1 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAssessing Pupils’ Progres...
2 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookContentsWhat is Assessing...
3 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWhat is Assessing Pupils’...
4 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook Planning from ...
5 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookThe table below provides ...
6 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookHow was the APP approach ...
7 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookIndependent work of this ...
8 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook decide how to organis...
9 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWhat are assessment focus...
10 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookIn APP, teacher assessm...
11 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookUnderstanding the asses...
12 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookc. In APP, evidence for...
13 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWriting assessment focu...
14 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF3 Organise and presen...
15 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF8 Use correct spellin...
16 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook ...
17 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF3 ReasoningIn this AF...
18 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF4 Using investigative...
19 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookPlanning to use APPStep...
20 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook ...
21 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookLinks between the Prima...
22 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook*Some AFs expand throug...
23 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook recognised an...
24 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWritingStrand 9: Creati...
25 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookMaking judgements in AP...
26 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookMathematicsUse these st...
27 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookReadingThe following gu...
28 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWritingThe following gu...
29 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookScienceStage 1: Making ...
30 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookHow to secure judgement...
31 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAPP school leader ...
32 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookPlanning to secure judg...
33 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookTeachers assess a small...
34 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookStandards filesThe stan...
35 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookNational standards exem...
36 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook Using two standards...
37 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook writing standards f...
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Pri app hndbk_106409

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Transcripts - Pri app hndbk_106409

  • 1. 1 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAssessing Pupils’ ProgressA teachers’ handbookQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 2. 2 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookContentsWhat is Assessing Pupils’ Progress (APP)? 3 What are the benefits of APP? 4 How was the APP approach developed? 6 Developing independence, choice and creativity 6What are assessment focuses? 9 Why does APP use assessment focuses? 10 Reading assessment focuses 10 Writing assessment focuses 13 Mathematics assessment focuses 15 Science assessment focuses 17Planning to use APP 19 Practice implications of APP 19 Refining to sublevels across an attainment target 20Links between the Primary Framework, the National Curriculum and APP 21 Mathematics 21 Reading and writing 22Making judgements in APP 25 Mathematics 26 Reading 27 Writing 28 Science 29How to secure judgements in APP 30 Roles and responsibilities 30 Planning to secure judgements 32 In-school standardisation and moderation 32Standards files 34 Pupils’ work in the standards files 34 National standards exemplified 35 Using the standards files 35 Using the training standards files 37QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 3. 3 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWhat is Assessing Pupils’Progress (APP)?APP is a structured approach to periodically assessing mathematics, science, reading and writingso teachers can: track children’s progress from Year 1 through to the end of Year 6 use diagnostic information about children’s strengths and weaknesses.Using APP materials teachers can make level judgements for each of the following NationalCurriculum subjects: English — reading — writing mathematics — using and applying mathematics — number — shape, space and measures — handling data science.Based on the assessment focuses (AFs) that underpin National Curriculum assessment, the APPapproach improves the quality and reliability of teacher assessment. It has proved to be robust,manageable and effective in practice.The materials are made up of two elements: assessment guidelines – sheets for assessing pupils’ work in relation to National Curriculum levels standards files – exemplars of pupils’ performance at National Curriculum levels of attainment.APP supports teachers in providing a broad curriculum and developing their skills andjudgements for assessing pupils’ progress. It involves ‘stepping back’ periodically to review pupils’ongoing work and relate their progress to National Curriculum levels.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 4. 