 15 lb) and 2,000 ppm Zn for Phase 3 ( 15 to 25 lb) from zinc ox- ide should be added to growth promotion; or 125 to 250 ppm Cu from copper sulfate or tri-basic copper chloride in Phases 1, 2, and 3 ( 9 to 25 lb). f Maximum legal addition is 0.3 ppm. g Menadione activity. See PIG factsheet #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) for more details, including a recommended minimum and maximum amount to add to diets.
  • 17. PAGE 16 PIG 07-02-09 Table 13.Vitamin premix specifications for nursery dietsabc Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix Vitamin A IU/lb 1,200,000 Vitamin D3 IU/lb 120,000 Vitamin E IU/lb 12,000 Vitamin K mg 800 Riboflavin mg 1,600 Niacin mg 8,800 Pantothenic acid mg 4,800 Choline mg 0 Biotin mg 0 Vitamin B12 mg 8.28 Folic acid mg 0 Vitamin B6 mg 0 a Vitamin sources are listedTable 24. b Premix usage rate: 5 lb/ton of complete feed. c A premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown inTable 11. Table 12.Trace mineral premix specificationsabc Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix Copper mg 4,850 Iodine mg 90 Iron mg 50,000 Manganese mg 9,000 Selenium mg 90 Zinc mg 50,000 a Mineral sources are listed inTable 22. b Premix usage rates: Sows, breeding boars and nursery pigs, 3 lb/ton of complete feed. Grower (45 to 135 lb pigs), 2.5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 1 (135 to 225 lb pigs), 2 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 2 (225 to 315 lb pigs), 1.5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher + RAC (225 to 315 lb pigs), 2.5 lb/ton of complete feed. c The mineral additions shown inTable 11 are met or exceeded with a premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed.
  • 18. PAGE 17 PIG 07-02-09 Table 15.Vitamin premix specifications for sow and breeding boar dietsabc Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix Vitamin A IU/lb 1,600,000 Vitamin D3 IU/lb 120,000 Vitamin E IU/lb 12,000 Vitamin K mg 800 Riboflavin mg 1,600 Niacin mg 6,000 Pantothenic acid mg 4,000 Choline mg 100,000 Biotin mg 40 Vitamin B12 mg 4 Folic acid mg 300 Vitamin B6 mg 0 a Vitamin sources are listed inTable 24. b Premix usage rate: 5 lb/ton of complete feed. c A premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown inTable 11. Table 14.Vitamin premix specifications for growing-finishing dietsabc Nutrient Units Potency per lb of premix Vitamin A IU/lb 1,000,000 Vitamin D3 IU/lb 100,000 Vitamin E IU/lb 6,000 Vitamin K mg 400 Riboflavin mg 1,600 Niacin mg 4,400 Pantothenic acid mg 2,800 Choline mg 0 Biotin mg 0 Vitamin B12 mg 4 Folic acid mg 0 Vitamin B6 mg 0 a Vitamin sources are listedTable 24. b Premix usage rates: Grower (45 to 135 lb pigs), 5 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 1 (135 to 225 lb pigs), 4 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher 2 (225 to 315 lb pigs), 3 lb/ton of complete feed. Finisher + RAC (225 to 315 lb pigs), 5 lb/ton of complete feed. c A premix containing the potency indicated and used as directed will fortify diets as shown inTable 11.
  • 19. PAGE 18 PIG 07-02-09
  • 20. PAGE 19 PIG 07-02-09 Ingredient composition and use rate Individual ingredients can vary widely in composition because of the variation in species or variety, stor- age conditions, climate, soil moisture, agronomic differences and manufacturing practices. Variations in chemical analytical procedures can also affect the values obtained.Therefore, the values listed in this pub- lication should be used as a guide in formulating diets. Otherwise, rely on ingredient analyses as neces- sary prior to diet formulation. Most of the tabular information contained herein was obtained from the NRC (1998). Information pub- lished since the NRC (1998) was also included. An attempt was made to include analytical results of feed ingredients obtained from contemporary crop cultivars, newer processing techniques, and improved analytical procedures. Net energy The net energy value for approximately 40% of the ingredients inTable 16 was obtained from EvaPig (2008); for other ingredients, net energy was calculated from one of the following equations where ME = metabolizable energy, EE = ether extract, ST = starch, CP = crude protein, CF = crude fiber and ADF = acid detergent fiber. Equation NE1 was used when values for EE, ST, CP and ADF were known or could be rea- sonably estimated. When ADF was not available, equation NE2 was used to estimate NE. NE1 = 0.726 x ME + 1.33 x EE + 0.39 x ST – 0.62 x CP – 0.83 x ADF (R2 = 0.97; Noblet et al., 1994) NE2 = 0.730 x ME + 1.31 x EE + 0.37 x ST – 0.67 x CP – 0.97 x CF (R2 = 0.97; Noblet et al., 1994) The net energy value for fats and oils (Table 24) was calculated by multiplying ME by 0.90, the estimated efficiency with which fat is converted from ME to NE (INRA, 2004). Iodine value and iodine product Due to carcass fat quality concerns when feeding high levels of dietary unsaturated fat, both iodine value (IV) and iodine value product (IVP) are listed for each ingredient. The iodine value for each ingredient reflects the fat saturation level of each ingredient. A lower iodine value indicates a higher degree of fat saturation in the ingredient. Iodine value product is the value assigned to each ingredient that accounts for its IV and percentage fat it contains. Once calculated, IVP can be used to help predict the carcass fat IV of pigs fed those diets. Iodine values for available ingredients were obtained from the NRC (1998). For ingredients not listed in the NRC (1998), fatty acid profiles were obtained from cited references from which iodine values were calculated using the following equation: IV = [C16:1] × 0.95 + [C18:1] × 0.86 + [C18:2] × 1.732 + [C18:3] × 2.616 + [C20:1] × 0.785 + [C22:1] × 0.723, where the brackets indicate concentration (percentage) of the fatty acid (AOCS, 1998). Iodine value product for each ingredient was calculated using the following equation: IVP = IV of the ingredient oil × % oil in the ingredient × 0.10 (Christensen, 1962). Ingredient use rate The upper limits of usage presented in this factsheet (Table 25) represent conservative estimates of the extent ingredients can be included in swine diets balanced for energy, amino acids, minerals and vitamins and not negatively impact growth and reproductive performance and/or carcass composition. We acknowl- edge that establishing upper limits of usage is greatly dependent on individual risk tolerance. Also, situ- ations exist were it is economically justified to increase the inclusion rate of an ingredient even if perfor- mance is negatively impacted. In general, factors such as palatability, risk of gastrointestinal disturbance, unspecified loss of perfor- mance, appetite impairment and others that are involved in affecting growth and reproductive perfor- mance and/or carcass composition were considered in establishing the upper limits of usage indicated in this factsheet.
