Nation and Nationalism
Theories
Ernest Gellner
Anthony Smith
Benedict Anderson
What is a nation by
Ernest Renan
 Ernest Renan
(1832– 1892)
He was a French
scholar of language
and history. A
Professor ...
Nation and Nationalism:
Ernest Renan
 Renan rejects to define the nation by objective
criteria such as shared language, p...
Nationalism
 Nationalism connects individuals to the
state
 Nationalism connects individuals
 they become sentimentally...
Ernest Gellner
 Professor of Philosophy at the London School
of Economics
 Professor of Social Anthropology at
Cambridge...
Mobility and
Cultural Homogenization
 Mobility
 Universal literacy
 standardization of language,
 general sophisticati...
Cultural Homogenization
Who does all ?
 create and maintain:
 one kind of culture
 one style of communication,
 one ce...
The Birth of State
 State
 “… nations and states are not the same
contingency. Nationalism holds that they
were destined...
Anthony Smith
 Professor of sociology at the London School
of Economics.
 He has specialized in the study of ethnicity
a...
The nation is not old
 Before, nations were generally assumed to
be old; they could be traced back to the
early Middle ag...
Ethnie
 Smith questions the modernists’ arguments,
“Is the nation a new thing?”
 Smith argues that modern nations have a...
Ethnic origin of the Nation
 In pre modern communities, people
are connected among the members
and through generation by ...
Three revolutions
 When would people’s ethnic sentiment
transform to nationalism and to form a
nation?
 “The origins of ...
The Economic Revolution
 The division of labor (capitalism)
 State controlled over key resources like
mining
 State reg...
The Political Revolution
 The control of administration
 In the latter half of the 17th c. a new class of
military profe...
The Cultural Revolution
 The cultural coordination
(educational revolution)
 The expansion of secularism to
weaken the p...
Spreading the Nations
 The revolutions achieved:
 Territorial centralization and consolidation
 Cultural standardizatio...
Benedict Anderson
 Anderson – Professor of International
Relations at Cornell University.
 He specializes in the politic...
The Imagined Communities
The nation is imagined
… the nation in
anthropological
sprit; it is an
imagined political
communi...
Nation/ Nationalism as cultural
artifacts
 “nation-ness as well as nationalism
are cultural artifacts of particular
kind”...
The Nation is imagined in a
particular way
 The community whose size is beyond face-to-
face contact are all imagined.
 ...
Print Capitalism
What makes such imagining possible?
Print capitalism (the novels and
newspapers)
 Origins of national co...
Vernacular Language Press and
National consciousness
The vernacular print language laid the bases for
national consciousne...
Vernacular Language Press and
National consciousness
1) Print-capitalism gave a new fixity to
language which helped to bui...
Spread of Nations
 The nation came to be imagined, and
once imagined; it was modeled,
adapted and transformed.
 In the c...
Imagined Colony
Imagined nation of colonized countries
 The nation’s model of colonized countries
was colonial state
 Th...
Further studies of Theories of
Nation and Nationalism
 http://www.nationalismproject.org/
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Nation and Nationalism Theories

This slide will tell us about the concept of Nation and Nationalism by several scholars.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
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Transcripts - Nation and Nationalism Theories

  • 1. Nation and Nationalism Theories Ernest Gellner Anthony Smith Benedict Anderson
  • 2. What is a nation by Ernest Renan  Ernest Renan (1832– 1892) He was a French scholar of language and history. A Professor at the Sorbonne. He is best known for his historical works on early Christianity and his political theories.  Qu'est-ce qu'une nation? (What is a Nation), 1882  “The desire of nations to be together is the only real criterion”
  • 3. Nation and Nationalism: Ernest Renan  Renan rejects to define the nation by objective criteria such as shared language, physical characteristics, culture, custom…etc.  Two things to constitute principle of a nation: past and present  Past – the possession in common of a rich legacy of remembrance (common sufferings)  Present – the consent, the desire to live together to continue to value the heritage which all hold in common.
  • 4. Nationalism  Nationalism connects individuals to the state  Nationalism connects individuals  they become sentimentally attached to the homeland  they gain a sense of identity and self- esteem through their national identification  they are motivated to help their fellow nationals and countries  Nationalism is a “process”
  • 5. Ernest Gellner  Professor of Philosophy at the London School of Economics  Professor of Social Anthropology at Cambridge University  Nation and Nationalism (1983)  Nations and Nationalism are products of industrialization.  Emerge of nations and nationalism marks a sharp disjunction between elder agrarian societies and modern industrial society.
  • 6. Mobility and Cultural Homogenization  Mobility  Universal literacy  standardization of language,  general sophistication  Cultural homogenization “…it must be one in which they can all breathe and speak and produce; so it must be the same culture. Moreover, it must now be a great or high (literate, training- sustained) culture, and it can no longer be a diversified, locality-tied, illiterate little culture or tradition” (p38)
  • 7. Cultural Homogenization Who does all ?  create and maintain:  one kind of culture  one style of communication,  one centralized and standardized educational system.
  • 8. The Birth of State  State  “… nations and states are not the same contingency. Nationalism holds that they were destined for each other” (p6)  Ethnicity  “… nationalism is a theory of political legitimacy, which requires that ethnic boundaries should not cut across political ones, and, in particular, that ethnic boundaries within a given state….. should not separate the power-holders from the rest.” (p1)
  • 9. Anthony Smith  Professor of sociology at the London School of Economics.  He has specialized in the study of ethnicity and nationalism, especially the theory of the nation.  His major influential works are: theories of Nationalism (1971), The Ethnic Revival (1981), The Ethnic Origins of Nations (1986), and National Identity (1991).  His concern is “When did the nations emerge?”