4 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook Planning from learning Day-to-day Evidence for objectives teaching and AFs (Primary National learning Strategy) Periodic Informing planning and teaching and learning assessment using AFsAs well as these APP materials, the Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency (QCDA)and the National Strategies are currently developing a range of further materials to supportteacher assessment of speaking and listening.What are the benefits of APP?School leaders and teachers who have been involved in the APP pilots have identified thefollowing key benefits: It does not require special assessment activities but involves recognising significant evidence from the opportunities generated by planned teaching and learning. It reduces the need to use tests and specific assessment tasks to make assessment judgements by taking into account a far wider range of evidence. This gives a clearer and more accurate picture of learners’ achievements and progress. It provides a valuable opportunity for professional development as it gives teachers effective tools to develop their assessment and teaching techniques. It provides a common framework for teachers to share and discuss the evidence they have of learners’ progress, to build assessment expertise and develop confidence. It directly informs discussions with pupils and future planning, teaching and learning. It helps teachers identify gaps in their teaching. For example, when a periodic assessment showed little evidence of a particular assessment focus, teachers from the pilot found that APP influenced their planning and pedagogy.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 5. 5 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookThe table below provides a summary of typical changes in assessment practice made byteachers in the pilots.Practice before APP Practice after APPDefine progress through tests Assess progress in relation to key AFs for mathematics, science reading and writing, identified as relevant for a pupil or group of pupils Have a clearer idea of pupils’ strengths and weaknesses and gaps in their experienceUse commercial tests and optional National Observe pupils making choices of books in theCurriculum tests library; listen to group discussions of texts Use work in drama based on reading Use spoken and written evidence Observe pupils selecting the mathematics to solve a problemTest word- and sentence-level skills Make assessments of vocabulary and sentence structure and accuracy in different pieces of writingUse spelling tests Make some assessments of spelling across a range of writingLevel individual pieces of writing twice per term Collect evidence from four to six pieces of writingusing a bank of examples from different subjects Assess across the range using AFsAssess through pupils written mathematics Gather evidence in starters and plenaries and asexercises pupils work in groups Talk to pupils to find out more about how they tackle problems as well as whether they get the answer Observe how pupils use their mathematics in design and technology and scienceFew Ma1 assessments made Start to include more problem solving in lessons to teach skills and processes, as well as assess them Become aware that assessing Ma1 may give a different insight into pupils’ understanding of the contentQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 6. 6 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookHow was the APP approach developed?The APP pilot projects in primary schools developed from similar projects for mathematics,reading and writing in Key Stage 3. The Qualifications and Curriculum Development Agency(QCDA) and the National Strategies worked with LAs and schools to develop APP.During 2006–08 a pilot of the APP model and mathematics, reading and writing materials wascarried out with teachers in Years 3 to 6 from 100 schools in 11 LAs. In 2007–08 a separate pilotto trial level 1 criteria and the APP approach at Key Stage 1 was undertaken with 50 schools ineight LAs. In 2008–09 a further primary pilot was undertaken to trial level 1 and 2 criteria and theAPP approach in science.The projects were able to explore in some depth the APP approach to teacher assessment inmathematics, science, reading and writing, as well as the related issues of reliability andconsistency of judgements (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and searchfor ‘How to secure APP judgements’). All the materials have been extensively trialled and revisedin the light of feedback from schools and the findings from an independent evaluator.Further information on the APP approach to assessment and summaries of the evaluation reportsfrom the pilots are available on the QCDA website www.qcda.gov.uk/13581.aspx.Developing independence, choice and creativityThe APP approach to assessment is based on a rich and varied range of evidence, which isgenerated by day-to-day teaching and learning. Important features of this evidence areindependence, choice and creativity.What do independence, choice and creativity mean ineveryday terms?Independence shows itself in different ways: it does not simply mean that a pupil works alone andunaided, as would be the case in a test. In everyday terms, it is more realistic to think of pupils’learning on a continuum between supported and independent achievement. In general, it is thedegree to which a learner can achieve something ‘independently’ that forms the basis forassessment in APP.However, if only completely independent achievement is recognised, significant milestones ofprogress would sometimes be missed, particularly in the early years of primary school. Inapplying the APP assessment criteria it is important to recognise pupils progress in ways thatreflect a learner’s current level of understanding. When planning work and reviewing evidence, itis helpful to consider to what extent the work allows for or demonstrates independence.Identifying independence might include thinking about: how closely a teacher works with a pupil the way that the task or activity is structured, including the mathematics apparatus or other material that is provided how pupils are grouped for the work pupils’ familiarity with the task the degree of support given by the mode of response, for example if resources such as writing frames or worksheets are used.Independence crucially is about giving pupils space and time to think for themselves, makedecisions and develop their own ideas in speaking, reading, writing, mathematics and science.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 7. 