  • 21. PAGE 20 PIG 07-02-09 Table 16. Chemical composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Di- gest- ible energy (kcal/ lb) Metab- olizable energy (kcal/lb) Net En- ergy (kcal/ lb) Crude pro- tein (%) Acid deter- gent fiber (%) Neu- tral deter- gent fiber (%) Crude fiber (%) Starch (%) Crude fat (%) Lino- leic acid (%) Iodine value Iodine value prod- uct Alfalfa meal, dehydrated 92 830 750 398 17.0 30.2 41.2 24.0 0 2.6 0.35 100 26.0 Bakery waste, dehydrated 91 1787 1682 1349 10.8 1.3 2.0 1.2 53.7 11.3 5.70 125 141.3 Barley, two row 89 1383 1322 1034 11.3 6.2 18.0 5.0 52.2 1.9 0.88 125 23.8 Beet pulp 91 1300 1134 671 8.6 24.3 42.4 18.2 0 0.8 0.04 1 0.1 Blood Cells, spray- dried 92 1996 1900 1115 92.0 --- --- 0.5 0 1.5 --- 44 7.0 Meal, flash- dried 92 1043 886 386 87.6 --- --- 1.0 0 1.6 --- 44 7.0 Meal, spray- dried 93 1529 1338 710 88.8 --- --- 1.0 0 1.3 0.17 44 6.0 Plasma protein, spray-dried 91 2066 1809 1094 78.0 --- --- 0.2 0 2.0 --- 44 8.0 Canola meal 90 1309 1200 687 35.6 17.2 21.2 11.1 0 3.5 0.42 118 41.3 Corn Distillers dried grains w/solu- bles (DDGS) 88 1649 1552 1076 27.4 12.2 30.5 7.7 7.3 9.9 2.15 125 123.8 Distillers dried grains -high protein 90 1997 1876 1252 41.8 8.7 16.4 7.2 11.2 3.4 --- 125 42.5 Germ 91 1665 1618 1259 14.8 5.6 20.4 6.2 23.6 17.5 --- 125 218.8 Gluten feed 90 1356 1184 740 21.5 10.7 33.3 6.8 18.0 3.0 1.43 125 37.5 Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 1920 1741 1122 60.2 4.6 8.7 1.1 17.2 2.9 1.17 125 36.3 Grain, yellow dent 89 1602 1555 1203 8.3 2.8 9.6 2.3 64.1 3.9 1.92 125 48.8 Grain, high nutrient 87 1580 1662 1273 9.2 2.3 6.3 2.3 58.0 4.5 --- 125 56.3 Grain, high oil 87 1697 1629 1291 8.4 2.9 --- 2.0 60.3 6.0 --- 125 75.0 Grain, low- phytate 88 1697 1629 1286 9.2 2.8 --- 2.2 64.1 4.4 --- 125 55.0 Hominy feed 90 1522 1459 1104 10.3 8.1 28.5 5.0 36.0 6.7 2.97 125 83.8 Egg, spray-dried --- 2380 2285 1696 47.0 0 --- --- 0 28 --- 71 198.8 Fish meal, men- haden 92 1710 1527 994 62.3 --- --- 0.9 0 9.4 0.12 110 103.4 Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 1388 1229 793 33.6 15.0 23.9 9.8 0 1.8 0.36 169 30.4 Lactose 96 1602 1561 1447 0.3 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 1432 1249 798 52.8 5.6 32.5 2.4 0 10.1 0.72 70 76.3 Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 1507 1328 842 56.4 8.3 31.6 2.3 0 11.2 0.80 70 84.0 Millet, proso 90 1370 1340 1004 11.1 13.8 15.8 6.1 52.8 3.5 1.92 135 47.3 Molasses Beet 76 1093 1060 716 11.0 --- --- 0 0 0.2 --- 1 0 Cane 74 1044 1011 697 4.0 --- --- 0 0 1.1 --- 1 0.1
  • 22. PAGE 21 PIG 07-02-09 Table 16. Chemical composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab (continued) Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Di- gest- ible energy (kcal/ lb) Metab- olizable energy (kcal/lb) Net En- ergy (kcal/ lb) Crude pro- tein (%) Acid deter- gent fiber (%) Neu- tral deter- gent fiber (%) Crude fiber (%) Starch (%) Crude fat (%) Lino- leic acid (%) Iodine value Iodine value prod- uct Oats Grain 89 1256 1232 861 11.5 13.5 27.0 10.7 36.2 4.7 1.62 106 49.8 Groat 90 1674 1575 1218 13.9 4.6 11.6 2.5 52.6 6.2 2.40 106 65.7 Peas 88 1580 1500 1082 22.0 8.2 13.7 5.5 44.6 1.2 0.47 135 16.2 Rye 88 1483 1390 1070 11.8 4.6 12.3 2.2 53.8 1.6 0.76 131 21.0 Skim milk, dried 96 1809 1689 1232 34.6 --- --- 0.2 0 0.9 0.01 27 2.4 Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 1536 1518 1187 9.2 8.3 18.0 2.2 64.1 2.9 1.13 116 33.6 Soybean Hulls 89 908 848 453 12.0 40.4 56.4 34.2 0.9 2.2 0.16 130 28.6 Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 1672 1536 907 47.5 5.4 8.9 3.4 0.8 3.0 0.60 130 39.0 Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 1651 1517 894 46.5 6.4 10.2 4.4 0.8 3.0 0.59 130 39.0 Meal, 44% CP 89 1586 1445 881 44.0 9.4 13.3 7.3 0.8 1.5 0.69 130 19.5 Meal, enzymati- cally treated 92 --- --- --- 54.4 --- --- 3.8 0.8 1.1 --- 130 14.3 Meal, ferment- ed 91 1620 1520 938 53.7 --- --- 3.3 0.8 0.8 --- 130 10.4 Protein concen- trate 90 1860 1591 969 64.0 --- --- 3.5 0 3.0 --- 130 39.0 Protein isolate 92 1882 1618 922 85.8 --- --- 0.4 0 0.6 --- 130 7.8 Seeds, heat processed 90 1878 1677 1162 35.2 8.0 13.9 5.2 0.4 18.0 9.13 130 234.0 Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 1288 1243 732 42.2 18.4 27.8 15.8 0 2.9 1.07 120 34.8 Triticale 90 1506 1445 1122 12.5 3.2 12.7 4.0 59.9 1.8 0.71 87 15.7 Wheat Bran 89 1098 1034 679 15.7 11.9 42.1 10.0 19.8 4.0 1.80 83 33.2 Grain, hard red winter 88 1526 1459 1114 13.5 3.7 13.5 2.6 55.5 2.0 0.93 83 16.6 Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 1395 1375 993 15.9 9.2 35.6 7.8 27.7 4.2 1.74 83 34.9 Whey Dried 96 1513 1450 1299 12.1 --- --- --- 0 0.9 0.01 27 2.4 Permeate 96 1558 1500 1080 3.8 0 --- --- 0 0.2 --- 27 0.5 Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 2250 1978 1290 78.2 0 --- --- 0 12.8 --- 27 35.0 a Dashes indicate no data were available. b See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 23. PAGE 22 PIG 07-02-09 Table 17. Amino acid composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids for swine shown in parenthesisab Ingredient Dry Matter (%) Crude protein (%) Lysine (%) Threo- nine (%) Me- thio- nine (%) Cys- teine (%) Trypto- phan (%) Iso- leucine (%) Valine (%) Argi- nine (%) His- tidine (%) Leu- cine (%) Phe- nyl- ala- nine (%) Tyro- sine (%) Alfalfa meal, dehy 