  • 10. The nation is not old  Before, nations were generally assumed to be old; they could be traced back to the early Middle age.  Today, both nation and nationalism are understood as modern phenomena.  The nation is a product of nationalist ideologies.  The nationalism is an expression of modern, industrial society.  The nations are phenomena of a particular stage of history, and embedded in purely modern conditions.
  • 11. Ethnie  Smith questions the modernists’ arguments, “Is the nation a new thing?”  Smith argues that modern nations have an “ethnic origin, ethnic core”: Ethnie 1. a collective name 2. a common myth of descent 3. a shared history 4. a distinctive shared culture 5. an association with specific territory 6. a sense of solidarity
  • 12. Ethnic origin of the Nation  In pre modern communities, people are connected among the members and through generation by their ethnic core.  The cultural homogeneity was actually due to nation’s ethnic past prior to the nation.  It is because of its ethnic origin the modern nation is able to attract the allegiance of so many people.
  • 13. Three revolutions  When would people’s ethnic sentiment transform to nationalism and to form a nation?  “The origins of the transition to nationhood are shrouded in obscurity.”  Three types of revolution (Gemeinschaft Geselleshaft)  Economic: the division of labor  Political: the control of administration  Cultural: the cultural coordination
  • 14. The Economic Revolution  The division of labor (capitalism)  State controlled over key resources like mining  State regulated trade and commodity exchange  Every region of a country was integrated as a state-supervised economy  The division of labor was reorganized around the center (production, supplier)
  • 15. The Political Revolution  The control of administration  In the latter half of the 17th c. a new class of military professional with a high degree of training and expertise in science and technology emerged  They required the highly trained bureaucrats supports  Centralized institutions for higher education  The new type of bureaucratic state encouraged the growth of a wealthy bourgeois class and an allied intelligentsia ( in opposition to the nobility)  Strengthen nationalistic policies
  • 16. The Cultural Revolution  The cultural coordination (educational revolution)  The expansion of secularism to weaken the power of church  Monarchs claimed that their right to rule was given by the god.  Promise the salvation in this life  Centralized education  standardized patriotic culture  citizens
  • 17. Spreading the Nations  The revolutions achieved:  Territorial centralization and consolidation  Cultural standardization  Nation was gradually formed “Because these three revolutions were highly discontinuous, because their effects were felt at different times in different areas, the nation that was gradually formed revealed differences in both content and form.”  What about non-Western communities?  The West first and non-Western societies were stimulated to follow because of their military and economic success.
  • 18. Benedict Anderson  Anderson – Professor of International Relations at Cornell University.  He specializes in the politics of Southeast Asia.  His major work on nationalism, Imagined Communities, had become one of the most cited texts in the field.  He argues that the nation is “imagined.”
  • 19. The Imagined Communities The nation is imagined … the nation in anthropological sprit; it is an imagined political community, and imagined as both inherently limited and sovereign. (p6)
  • 20. Nation/ Nationalism as cultural artifacts  “nation-ness as well as nationalism are cultural artifacts of particular kind” (p4)  “nationalism has to be understood by aligning it, not with self- consciously held political ideologies, but with the large cultural systems that precede it, out of which – as well as against which- it came into being” (p12)
  • 21. The Nation is imagined in a particular way  The community whose size is beyond face-to- face contact are all imagined.  The nation is imagines as limited because a nation holds limited number of people.  The nation is imagined as sovereign because the concept was born in the age in which realm of absolutism was destroying by revolution.  The nation is imagined as community because the nation is always conceived as a deep, horizontal comradeship.  it is this fraternity that makes it possible for so many millions of people willingly die for their nation.
  • 22. Print Capitalism What makes such imagining possible? Print capitalism (the novels and newspapers)  Origins of national consciousness was print capitalism: The nation was imagined through language  In early time: international publishing houses, ignoring national frontiers, Latin readers.  In the mid 16th century, vernacularizing of print industry.
  • 23. Vernacular Language Press and National consciousness The vernacular print language laid the bases for national consciousness in 3 ways: 1) They created unified fields of exchange and communication * Print language made possible for people who speak different dialects to communicate * The fellow- readers were connected through print, and they formed the embryo of the nationally imagined community.
  • 24. Vernacular Language Press and National consciousness 1) Print-capitalism gave a new fixity to language which helped to build the image of antiquity of the nation. * Archive 2) Print-capitalism created language of power. * High German, King’s English or Central Thai, Tokyo dialect
  • 25. Spread of Nations  The nation came to be imagined, and once imagined; it was modeled, adapted and transformed.  In the colonized countries, the colonial state conditioned the natives to imagined a nation: education for native people  Native bureaucrats in colonial administration, Bilingual intelligentsias have learned nationalism and copied, adapted and improved it.
  • 26. Imagined Colony Imagined nation of colonized countries  The nation’s model of colonized countries was colonial state  Three institutions made such imagination:  Census  Before it was for tax and military but now individual persons are counted  Map and Map-as-logo  The model for drawing the national borders, not the model of  Necessity for administrative mechanisms for troops to back their claims.  Museum  Victorious past (conquest)
  • 27. Further studies of Theories of Nation and Nationalism  http://www.nationalismproject.org/