7 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookIndependent work of this kind typically occurs at some distance from direct teaching, for examplewhen concepts and skills taught in one context are applied in another.Working independently usually entails having opportunities for choice in at least some aspect ofwhat is to be done or how a task is tackled. The range of possible choices varies according tosubject and stage of learning, but is an essential ingredient in effective planning for APP and forencouraging pupils’ creativity.When pupils are thinking and behaving creatively in the classroom, they are likely to: question and challenge make connections and see relationships envisage different, possible outcomes, asking ‘What if...?’ questions explore ideas, keeping options open reflect critically on ideas, actions and outcomes.Planning for contexts when these behaviours might be encouraged will help ensure that evidencefor APP judgements is rich and varied.Independence, choice and creativity in different subjects:where is the evidence?In English, evidence may come from contexts where pupils: choose books and texts that interest them, have time to read them fully, explaining their views and preferences select subject matter and structure, and define their own purposes for writing produce texts that challenge conventional approaches, such as combining words, sounds and images make use of knowledge of text types in adventurous and original ways, for example writing an argumentative poem, using an element of humour in a serious topic decide on their own stance on a topic in both oral and written work, for example objective/partisan, expert/non-expert, supportive/critical, child/adult incorporate words and expressions from different languages or dialects, explore ways to echo spoken language in writing play with alternatives to keep options open, for example working in a role to explore ideas, then using these in writing.In mathematics, evidence may come from contexts where pupils: decide how to set the boundaries for an investigation or how to use available information to solve a problem recognise how mathematics can help them pursue enquiries in other curriculum areas put together mathematical ideas in unexpected ways, making connections with other problems they have solved and investigations they have made identify the mathematics to use and the apparatus needed to support their thinking choose an appropriate calculation method or adapt a method for a particular case visualise shapes and movements ask questions, for example ‘What might happen if...?’, and make predictionsQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 8. 8 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook decide how to organise and record their work review their work and decide whether they are on track to find a solution or draw conclusions explain and justify their conclusions.In science, evidence may come from contexts where pupils: work with scientific ideas, models and evidence to understand science link scientific ideas to applications including scientific and technological developments decide how to use available information to answer a question or solve a problem present answers to questions making use of appropriate scientific language, mathematics, and scientific conventions and terminology work collaboratively and recognise the advantages of the collaborative work of scientists identify the science to use and the apparatus needed to support their thinking ask questions, for example ‘What might happen if...?’, and make predictions decide how to organise and record their work review their work and decide whether they are on track to find a solution or draw conclusions explain and justify their conclusions.Across the curriculum, evidence may come from contexts where pupils: decide what sources of information they need when researching a history topic, and where to look for it visualise shapes and movements in mathematics and use spoken or written language precisely to describe these use knowledge about making predictions to ask questions, for example in design and technology ‘What might happen if...?’ decide how to organise and record their work in science compose a set of instructions for playing a game in PE use knowledge of narrative structure to write a short biography of an important public figure draw on content and ideas learnt in other subjects, for example writing a poem on rivers after learning about irrigation in geography.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 9. 9 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWhat are assessment focuses?AFs are based on the National Curriculum programmes of study and level descriptions. Theycover the areas for assessment and provide the framework for National Curriculum tests. UsingAFs for classroom-based assessment enables a direct link to be made to National Curriculumstandards in a subject and the Primary Framework learning objectives. The AFs sit between the National Curriculum programmes of study and the level descriptions. They provide a more detailed assessment framework against which teachers can judge the outcomes of their teaching and their pupils’ learning. They are tools for assessment, not learning objectives. Evidence for the AFs comes from all parts of the curriculum.For each AF there are one to three bullet points at every level. These are level-related criteria,which identify what to look for as you observe pupils’ classroom work. The process of making a periodic teacher assessment judgement using APP involves matching the criteria for a given AF to qualities you have noted in your pupils’ work, then refining your judgement by checking the criteria above and below. The steps to follow to arrive at an overall level judgment for attainment targets are detailed in the Making judgements section (page 25). National Curriculum + level descriptions Teaching and learning Assessment APP in the National classroom Curriculum test (full curriculum (sample the context) curriculum) National Curriculum levelQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 10. 