92 17.0 0.74 (56) 0.70 (63) 0.25 (71) 0.18 (37) 0.24 (46) 0.68 (68) 0.86 (64) 0.71 (74) 0.37 (59) 1.21 (71) 0.84 (70) 0.55 (66) Bakery waste, dehy 91 10.8 0.27 (77) 0.33 (69) 0.18 (90) 0.23 (91) 0.10 (91) 0.38 (94) 0.46 (93) 0.46 (---) 0.24 (---) 0.80 (90) 0.50 (---) 0.36 (---) Barley, two row 89 11.3 0.41 (79) 0.35 (81) 0.20 (86) 0.28 (86) 0.11 (80) 0.39 (84) 0.52 (82) 0.54 (86) 0.25 (86) 0.77 (86) 0.55 (88) 0.29 (87) Beet pulp 91 8.6 0.52 (51) 0.38 (30) 0.07 (64) 0.06 (21) 0.10 (41) 0.31 (60) 0.45 (42) 0.32 (57) 0.23 (61) 0.53 (59) 0.30 (54) 0.40 (51) Blood Cells, spray- dried 92 92.0 8.51 (98) 3.38 (96) 0.81 (94) 0.61 (89) 1.37 (97) 0.49 (53) 8.50 (98) 3.77 (99) 6.99 (98) 12.70 (98) 6.69 (98) 2.14 (88) Meal, flash-dried 92 87.6 7.56 (77) 4.07 (80) 0.95 (80) 1.20 (64) 1.06 (77) 0.88 (65) 8.03 (77) 3.37 (79) 4.57 (79) 11.48 (80) 6.41 (81) 2.32 (54) Meal, spray- dried 93 88.8 7.45 (94) 3.78 (94) 0.99 (96) 1.04 (91) 1.48 (94) 1.03 (92) 7.03 (91) 3.69 (92) 5.30 (92) 10.81 (92) 5.81 (93) 2.71 (93) Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91 78.0 6.84 (91) 4.72 (87) 0.75 (92) 2.63 (85) 0.36 (92) 2.71 (92) 4.94 (89) 4.55 (95) 2.55 (91) 7.61 (92) 4.42 (92) 3.53 (92) Canola meal 90 35.6 2.08 (78) 1.59 (76) 0.74 (86) 0.91 (83) 0.45 (75) 1.43 (78) 1.82 (77) 2.21 (85) 0.96 (85) 2.58 (81) 1.43 (82) 1.13 (79) Corn Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 88 27.4 0.78 (62) 0.97 (71) 0.58 (82) 0.38 (74) 0.20 (70) 1.04 (75) 1.38 (75) 1.16 (81) 0.71 (77) 3.32 (83) 1.34 (81) 1.16 (81) Distillers dried grains -high protein 90 41.8 1.17 (64) 0.54 (77) 0.86 (88) 0.80 (82) 0.24 (81) 1.73 (81) 2.11 (80) 1.52 (83) 1.10 (81) o.96 (91) 2.38 (87) 1.97 (88) Germ 91 14.8 0.79 (58) 0.52 (53) 0.26 (68) 0.31 (64) 0.11 (67) 0.45 (57) 0.73 (62) 1.10 (83) 0.42 (69) 1.09 (68) 0.58 (64) 0.42 (59) Gluten feed 90 21.5 0.63 (66) 0.74 (71) 0.35 (83) 0.46 (59) 0.07 (64) 0.66 (80) 1.01 (77) 1.04 (87) 0.67 (78) 1.96 (85) 0.76 (87) 0.58 (84) Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 60.2 1.02 (80) 2.08 (84) 1.43 (90) 1.09 (82) 0.31 (63) 2.48 (84) 2.79 (80) 1.93 (89) 1.28 (80) 10.19 (88) 3.84 (85) 3.25 (87) Grain, yellow dent 89 8.3 0.26 (78) 0.29 (82) 0.17 (90) 0.19 (86) 0.06 (84) 0.28 (87) 0.39 (87) 0.37 (89) 0.23 (87) 0.99 (92) 0.39 (90) 0.25 (89) Grain, high nutrient 87 9.2 0.27 (78) 0.31 (79) 0.22 (87) 0.22 (82) o.07 (76) 0.33 (83) 0.44 (82) 0.43 (88) 0.26 (85) 1.17 (87) 0.41 (85) 0.20 (80) Grain, high oil 87 8.4 0.28 (---) 0.31 (---) 0.20 (---) 0.19 (---) 0.07 (---) 0.31 (---) 0.42 (---) 0.43 (---) 0.27 (---) 1.06 (---) 0.42 (---) --- (---) Grain, low- phytate 88 9.2 0.29 (81) 0.30 (81) 0.20 (88) 0.19 (85) 0.07 (---) 0.33 (86) 0.46 (85) 0.41 (93) 0.25 (86) 1.10 (90) 0.37 (89) 0.32 (89) Hominy feed 90 10.3 0.38 (65) 0.40 (65) 0.18 (86) 0.18 (67) 0.10 (60) 0.36 (75) 0.52 (73) 0.56 (86) 0.28 (74) 0.98 (83) 0.43 (84) 0.40 (88) Egg, spray-dried --- 47.0 3.09 (81) 2.25 (84) 1.48 (90) 1.11 (90) 0.73 (90) 2.87 (89) 3.30 (86) --- --- 4.03 (89) --- --- Fish meal, men- haden 92 62.9 4.81 (95) 2.64 (88) 1.77 (94) 0.57 (88) 0.66 (90) 2.57 (94) 3.03 (93) 3.66 (94) 1.78 (93) 4.54 (94) 2.51 (93) 2.04 (92) Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 33.6 1.24 (82) 1.26 (79) 0.59 (85) 0.59 (87) 0.52 (84) 1.56 (81) 1.74 (82) 2.97 (78) 0.68 (81) 2.06 (80) 1.57 (80) 1.03 (---) Lactose 96 0.3 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 52.8 2.76 (80) 1.62 (80) 0.72 (83) 0.51 (63) 0.36 (78) 1.54 (82) 2.28 (79) 3.55 (83) 0.98 (83) 3.17 (81) 1.74 (81) 1.16 (78) Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 56.4 3.29 (83) 1.89 (82) 0.87 (87) 0.52 (58) 0.43 (79) 1.92 (84) 2.60 (80) 3.58 (86) 1.29 (83) 3.71 (83) 2.00 (85) 1.37 (80) Millet, proso 90 11.1 0.23 (90) 0.40 (94) 0.31 (93) 0.18 (92) 0.16 (98) 0.46 (96) 0.57 (94) 0.41 (93) 0.20 (88) 1.24 (94) 0.56 (98) 0.31 (---)
  • 24. PAGE 23 PIG 07-02-09 Table 17. Amino acid composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of amino acids for swine shown in parenthesisab (continued) Ingredient Dry Matter (%) Crude protein (%) Lysine (%) Threo- nine (%) Me- thio- nine (%) Cys- teine (%) Trypto- phan (%) Iso- leucine (%) Valine (%) Argi- nine (%) His- tidine (%) Leu- cine (%) Phe- nyl- ala- nine (%) Tyro- sine (%) Molasses Beet 76 11.0 0.16 (---) 0.07 (---) 0.02 (---) 0.07 (---) 0.08 (---) 0.28 (---) 0.19 (---) 0.08 (---) 0.06 (---) 0.29 (---) 0.05 (---) 0.29 (---) Cane 74 4.0 0.01 (---) 0.06 (---) 0.02 (---) 0.04 (---) 0.01 (---) 0.03 (---) 0.12 (---) 0.02 (---) 0.01 (---) 0.05 (---) 0.02 (---) 0.05 (---) Oats Grain 89 11.5 0.40 (76) 0.44 (71) 0.22 (84) 0.36 (75) 0.14 (78) 0.48 (80) 0.66 (79) 0.87 (89) 0.31 (85) 0.92 (83) 0.65 (86) 0.41 (82) Groat 90 13.9 0.48 (79) 0.44 (80) 0.20 (86) 0.22 (85) 0.18 (82) 0.55 (83) 0.72 (81) 0.85 (86) 0.24 (82) 0.98 (83) 0.66 (84) 0.51 (84) Peas 88 22.0 1.60 (88) 0.90 (78) 0.24 (80) 0.26 (73) 0.19 (75) 0.95 (83) 1.05 (80) 1.85 (92) 0.55 (88) 1.65 (85) 1.05 (86) 0.75 (85) Rye 88 11.8 0.38 (73) 0.32 (73) 0.17 (81) 0.19 (83) 0.12 (75) 0.37 (77) 0.51 (75) 0.50 (79) 0.24 (78) 0.64 (79) 0.50 (82) 0.26 (76) Skim milk, dried 96 34.6 2.86 (93) 1.62 (92) 0.92 (96) 0.30 (89) 0.51 (97) 1.87 (88) 2.33 (91) 1.24 (92) 1.05 (96) 3.67 (97) 1.78 (98) 1.87 (97) Sorghum, grain (milo) 88 9.2 0.22 (81) 0.31 (84) 0.17 (89) 0.17 (83) 0.10 (83) 0.37 (87) 0.46 (87) 0.38 (87) 0.23 (81) 1.21 (90) 0.49 (88) 0.35 (87) Soybean Hulls 89 12.0 0.71 (59) 0.43 (58) 0.14 (68) 0.19 (63) 0.14 (63) 0.44 (60) 0.51 (58) 0.59 (77) 0.28 (58) 0.74 (61) 0.45 (68) 0.36 (64) Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 47.5 3.02 (90) 1.85 (87) 0.67 (91) 0.74 (87) 0.65 (90) 2.16 (89) 2.27 (88) 3.48 (94) 1.28 (91) 3.66 (89) 2.39 (89) 1.82 (90) Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 46.5 2.96 (89) 1.81 (86) 0.66 (90) 0.72 (86) 0.64 (89) 2.11 (88) 2.22 (87) 3.40 (94) 1.25 (90) 3.58 (88) 2.34 (88) 1.78 (89) Meal, 44% CP 89 44.0 2.83 (89) 1.73 (85) 0.61 (91) 0.70 (84) 0.61 (87) 1.99 (88) 2.06 (86) 3.23 (93) 1.17 (90) 3.42 (88) 2.18 (88) 1.69 (90) Meal, enzymati- cally treated 92 54.4 3.06 (88) 2.02 (86) 0.71 (92) 0.76 (85) 0.69 (88) 2.31 (90) 2.40 (90) 3.75 (98) 1.35 (89) 3.98 (89) 2.74 (92) 2.03 (92) Meal, fermented 91 53.7 3.11 (77) 1.98 (79) 0.76 (88) 0.77 (70) 0.67 (84) 2.48 (86) 2.69 (84) 3.50 (94) 1.30 (84) 4.09 (85) 2.71 (87) 1.97 (88) Protein concen- trate 90 64.0 4.20 (95) 2.80 (94) 0.90 (94) 1.00 (94) 0.90 (93) 3.30 (94) 3.40 (93) 5.79 (99) 1.80 (97) 5.30 (95) 3.40 (97) 2.50 (96) Protein isolate 92 85.8 5.26 (91) 3.17 (85) 1.01 (92) 1.19 (82) 1.08 (88) 4.25 (90) 4.21 (89) 6.87 (99) 2.25 (91) 6.64 (89) 4.34 (92) 3.10 (91) Seeds, heat processed 90 35.2 2.22 (93) 1.41 (86) 0.53 (92) 0.55 (85) 0.48 (89) 1.61 (90) 1.68 (89) 2.60 (97) 0.96 (92) 2.75 (90) 1.83 (91) 1.32 (91) Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 42.2 1.20 (90) 1.33 (84) 0.82 (90) 0.66 (81) 0.44 (84) 1.44 (84) 1.74 (82) 2.93 (93) 0.92 (85) 2.31 (85) 1.66 (86) 1.03 (88) Triticale 90 12.5 0.39 (81) 0.36 (76) 0.20 (89) 0.26 (87) 0.14 (88) 0.39 (84) 0.51 (84) 0.57 (88) 0.26 (84) 0.76 (86) 0.49 (85) 0.32 (83) Wheat Bran 89 15.7 0.64 (71) 0.52 (70) 0.25 (79) 0.33 (77) 0.22 (74) 0.49 (76) 0.72 (75) 1.07 (87) 0.44 (82) 0.98 (78) 0.62 (81) 0.43 (80) Grain, hard red winter 88 13.5 0.34 (81) o.37 (83) 0.20 (89) 0.29 (91) 0.15 (88) 0.41 (89) 0.54 (86) 0.60 (88) 0.32 (90) 0.86 (90) 0.60 (91) 0.38 (90) Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 15.9 0.57 (89) 0.51 (88) 0.26 (93) 0.32 (91) 0.20 (91) 0.53 (92) 0.75 (90) 0.97 (95) 0.44 (94) 1.06 (93) 0.70 (95) 0.29 (92) Whey Dried 96 12.1 0.90 (87) 0.72 (79) 0.17 (81) 0.25 (85) 0.18 (79) 0.62 (83) 0.60 (77) 0.26 (48) 0.23 (89) 1.08 (87) 0.36 (83) 0.25 (77) Permeate 96 3.8 0.18 (---) 0.14 (---) 0.03 (---) 0.04 (---) 0.03 (---) 0.17 (---) 0.13 (---) 0.06 (---) 0.05 (---) 0.22 (---) 0.06 (---) --- (---) Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 78.2 7.33 (96) 5.21 (88) 1.65 (94) 1.75 (85) 1.72 (102) 5.07 (94) 4.75 (93) 1.96 (95) 1.58 (91) 8.49 (95) 2.69 (90) 2.44 (86) a Dashes indicate no data were available. b See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 25. PAGE 24 PIG 07-02-09 Table 18. Chemical composition of manufactured amino acids sources for swine (as-fed basis).ab Amino acid Source Dry Mat- ter (%) Di- gest- ible en- ergy (kcal/ lb) Me- tabo- liz- able en- ergy (kcal/ lb) Net en- ergy (kcal/ lb) Crude pro- tein (%) Ly- sine (%) Thre- onine (%) Me- thio- nine (%) Tryp- to- phan (%) Iso- leu- cine (%) Valine (%) Isoleucine L-isoleucine 99 2926 2781 2146 65.4 98 Lysine L-lysine HCl 99.5 2175 1979 1533 95.4 78.8 Lysine, liquid 55.0 --- 1333 --- 59.9 50.0 Lysine, liquid --- --- --- --- --- 60.0 Lysine, sulfate 95.0 2023 1925 1435 75.0 50.7 0.4 0.2 0.14 0.4 0.7 Methionine DL- methionine 99.5 2566 2436 1881 58.4 99.0 MHA 88.0 2273 2153 1664 --- 88 Threonine L-threonine 99.5 1870 1718 1338 73.1 99.0 Tryptophan L-tryptophan 99.5 2990 2806 2175 85.3 98.5 Valine L-valine 98.5 2644 2486 --- 72.1 96.5 a Dashes indicate no data were available. b See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 26. PAGE 25 PIG 07-02-09 Table 19. Chemical composition of fats, oils and crude glycerol for swine (as-fed basis).ab Ingredient Dry Matter (%) Digest- ible energy (kcal/lb) Metabo- lizable energy (kcal/lb) Net energy (kcal/lb) Unsatu- rated: saturated fatty acid ratio Iodine value Iodine value product Total Σ N-6 Total Σ N-3 Animal fats Beef tallow 99 3636 3491 3142 0.92 44 440 3.1 0.6 Choice white grease 99 3768 3616 3254 1.45 60 600 11.6 0.4 Poultry fat 99 3873 3718 3346 2.20 78 780 19.5 1.0 Glycerol, crude (86.96 % glyc- erol) 91 1520 1458 --- --- --- --- --- --- Fish oils Herring 99 3945 3786 3407 3.39 --- --- 1.4 17.8 Menhaden 99 3852 3698 3328 2.00 --- --- 1.5 25.1 Vegetable oils Canola 100 3982 3823 3441 12.46 118 1180 20.3 9.3 Corn 100 3980 3820 3438 6.53 125 1250 58.0 0.7 Restaurant grease 98 3886 3730 3357 2.34 75 750 17.5 1.9 Soybean 100 3977 3818 3436 5.64 130 1300 51.0 6.8 a Dashes indicate no data were available. b See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 27. PAGE 26 PIG 07-02-09 Table 20. Mineral composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent bio-availablity and apparent digest- ibility of phosphorus for swine shown in parenthesis, respectively a* Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Cal- cium (%) Phos- phorus (%) So- dium (%) Chlor- ine (%) Cop- per (ppm) Iodine (ppm) Iron (ppm) Man- ganese (ppm) Sel- enium (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Mag- ne- sium (%) Potas- sium (%) Sulfur (%) Alfalfa meal, dehy 92 1.53 0.26 (100, 20) 0.09 0.47 10 0.15 333 32 0.34 24 0.23 2.30 0.29 