10 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookIn APP, teacher assessment judgements draw on the full context of pupils’ work, whereas a testcan only sample.The information gained from the APP approach to periodic review: provides diagnostic information on pupils’ strengths and weaknesses in relation to specific AFs enables forward planning based on group and individual pupil needs makes the most of pupils’ learning experiences across the whole curriculum.Why does APP use assessment focuses?Using AFs when periodically reviewing and assessing pupils’ ongoing work helps teachers to: have a consistent approach and language for talking about pupils’ progress with pupils themselves, parents/carers and other teachers recognise significant evidence of learning develop a common understanding of the requirements of National Curriculum levels see how pupils’ work on a small number of teaching objectives can contribute to the bigger picture of their progress and attainment give more precise feedback to pupils refine learning targets for individuals and groups within the class identify gaps in teaching and learning and adjust planning plan next steps based on the diagnostic information that emerges.Reading assessment focusesTable of Reading assessment focuses and points to remember Level Assessment focus AF1 Use a range of strategies including accurate decoding of text, to read for meaning AF2 Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events or ideas from texts and use quotation and reference to text AF3 Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from texts AF4 Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts, including grammatical and presentational features at text level AF5 Explain and comment on writers’ uses of language, including grammatical and literary features at word and sentence level AF6 Identify and comment on writers’ purposes and viewpoints and the overall effect of the text on the reader AF7 Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts and literary traditionsQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 11. 11 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookUnderstanding the assessment focuses for readingThere are seven AFs for reading that describe the key elements of performance in this attainmenttarget. They are linked to the National Curriculum programmes of study and the leveldescriptions, and are designed to give a detailed, analytic view of pupils’ attainment across all thekey stages and in all types of reading.What the assessment focuses mean in practice:AF1 Use a range of strategies including accurate decoding of text, toread for meaninga. AF1 has most prominence in describing the early stages of reading.b. Evidence comes from listening to pupils read aloud and observing how they decode words to make meaning from texts.c. Reading aloud with fluency, understanding and expression also involves taking note of punctuation and other written language conventions.AF2 Understand, describe, select or retrieve information, events orideas from texts and use quotation and reference to texta. AF2 applies to all levels of reading and all kinds of texts.b. Pupils’ skills in retrieving information from texts are shown in different ways, from comments to paraphrase or retellings to summary and synthesis.c. At the highest levels, work in AF2 demonstrates critical insights based on close reading, merging with AF3.AF3 Deduce, infer or interpret information, events or ideas from textsa. AF3 is vital to making progress in reading and underpins attainment across all the AFs.b. Opportunities to develop inferential skills come from engagement with whole texts that challenge thinking and encourage different interpretations.c. In APP, classroom discussions about books and open-ended questions from pupils as well as teachers provide effective evidence for this AF.AF4 Identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts,including grammatical and presentational features at text levela. AF4 makes most sense in relation to whole texts so that pupils can explain what is significant about the overall shape and structure of what they are reading.b. Work on the grammar of texts encourages pupils to explore how different elements hang together and contribute to their distinctiveness.c. This reading AF is the counterpart of AFs 3 and 4 in writing.AF5 Explain and comment on writers’ uses of language, includinggrammatical and literary features at word and sentence levela. AF5 applies to information as well as fiction texts: deliberately crafted language can be found in many different forms of writing.b. Pupils may learn to spot specific features in texts but attainment in this AF depends on being able to explain why particular usages are effective and what they mean.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 12. 12 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookc. In APP, evidence for this AF sometimes comes from comparative work on a range of texts or different treatments of the same topic.AF6 Identify and comment on writers’ purposes and viewpoints and theoverall effect of the text on the readera. AF6 has two strands: understanding that all texts have a point of view, and that this can impact on readers’ responses.b. At the most basic level, pupils detect overt purposes and express personal likes and dislikes.c. Progression in AF6 is about developing evaluative skills supported by an analytic vocabulary.AF7 Relate texts to their social, cultural and historical contexts andliterary traditionsa. AF7 demands engagement with a wide repertoire of reading.b. Even young readers can talk about some of the ways that texts are the same or different from one another.c. Working with texts from different cultures is one way of exploring the significance of context on what is written; another is comparing books from different times, in different genres or media.Assessment guidelines for readingIn each of the seven AF strands, level-related criteria provide the standard of expectation forjudging particular aspects of reading. Progression within the strands is shown by differences inthe criteria but also by the use of stems: Level 1: In some reading, usually with support Level 2: In some reading Level 3: In most reading Level 4 and above: Across a range of reading.The stems signal the expectation that as pupils’ reading develops, they will work with less teachersupport and show what they can do with a wider range of more-challenging texts. The assumptionis that evidence for making judgements will demonstrate pupils’ increasing abilities to makeinformed choices about what and how they read, with some independence.Within each strand of the AFs, criteria are set out as bullet points, no more than three per level.The bullet points follow a pattern to explain the scope of each AF. Although the AFs are notintended to be hierarchical, in practice the judgements about early stages of reading rely mostheavily on evidence for AF1 and AF2. From level 3 onwards, attainment of AF1 is assumed.To develop as readers who can make sense of a wide range of texts, pupils need to be secure onAF3. Securing AF3 is a vital underpinning for progress through level 4 and above. The AFs whichhighlight evaluation and analysis (AFs 4–7) build on the skills in AFs 1–3.