Bakery waste, dehy 91 0.13 0.25 (36, ---) 1.14 1.48 5 --- 28 65 --- 15 0.24 0.39 0.02 Barley, two row 89 0.06 0.35 (30, 41b ) 0.04 0.12 7 0.04 78 18 0.19 25 0.14 0.45 0.15 Beet pulp 91 0.70 0.10 (20, 20) 0.20 0.10 11 2 411 46 0.09 12 0.22 0.61 0.31 Blood Cells, spray- dried 92 0.02 0.34 (92, 80) 0.55 0.61 3 --- 2618 0.4 1.0 16 0.02 0.80 0.49 Meal, flash-dried 92 0.21 0.21 (92, 80) 0.29 0.38 6 0.34 2341 10 0.58 16 0.21 0.14 0.45 Meal, spray- dried 93 0.41 0.30 (92, 80) 0.44 0.25 8 0.34 2919 6 0.58 30 0.11 0.15 0.47 Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91 0.15 1.48 (92, 80) 2.76 1.19 18 --- 77 2.5 1.6 13 0.03 0.02 1.02 Canola meal 90 0.63 1.01 (16, 32) 0.07 0.11 6 0.09 142 49 1.10 69 0.51 1.22 0.85 Corn Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 88 0.06 0.69 (76, 59) 0.21 0.20 5 0.03 105 14 0.39 85 0.29 0.82 0.41 Distillers dried grains-high protein 90 0.02 0.38 (76, 60) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Germ 91 0.02 1.20 (33, 29) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Gluten feed 90 0.22 0.83 (59, 22) 0.15 0.22 48 0.07 460 24 0.27 70 0.33 0.98 0.22 Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 0.05 0.44 (15, 19) 0.02 0.06 26 --- 282 4 1.0 33 0.08 0.18 0.43 Grain, yellow dent 89 0.03 0.28 (14, 28) 0.02 0.05 3 0.09 29 7 0.07 18 0.12 0.33 0.13 Grain, high nutrient 87 0.04 0.26 (35, 40) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 0.11 0.32 --- Grain, high oil 87 0.01 0.26 (32, 40) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Grain, low- phytate 88 0.03 0.28 (66, 55) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- 0.10 0.28 --- Hominy feed 90 0.05 0.43 (14, 21) 0.08 0.07 13 --- 67 15 0.10 30 0.24 0.61 0.03 Egg, spray-dried --- 0.21 0.67 (50, ---) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Fish meal, men- haden 92 5.21 3.04 (93, 77) 0.40 0.55 11 1.09 440 37 2.10 147 0.16 0.70 0.45 Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 0.39 0.83 (---, 32) 0.13 0.06 22 0.90 270 41 0.63 66 0.54 1.26 0.39 Lactose 96 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 96 9.87 4.63 (90, 75) 0.69 0.65 11 1.31 606 17 0.31 0.38 0.41 0.65 0.38 Meat meal (< 4% P) 96 6.60 3.17 (90, 75) 0.80 0.97 10 --- 440 10 0.37 94 0.35 0.57 0.45 Millet, proso 90 0.03 0.31 (32, ---) 0.04 0.03 26 --- 71 30 0.70 18 0.16 0.43 0.14
  • 28. PAGE 27 PIG 07-02-09 Table 20. Mineral composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis). Percent bio-availablity and apparent digest- ibility of phosphorus for swine shown in parenthesis, respectively a* (continued) Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Cal- cium (%) Phos- phorus (%) So- dium (%) Chlor- ine (%) Cop- per (ppm) Iodine (ppm) Iron (ppm) Man- ganese (ppm) Sel- enium (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Mag- ne- sium (%) Potas- sium (%) Sulfur (%) Molasses Beet 76 0.10 0.02 (33, 20) 0.68 0.45 13 1.1 117 29 --- 17 0.05 3.92 --- Cane 74 0.74 0.06 (33, 20) 0.24 1.59 29 --- 188 59 --- 13 0.33 3.74 --- Oats Grain 89 0.07 0.31 (22, 32) 0.08 0.10 6 0.09 85 43 0.30 38 0.16 0.42 0.21 Groat 90 0.08 0.41 (14, 32) 0.05 0.09 6 --- 49 32 0.09 26 0.11 0.38 0.20 Peas 88 0.10 0.44 (30, 55) 0.04 0.05 9 0.26 65 23 0.38 23 0.12 1.02 0.20 Rye 88 0.06 0.33 (---, 50b ) 0.02 0.03 7 0.08 60 58 0.38 31 0.12 0.48 0.15 Skim milk, dried 96 1.31 1.00 (91, 90) 0.48 1.00 5 0.82 8 2 0.12 42 0.12 1.60 0.32 Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 0.03 0.29 (20, 25) 0.01 0.09 5 0.02 45 15 0.20 15 0.15 0.35 0.08 Soybean Hulls 89 0.49 0.14 (78, 20) 0.01 0.02 8 --- 580 22 0.21 40 0.22 1.20 0.13 Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 0.34 0.69 (23, 32) 0.02 0.05 20 0.15 176 36 0.27 55 0.30 2.14 0.44 Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 0.34 0.67 (23, 32) 0.02 0.05 20 0.15 187 36 0.27 55 0.30 2.14 0.44 Meal, 44% CP 89 0.32 0.65 (31, 20) 0.01 0.05 20 --- 202 29 0.32 50 0.27 1.96 0.43 Meal, enzymati- cally treated 92 0.35 0.74 (---, 59) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meal, fermented 91 0.29 0.82 (---, 59) 0.12 --- 7 --- 142 21 --- 39 0.18 1.20 0.36 Protein concen- trate 90 0.35 0.81 (33, ---) 0.05 --- 13 --- 110 47 --- 30 0.32 2.20 0.54 Protein isolate 92 0.15 0.65 (---, ---) 0.07 0.02 14 --- 137 5 0.14 34 0.08 0.27 0.71 Seeds, heat processed 90 0.25 0.59 (33, 32) 0.03 0.03 16 0.09 80 30 0.11 39 0.28 1.70 0.30 Sunflower meal, 42% CP 93 0.37 1.01 (3, 19) 0.04 0.13 25 0.09 200 35 0.32 98 0.75 1.27 0.38 Triticale 90 0.05 0.33 (46, 48b) 0.03 0.03 8 0.09 31 43 --- 32 0.10 0.46 0.15 Wheat Bran 89 0.16 1.20 (29, 50b ) 0.04 0.07 14 0.06 170 113 0.51 100 0.52 1.26 0.22 Grain, hard red winter 88 0.06 0.37 (50, 45b ) 0.01 0.06 6 0.09 39 34 0.33 40 0.13 0.49 0.15 Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 0.12 0.93 (41, 50b ) 0.05 0.04 10 0.11 84 100 0.72 92 0.41 1.06 0.17 Whey Dried 96 0.75 0.72 (97, 90) 0.94 1.40 13 --- 130 3 0.12 10 0.13 1.96 0.72 Permeate 96 0.86 0.66 (97, 86) 1.00 2.23 0.3 --- 36 0.26 --- 1.1 0.15 2.10 0.27 Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 0.63 0.38 (---, ---) --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- a Dashes indicate no data were available. b Assumes the ingredient is not heated or cooked; if the ingredient is heat-treated, the digestibility coefficient shown will be reduced by the following per- centage units due to the inactivation of endogenous phytase (barley, 9; rye, 20; triticale, 18; wheat bran, 25; wheat, 15; wheat midds, 25). *See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 29. PAGE 28 PIG 07-02-09 Photo courtesy of National Pork Board. Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