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 13. 13 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWriting assessment focusesTable of Writing assessment focuses and points to rememberLevel Assessment focusAF1 Write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful textsAF2 Produce texts which are appropriate to task, reader and purposeAF3 Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing and structuring information, ideas and eventsAF4 Construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and between paragraphsAF5 Vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effectAF6 Write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation in phrases, clauses and sentencesAF7 Select appropriate and effective vocabularyAF8 Use correct spellingUnderstanding the assessment focuses for writingThe eight AFs for writing describe the key elements of performance in this attainment target. Theyare linked to the National Curriculum programmes of study and the level descriptions and aredesigned to give a detailed, analytic view of pupils’ attainment across all the key stages and in alltypes of writing.AF1 Write imaginative, interesting and thoughtful textsa. AF1 relates to the overall impact of the piece.b. It includes the coverage and selection of content as well as how developed the ideas are.c. As well as thinking about what to write, pupils have to decide their stance on the topic, for example objective/partisan, expert/non-expert, child/adult, supportive/critical.d. Imagination and creativity are needed for all kinds of texts, not just stories; for example, taking a fresh approach to a topic, taking risks and challenging the reader by using humour in a serious topic.AF2 Produce texts that are appropriate to task, reader and purposea. AF2 covers purpose of writing, degree of adaptation, and style.b. Pupils need to be set tasks that prompt them to make use of their knowledge of different text types in adventurous ways.c. In order to develop as independent writers, pupils need opportunities to choose subject matter, forms and purposes that interest them.d. Pupils show understanding that they can write for specific readers when they make their own decisions about, for example, levels of formality, choice of vocabulary, form of writing.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 14. 14 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF3 Organise and present whole texts effectively, sequencing andstructuring information, ideas and eventsa. AF3 is about the overall coherence of texts and includes layout, use of subheadings, diagrams/pictures in both paper-based and digital texts.b. There are underlying ways to think about text organisation in non-fiction, for example, logical order, chronology, moving from general to specific points.c. There are similar choices in fictional writing – strict chronology is not always needed.d. In stories, endings matter – both plot and theme have to be resolved. Information texts also need endings, whether these are signalled by the last in a series of numbers or by a brief conclusion.AF4 Construct paragraphs and use cohesion within and betweenparagraphsa. AF4 is about the ways paragraphs hang together as a sequence as well as connect internally.b. Within paragraphs, there are different ways of developing topics, from grouping related content in sections, to elaborating details around main ideas, or writing topic sentences.c. Pupils need to experiment with different ways to make links between paragraphs, for example by time, by reason, by subject, by importance.AF5 Vary sentences for clarity, purpose and effecta. AF5 is about the purposeful variation of sentence structure, not simply about incorporating connectives into every sentence. More-able writers use varied sentence structures as a way of packaging meaning into sentences with little redundancy, and varying sentence type and length in ways that support thinking across a whole text.b. Pupils need to work on both endings and beginnings of complex sentences to achieve different effects.c. Writing poetry affords many opportunities for constructing and selecting different types of sentences to shape meaning according to given rhyme or rhythmic scheme.AF6 Write with technical accuracy of syntax and punctuation inphrases, clauses and sentencesa. AF6 is about using accurate grammar and punctuation in sentences.b. Effective punctuation creates clarity and meaning and can be helpfully linked to understanding of grammar.c. As pupils reach for more complex sentence construction, their punctuation often does not keep pace.AF7 Select appropriate and effective vocabularya. AF7 is relevant to all kinds of writing and supports the other AFs.b. Vivid writing, whether fiction or non-fiction, is achieved by apt choices of nouns, verbs and adverbs, not just adjectives.c. In non-fiction writing, the use of technical and precise vocabulary is vital to conveying content accurately and demonstrating that the writers know what they are talking about.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 15. 15 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF8 Use correct spellinga. AF8 is developed in two ways in APP so that distinctions can be made between correct/incorrect spelling of grammatical function words (a small set of items) and the larger pool of content words that carry most of the meaning.b. In learning to spell, pupils need help with both phonemes and word structure (morphemes).c. Spelling accuracy is an important focus, but does not necessarily correlate with achievement at sentence and text level.Assessment guidelines for writingIn each of the eight AF strands, level-related criteria provide the standard of expectation forjudging particular aspects of writing. Progression within the strands is shown by differences in thecriteria but also by the use of stems: Level 1: In some writing, usually with support Level 2: In some writing Level 3: In most writing Level 4 and above: Across a range of writingThe stems signal the expectation that as pupils develop as writers they will work with less teachersupport and show what they can do in a broader range of contexts. The assumption is thatevidence reviewed to make a judgement will demonstrate pupils’ increasing abilities to makeinformed choices about what and how they write, with some independence.Within each strand of the AFs, criteria are set out as bullet points, no more than three per level.The bullet points follow a pattern to explain the scope of each AF. For writing, the AFs arepresented in a particular order for assessment purposes: AFs 5 and 6, AFs 3 and 4, AFs 1 and 2,followed by AF7 and AF8.Assessment of writing should begin at sentence level before moving onto whole-text structure andcohesion. In this way, impressions about imaginative appeal and overall impact will be securelybased on evidence from the words of the text. Choice of vocabulary is part of all the strands aswell as being a focus in its own right. In teaching, the AFs may be dealt with in any order orcombination.Criteria for handwriting and presentation are provided for levels 1 to 3 but there is not a formal AFfor this aspect. In APP, for judgements of level 2 and above, the criteria for AF7 and AF8 areconsidered as a way of confirming or modifying the assessments made on evidence for themajority of the other AFs.Mathematics assessment focusesAttainment target Assessment focusesMa1 Using and applying mathematics  Problem solving  Communicating  ReasoningMa2 Number – levels 1 to 4  Numbers and the number system  Fractions, decimals, percentages and ratio  Fractions (level 1 and above), decimals (level 3 and above), percentages, ratio (level 4 and above) and proportion (level 5 and above)QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 16. 16 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook  Operations and relationships between them  Mental methods  Solving numerical problems  Written methodsMa2 Number – level 5 and above  Numbers and the number system  Fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio and proportion  Operations and relationships between them  Mental, written and calculator methods  Solving numerical problems  AlgebraMa3 Shape, space and measures  Properties of shape  Properties of position and movement  MeasuresMa4 Handling data – levels 1 to 4  Processing and representing data  Interpreting dataMa4 Handling data – level 5 and above  Specifying the problem, planning and collecting data  Processing and representing data  Interpreting and discussing resultsUnderstanding the assessment focuses for mathematicsSome AFs become broader through the levels. For example, ‘Fractions’ at level 1 is broadenedinto Fractions and decimals’ at level 3 and becomes ‘Fractions, decimals, percentages, ratio andproportion’ by level 5. Other focuses are merged at higher levels. For example, ‘Mental methods’and ‘Written and calculator methods’ merge at level 5 when ‘Algebra’ appears as a separate AF.These changes reflect progression in the subject and the relative importance of different aspectsof performance at different levels.Progress through levels is most apparent in the assessment criteria for each AF. For example,Using and applying mathematics has three AFs: Problem solving, Communicating and Reasoningand the examples below demonstrate progression in assessment criteria. As a furtherdemonstration of increasing demand through levels, assessment criteria for Ma1 at levels 1 and 2are prefaced by the phrase ‘with support’ whereas criteria at higher levels are not.AF1 Problem solvingIn this AF, evidence is sought to demonstrate how the pupil sets about problem solving, rangingfrom ‘using mathematics as an integral part of classroom activities’ at level 1 to ‘carrying throughsubstantial tasks’ and ‘solving quite complex problems by independently breaking them down intosmaller, more manageable tasks’ at level 6.AF2 CommunicatingIn this AF, evidence is sought to demonstrate how the pupil communicates mathematical ideasand work. This will range from ‘represent their work with objects or pictures’ and ‘discuss theirwork’ at level 1 to ‘interpret, discuss and synthesise information presented in a variety ofmathematical forms’ and ‘pupils’ writing explains and informs their use of diagrams’ at level 6.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 17. 17 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF3 ReasoningIn this AF, evidence is sought to demonstrate how the pupil reasons about mathematics. This willrange from ‘draw simple conclusions from their work’ and ‘recognise and use a simple pattern orrelationship’ at level 1 to ‘begin to give mathematical justification’ at level 6.Science assessment focusesAttainment level Assessment focusAF1 Thinking scientificallyAF2 Understanding the applications and implications of scienceAF3 Communicating and collaborating in scienceAF4 Using investigative approachesAF5 Working critically with evidenceUnderstanding the assessment focuses for scienceThe AFs for science describe the key elements of performance. They are linked to the NationalCurriculum programmes of study and the level descriptions, and are designed give a detailed,analytic view of pupils’ attainment across all the key stages and in all areas of science.Science assessment focuses explainedAF1 Thinking scientificallyAF1 contains the main criteria related to how pupils work with scientific ideas, models andevidence to understand and handle knowledge of the subject. It includes criteria which recognisehow scientific ideas and models develop through further evidence, recognising the tentativenature of science as a discipline. Pupils work with scientific ideas, models and evidencethemselves to further their understanding, and recognise how scientific understanding as a wholedevelops in such a way.AF2 Understanding the applications and implications of scienceThe focus of AF2 is linking specific scientific ideas to particular applications