  • 30. PAGE 29 PIG 07-02-09 Table 21. Mineral concentrations in macro mineral sources for swine (as-fed basis)a. Percent bio-availablity and apparent total tract digestibility of phosphorus for swine shown in parenthesis, respectivelya* Mineral element Source Dry Mat- ter (%) Cal- cium (%)b Phos- phorus (%)c So- dium (%) Chlo- ride (%) Iron (ppm) Man- ga- nese (ppm) Zinc (ppm) Mag- ne- sium (%) Potas- sium (%) Sulfur (%) Calcium Calcium chloride, dihydrate --- 27 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Limestone (minimum 95% calcium carbonate) 99 38.0 0.02 (---,---) 0.08 0.02 600 200 18 1.61 0.08 0.08 Oyster shell 99 37.6 --- 0.21 0.01 2840 133 --- 0.30 0.10 --- Calcium and phosphorus Bone meal, steamed 97 29.8 12.5 (82,---) 0.04 --- 850 300 126 0.30 0.20 2.40 Dicalcium phosphate 96 20 to 24 18.50 (100,81) 0.18 0.47 7900 1400 92 0.80 0.15 0.80 Monocalcium phosphate 100 17.00 21.10 (100,81) 0.20 --- 7500 100 220 0.90 0.16 0.80 Calcium sulfate, dehydrate 85 21.85 --- --- --- --- --- --- 0.48 --- 16.19 Defluorinated rock phos- phate 100 32.00 18.00 (87, ---) 3.27 --- 8400c 500 43 0.29 0.10 0.13 Monoammonium phos- phate 97 0.35 24.20 (100,---) 0.20 --- 4100 100 300 0.75 0.16 1.50 Curaco phosphate 100 35.09 14.23 (50, ---) 0.20 --- 3500 --- --- 0.80 --- --- Soft rock phosphate 100 16.09 9.05 (40, ---) 0.10 --- 19200 1000 --- 0.38 --- --- Magnesium Magnesium carbonate 81 0.02 --- --- --- --- 100 --- 30.20 --- --- Magnesium oxide 100 1.69 --- --- --- 10600 --- --- 55.00 0.02 0.10 Magnesium sulfate, hepta- hydrate 49 0.02 --- --- 0.01 --- --- --- 9.60 --- 13.04 Potassium Potassium chloride 100 0.05 --- 1.00 46.93 600 10 --- 0.23 51.37 0.32 Potassium sulfate --- 0.15 --- 0.09 1.50 700 10 --- 0.60 43.04 17.64 Sodium Sodium carbonate --- --- --- 43.30 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Sodium bicarbonate --- 0.01 --- 27.00 --- --- --- --- --- 0.01 --- Sodium and chloride Sodium chloride --- 0.30 --- 39.50 59.00 100 --- --- 0.005 --- 0.20 Sodium and phosphorus Disodium phosphate 100 --- 21.15 (100,---) 31.04 --- --- `--- --- --- --- --- Monosodium phosphate 87 0.09 24.94 (100,92) 18.65 0.02 10 --- --- 0.01 0.01 --- Sodium and sulfur Sodium sulfate, decahy- drate --- --- --- 13.80 --- --- --- --- --- --- 9.70 a These mineral supplements are not chemically pure compounds, and the composition may vary substantially among sources. The supplier’s analysis should be used if it is available. For example, feed-grade dicalcium phosphate contains some monocalcium phosphate and feed-grade monocalcium phosphate contains some dicalcium phosphate. Dashes indicate that no data were available. Most common sources are in bold-italic. b Estimates indicate 90 to 100% relative bioavailability of calcium in most sources of monocalcium phosphate, dicalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, defluorinated phosphate, calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, and calcitic limestone. The calcium in high-mag- nesium limestone or dolomtic limestone is less bioavailable (50 to 80%). c Bioavailability estimates are generally expressed as a percentage of monosodium phosphate or monocalcium phosphate. dIron in defluorinated phosphate is about 65% as available as the iron in ferrous sulfate. *See PIG factsheets #07-02-07 (Macro-Minerals for Swine Diets) and #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 31. PAGE 30 PIG 07-02-09 Table 22. Mineral concentrations in micro or trace mineral sources for swinea* Mineral element Source Concentration of element, % Relative bioavailability, %b Chromium Tripicolinate Variable 100 Propionate Variable 13 Methionine Variable 51 Yeast Variable 23 Copper Sulfate (pentahydrate) 25.2 100 Amino acid chelate Variable 122 Amino acid complex Variable --- Acetate 32.1 --- Carbonate 50 to 55 60 to 100 Chloride, tribasic 58 100 Lysine Variable 94 to 124 Oxide 75.0 0 to 10 Polysaccharide complex Variable --- Proteinate Variable 105 to 111 Iodine Ethylenediamine dihydroiodiode (EDDI) 79.5 100 Calcium iodate 63.5 100 Potassium iodide 68.8 100 Potassium iodate 59.3 --- Copper iodide 66.6 100 Iron Sulfate (monohydrate) 30 100 Amino acid chelate Variable --- Amino acid complex Variable --- Chloride 20.7 40 to 100 Carbonate 38 15 to 80 Methionine Variable --- Polysaccharide complex Variable --- Proteinate Variable --- Sulfate (heptahydrate) 20 100 Manganese Sulfate (monohydrate) 29.5 100 Amino acid chelate Variable --- Amino acid complex Variable --- Carbonate 46.4 30 to 100 Chloride 27.5 100 Dioxide 63.1 35 to 95 Methionine Variable 120 to 125 Oxide 60 70 Polysaccharide complex Variable --- Proteinate Variable 110