and scientific andtechnological developments, and exploring how these developments can affect individuals,society and the world. It includes criteria related to the understanding of various issuessurrounding such developments, such as ethical or moral arguments, and also criteria related tothe understanding of the factors that can influence the development of science and technology. Inaddition there are criteria which relate to the application of science in roles or jobs.AF3 Communicating and collaborating in scienceAF3 contains the main criteria related to how pupils construct and present evidence-basedresponses and arguments for particular audiences, drawing on appropriate scientific language,mathematics, and scientific conventions and terminology. It also contains the main criteria relatedto how pupils use and develop collaborative approaches to their own work, and understand andrecognise the advantages of the collaborative work of scientists.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 18. 18 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAF4 Using investigative approachesThe focus of AF4 is how pupils ask questions, hypothesise, and develop appropriate and safestrategies and methodologies to collect scientific evidence, through experimental or other means.AF5 Working critically with evidenceAF5 involves criteria based on how pupils interpret and analyse data and other scientific evidenceto identify outcomes and draw conclusions using scientific knowledge and understanding. It alsoconsiders their ability to evaluate evidence, recognise limitations and develop methodologies orother strategies to improve data or provide further evidence.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 19. 19 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookPlanning to use APPStep 1. Your training and preparationFor you to be fully prepared to make APP assessment judgements you need to be: trained on how to introduce and support APP familiar with the AFs and standards files clear about what counts as evidence prepared to adjust your planning and teaching as necessary to obtain evidence clear about ways to fill in the assessment guidelines sheets.Step 2. Deciding on the timing of APP judgementsYour school policy will determine when you should make APP judgements. APP is a process ofperiodic review of work already done, not a new assessment event. As a basic principle the workreviewed should cover more than one unit and at least one term’s progress. This suggests thatyou will most likely formalise your judgements two or three times a year.Step 3. Practice in making judgementsIn order to make robust judgements in mathematics, science, reading and writing you shouldfollow the appropriate flow chart: Mathematics: making a level judgement flow chart (page 26) Reading: making a level judgement flow chart (page 27) Writing: making a level judgement flow chart (page 28) Science: making a level judgement flow chart (page 29).Practice implications of APPThe high-quality information generated from APP assessment judgements can be used in anumber of ways to inform: feedback to pupils and parents/carers future planning based on the Primary Framework learning objectives setting targets for improvement.The diagram on the next page shows how APP can provide information for future planning.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 20. 20 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook Primary Framework Assessment of ongoing work Identify AFs where Identify AFs where pupils have there is insufficient underperformed evidence Modify planning to Modify planning to focus on core secure a fuller aspects of learning evidence base associated with underperformanceRefining to sublevels across an attainment targetThe day-to-day work produced by pupils following a school’s scheme of work and teaching planswill provide evidence of attainment that is broad-based. The AFs in mathematics, science,reading and writing provide teachers with a framework to help them be selective in looking both atwhat pupils have learned and how well they have learned it.Judgements for each AT are refined into ‘Low’, ‘Secure’ or ‘High’ within the level and are deemedto be equal. This is done in a holistic way by taking into account how independently, howconsistently and in what range of contexts pupils demonstrate their attainment.Some schools choose to record ‘high’, ‘secure’ and low’, broadly as a/b/c for the purpose ofrecording and tracking data. Rather than being based on a mathematical formula for sub-dividinga level, ‘high’, ‘secure’ and ‘low’ reflect the professional nature of the judgements that are madethrough APP, based on a teacher’s consideration of a range of evidence over time.This constitutes an ‘intelligent’ differentiation within the level.APP periodic assessments are based on level judgements for all the AFs. This detail provides: a profile of the attainment of individuals and the next steps in learning they might take information to track the progress of individuals, and groups within and between levels aspects for development in the curriculum provided.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 21. 21 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookLinks between the PrimaryFramework, the NationalCurriculum and APPThe links between the Primary Framework, the National Curriculum and APP AFs are identifiedhere for mathematics and reading and writing.MathematicsIn APP National Curriculum level judgements are made for each attainment target inmathematics. The assessment guidelines for each attainment target are organised into a numberof AFs based on the National Curriculum programme of study for each mathematics attainmenttarget. The Primary Framework for mathematics organises learning objectives into strands thatalso map onto the National Curriculum. Teaching should be planned in relation to learningobjectives, not the APP AFs. Combinations of learning objectives work together to provideevidence for certain AFs.National Curriculum – mathematics2006 Primary Framework National Curriculum APP assessment focuses* forstrands of objectives attainment target mathematicsUsing and applying Ma1 Using and applying Problem solvingmathematics mathematics Communicating ReasoningCounting and understanding Ma2 Number Numbers and the numbernumber systemKnowing and using number Fractions, decimals,facts percentages and ratio Operations and theCalculating relationships between them Mental methods Solving numerical problems Written and calculator methodsUnderstanding shape Ma2 Shape, space and Shape measuresMeasuring Position and movement MeasuresHandling data Ma4 Handling data Processing and representing data Interpreting dataQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 22. 