  • 32. PAGE 31 PIG 07-02-09 Table 22. Mineral concentrations in micro or trace mineral sources for swinea* (continued) Mineral element Source Concentration of element, % Relative bioavailability, %b Selenium Sodium selenite 45 100 Proteinate (methionine) Variable 102 Sodium selenate 21.4 100 Yeast Variable 108 Zinc Sulfate (monohydrate) 35.5 100 Amino acid chelate Variable --- Amino acid complex Variable --- Carbonate 56 100 Chloride 48 100 Methionine Variable 95 to 100 Polysaccharide complex Variable --- Oxide 72 50 to 80 Proteinate Variable 100 Sulfate (heptahydrate) 22.3 100 Tetrabasic chloride 58 --- a Most common sources are in bold-italic; dashes indicate no data were available b In research a frequently used mineral source is often assumed to be 100% bioavailable and other forms are com- pared based on amount that accumulates in body tissues.The mineral source listed first within each category was generally the standard with which the other sources were compared to determine relative bioavailability. *See PIG factsheets #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) and #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 33. PAGE 32 PIG 07-02-09 Table 23. Vitamin composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Vita- min A (IU/ lb) Vita- min D (IU/ lb) Vita- min E (IU/ lb) Vita- min K (IU/ lb) Ribo- favin (mg/ lb) Nia- cin (mg/ lb) Pan- to- thenic acid (mg/ lb) Cho- line (mg/ lb) Biotin (mg/ lb) Vita- min B12 (mg/ lb) Folic acid (mg/ lb) Pyri- dox- ine (mg/ lb) Thia- min (mg/ lb) Alfalfa meal, dehy 92 11457 33.7 6.2 17 13.2 635 0.24 0 1.98 2.9 1.5 Bakery waste, dehy 91 509 --- 0.6 12 3.8 419 0.03 0 0.09 2.0 1.3 Barley, two row 89 497 5.0 0.8 25 3.6 0 0.06 0 0.14 2.3 2.0 Beet pulp 91 1284 8.9 0.3 8 0.6 371 --- 0 --- 0.9 0.2 Blood Cells, spray- dried 92 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meal, flash-dried 92 --- 0.7 0.6 10 0.5 354 0.04 0.02 0.05 2.0 0.5 Meal, spray- dried 93 --- 0.7 1.5 10 1.7 220 0.13 --- 0.18 2.0 0.1 Plasma proteins, spray-dried 91 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Canola meal 90 --- 9.1 2.6 73 4.3 3039 0.44 0 0.38 3.3 2.4 Corn Distillers dried grains w/sol (DDGS) 89 423 --- 3.9 34 6.4 1196 0.35 0 0.41 3.6 1.3 Distillers dried grains -high protein 92 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Germ 92 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Gluten feed 90 121 5.7 1.1 30 7.7 689 0.06 0 0.13 5.9 0.9 Gluten meal, 60% CP 90 --- 4.5 1.0 25 1.6 150 0.07 0.06 3.1 0.1 Grain, yellow dent 89 97 5.6 0.5 11 2.7 281 0.03 --- 0.07 2.3 1.6 Grain, high nutrient 87 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Grain, high oil 87 --- ---- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Grain, low- phytate 88 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Hominy feed 90 1090 4.4 1.0 2.1 3.7 524 0.06 0 0.10 5.0 3.7 Egg, spray-dried --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Fish meal, menha- den 92 --- 3.4 2.2 25 4.1 1386 0.06 0.06 0.17 1.8 0.2 Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 90 24 1.4 1.3 15 6.7 686 0.19 0 0.59 2.7 3.4 Lactose 96 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meat and bone meal (≥ 4.0% P) 93 --- 1.1 2.1 22 1.9 905 0.04 0.04 0.19 2.1 0.2 Meat meal (< 4% P) 94 --- 0.8 2.1 26 2.3 942 0.04 0.04 0.23 1.1 0.3 Millet, proso 90 --- --- 1.7 10 5.0 200 0.07 0 0.10 2.6 3.3 Molasses Beet 76 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Cane 74 --- --- 0.91 13 13 --- 0.24 --- 0.04 1.4 0.32 Oats Grain 89 448 5.3 0.8 9 5.9 429 0.11 0 0.14 0.9 2.7 Groat 90 --- --- 0.7 6 6.1 517 0.09 0 0.23 0.5 2.9
  • 34. PAGE 33 PIG 07-02-09 Table 23. Vitamin composition of feed ingredients for swine (as-fed basis).ab (continued) Ingredient Dry mat- ter (%) Vita- min A (IU/ lb) Vita- min D (IU/ lb) Vita- min E (IU/ lb) Vita- min K (IU/ lb) Ribo- favin (mg/ lb) Nia- cin (mg/ lb) Pan- to- thenic acid (mg/ lb) Cho- line (mg/ lb) Biotin (mg/ lb) Vita- min B12 (mg/ lb) Folic acid (mg/ lb) Pyri- dox- ine (mg/ lb) Thia- min (mg/ lb) Peas 88 121 0.1 0.8 14 8.5 248 0.07 0 0.09 0.5 2.1 Rye 88 --- 6.1 0.7 9 3.6 190 0.04 0 0.27 1.2 1.6 Skim milk, dried 96 --- 2.8 8.7 5 16.5 632 0.11 0.02 0.21 1.9 1.7 Sorghum, grain (milo) 89 0.05 3.4 0.6 19 5.6 303 0.12 0 0.08 2.4 1.4 Soybean Hulls 89 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 90 24 1.6 1.4 10 6.8 1239 0.12 0 0.62 2.9 1.5 Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 90 24 1.6 1.4 10 6.8 1239 0.12 0 0.62 2.9 1.5 Meal, 44% CP 89 24 1.6 1.3 15 7.3 1267 0.12 0 0.62 2.7 2.0 Meal, enzymati- cally treated --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Meal, fermented Protein concen- trate 90 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Protein isolate 92 --- --- 0.8 3 1.9 1 0.14 --- 1.13 2.4 0.1 Seeds, heat processed 90 230 12.2 1.2 10 6.8 1046 0.11 0 1.63 4.9 5.0 Sunflower meal, 42% CP 90 --- 6.2 1.6 100 10.9 1429 0.66 0 0.52 6.2 1.6 Triticale 90 --- 1.1 0.2 8 3 210 --- --- 0.07 --- 1.4 Wheat Bran 89 121 11.2 2.1 84 14.1 559 0.16 0 0.29 5.4 3.6 Grain, hard red winter 88 48 7.8 0.6 22 4.5 353 0.05 0 0.10 1.5 2.0 Middlings, <9.5% fiber 89 --- --- 1.0 19 6.0 696 0.05 0 0.36 2.1 10.3 Whey Dried 96 --- 0.2 12.3 5 21.3 826 0.12 0.01 0.39 1.8 1.9 Permeate 96 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- Protein concen- trate, 78%CP 94 --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- --- a Dashes indicate no data were available. b See PIG factsheet #07-07-09 (Composition and Usage Rate of Feed Ingredients for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 35. PAGE 34 PIG 07-02-09 Photo courtesy of National Pork Board. Photo courtesy of National Pork Board.
  • 36. PAGE 35 PIG 07-02-09 Table 24.Vitamin concentration in manufactured vitamin sources for swineab Vitamin Concentration/method of expression Source Vitamin A 1 IU = 0.3 μg retinol or 0.344 μg vitamin A acetate or 1 USP unit Vitamin A acetate (all-trans retinyl acetate) 1 IU = 0.55 μg vitamin A palmitate Vitamin A palmitate 1 IU = 0.36 μg vitamin A propionate Vitamin A propionate Vitamin D 1 IU = 0.025 μg cholecalciferol or 1 USP unit or 1 ICU Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) Vitamin E 1 mg = IU dl-α-tocopheryl acetate dl-α-tocopheryl acetate (all rac) 1 mg = 1.36 IU d-α-tocopheryl acetate d-α-tocopheryl acetate (RRR) 1 mg = 1.11 IU dl-α-tocopherol dl-α-tocopherol (all rac) 1 mg = 1.49 IU d-α-tocopherol d-α-tocopherol (RRR) Vitamin K 1 Ansbacher unit = 20 Dam units = 0.0008 mg menadione Menadione sodium bisulfite (MSB) Menadione nicotinamide bisulfite (MNB) Menadione dimethylpyrimidinol bisulfite (MPB) Riboflavin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Crystalline riboflavin Niacin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Niacinamide Nicotinic acid Pantothenic acid Commonly expressed as μg or mg d-calcium pantothenate dl-calcium pantothenate dl-calcium pantothenate - calcium chloride com- plex Choline Commonly expressed as μg or mg Choline chloride Biotin Commonly expressed as μg or mg d-biotin Vitamin B12 1μg cyanocobalamin or 1 USP unit or 11,000 LLD (L. lactis Dorner) units Cyanocobalamin Folic acid Commonly expressed as μg or mg Folic acid Pyridoxine Commonly expressed as μg or mg Pyridoxine hydrochloride Thiamin Commonly expressed as μg or mg Thiamin mononitrate Thiamin hydrochloride Vitamin C Commonly expressed as μg or mg L-ascorbic acid L-ascorbic acid phosphate L-ascorbic acid coated with ethyl cellulose a Most common sources are in bold-italic. b See PIG factsheet #07-02-06 (Trace Minerals and Vitamins for Swine Diets) for more details.
  • 37. PAGE 36 PIG 07-02-09 Table 25. Recommended upper limits of usage (% of the diet) for feed ingredients in swine diets. An * denotes no nutritional limitations in a balanced dietab Type of diet Nursery Nursery Grower Finisher Gestation Lactation Body weight, lb < 25 25 to 45 45 to 130 130 to 315 Alfalfa meal, dehydrated 0 5 10 15 25 0 Bakery waste, dehy- drated 15 25 * * * * Barley, two row (48 lb/ bushel) * * * * * * Beet pulp 0 5 10 15 50 10 Blood Cells, spray-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5 Meal, flash-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5 Meal, spray-dried 3 3 5 5 5 5 Plasma protein, spray dried * * * * * * Canola meal 0 5 15 20 15 15 Corn Distillers dried grains w/solubles (DDGS) 10 20 30 20 40 20 Distillers dried grains- high protein 10 20 20 20 30 15 Germ 10 20 20 10 30 20 Gluten feed 5 5 10 15 40 10 Gluten meal, 60% CP 5 10 20 20 30 10 Grain, yellow dent (>40 lb/bushel) * * * * * * Grain, high nutrient * * * * * * Grain, high oil * * * 30 * * Grain, low-phytate * * * * * * Hominy feed 0 20 60 30 60 60 Egg, spray-dried 10 * * * * * Fish meal, menhaden 15 20 6 0 6 6 Flax (linseed) meal, sol. extr. 3 15 15 15 20 10 Lactose * * 20 20 20 20 Meat and bone meal, 50% CP 5 10 * * * * Meat meal, 55% CP 5 10 * * * * Millet, proso 40 40 * * * 40 Molasses Beet 5 5 5 5 5 5 Cane 5 5 5 5 5 5 Oats Grain (38 lb/bushel) 15 30 35 40 * 10 Groat * * * * * *
  • 38. PAGE 37 PIG 07-02-09 Table 25. Recommended upper limits of usage (% of the diet) for feed ingredients in swine diets. An * denotes no nutritional limitations in a balanced diet ab (continued) Type of diet Nursery Nursery Grower Finisher Gestation Lactation Body weight, lb < 25 25 to 45 45 to 130 130 to 315 Peas 15 30 40 50 15 25 Rye (ergot free) 0 10 25 35 20 10 Skim milk, dried * * * * * * Sorghum, grain (milo) (> 48 lb/bushel) * * * * * * Soybean Hulls 5 5 10 10 25 5 Meal, dehulled, 47.5% CP 15 * * * * * Meal, dehulled, 46.5% CP 15 * * * * * Meal, 44% CP 15 * * * * * Meal, enzymatically treated 15 * * * * * Meal, fermented 15 * * * * * Protein concentrate 20 * * * * * Protein isolate * * * * * * Seeds, heat processed 5 * * 15 * * Sunflower meal, 42% CP 0 5 * * * * Triticale (ergot free) 20 30 * * * 40 Wheat Bran 0 5 10 20 30 10 Grain, hard red winter (> 55 lb/bushel) * * * * * * Middlings, <9.5% fiber 5 10 25 35 * 10 Whey Dried 40 30 20 15 5 5 Permeate 30 25 20 15 5 5 Protein concentrate 78%CP * * * * * * a Assumes diets are balanced for energy, essential amino acids, minerals and vitamins. b Higher levels may be fed although growth and reproductive performance and carcass composition and quality may be negatively impacted. Economic considerations should influence actual inclusion rates.
  • 39. PAGE 38 PIG 07-02-09 U.S. Pork Center of Excellence 1202 NSRIC Iowa State University Ames, IA 50011 Ph: 515-294-2490 Fax: 515-294-5995 uspce@iastate.edu www.usporkcenter.org www.porkgateway.org

Related Documents