22 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook*Some AFs expand through levels. Others merge and new focuses such as algebra areintroduced at higher levels. These examples are for levels 3 and 4 (go towww.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘APP assessment guidelines’).The mathematics assessment focuses are on pages 15–17 of this booklet.Reading and writingThe APP reading and writing AFs are based on the National Curriculum attainment targets forreading and writing, and relate to the Primary Framework.Go to: www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘Primary Framework’ curriculum.qcda.gov.uk and follow the links to Key Stage 1 and Key Stage 2 English – Reading and Writing.In the Primary Framework you will find that learning objectives are grouped under the three mainheadings that correspond to the organisation of the National Curriculum: speak and listen for a wide range of purposes in different contexts read a wide range of texts in print and on screen write a wide range of texts on paper and on screen.Teaching should be planned in relation to learning objectives, not the AFs. Combinations oflearning objectives work together to provide evidence for certain AFs.Under each heading, the learning objectives are customised for each year group and indicatehow, using a range of texts and different opportunities for writing, curriculum content can betaught. There are 12 strands: three for reading, five for writing and four for speaking and listening.The different strands and associated learning objectives may be given particular emphasesdepending on your planning and the links you make between them. The Primary Frameworkemphasises the importance of creativity, independence and enjoyment. Reading strand 8,Engaging and responding to texts, and Writing strand 9, Creating and shaping texts, areparticularly important in this respect. Planning for a broad curriculum, with units of workdeveloped over several weeks, will make effective use of pupils’ abilities in a range of work andenable teachers to structure and pace the learning experience to make it more enjoyable andchallenging. Good planning and teaching, based on the Primary Framework learning objectives,will yield a wide range of evidence on which broad periodic judgements, using the assessmentfocuses and criteria, can be based.The day-to-day work produced by pupils following teaching to your school’s scheme of work willprovide evidence of attainment that is broad-based. This is the basis for using the AFs to makeperiodic judgements of your pupils’ attainments. The AFs give you a framework for lookingselectively at what pupils have learned and how well they have learned it.Connections between learning objectives for literacy and the assessment focusesfor reading and writingStrand 5: Word recognition: decoding (reading) and encoding (spelling)Most children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: read fluently and automatically by using phonic  AF1 (reading) knowledge of grapheme–phoneme  AF8 (writing) correspondences and the skills of blending as their prime approach for decoding unfamiliar words, and thereby: — build up a store of words that are instantlyQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 23. 23 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook recognised and understood on sight — segment words into their constituent phonemes and understand that spelling is the reverse of blending phonemes into words for reading.WritingStrand 6: Word structure and spellingMost children learn: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: that segmenting words into their constituent  AF8 (writing) phonemes for spelling is the reverse of blending phonemes into words for reading to spell words accurately by combining the use of grapheme–phoneme correspondence knowledge as the prime approach, and also morphological knowledge and etymological information a range of approaches to learn and spell irregular words.ReadingStrand 7: Understanding and interpreting textsMost children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: retrieve, select and describe information, events  AF2, AF3, AF1, AF4, AF5 or ideas deduce, infer and interpret information, events or ideas use syntax, context, word structures and origins to develop their understanding of word meanings identify and comment on the structure and organisation of texts explain and comment on writers’ use of language, including vocabulary, grammatical and literary features.Strand 8: Engaging with and responding to textsMost children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: read independently for purpose, pleasure and  All AFs, especially AF6, AF3, AF7 learning respond imaginatively, using different strategies to engage with texts evaluate writers’ purposes and viewpoints, and the overall effect of the text on the reader.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 24. 24 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWritingStrand 9: Creating and shaping textsMost children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: write independently and creatively for purpose,  All AFs, especially AF1, AF2, AF7 pleasure and learning use and adapt a range of forms, suited to different purposes and readers make stylistic choices, including vocabulary, literary features and viewpoints or voice use structural and presentational features for meaning and impact.Strand 10: Text structure and organisationMost children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: write independently and creatively for purpose,  AF3, AF4 pleasure and learning use and adapt a range of forms, suited to different purposes and readersStrand 11: Sentence structure and punctuationMost children learn to: Relevant AFs for this overall learning objective: vary and adapt sentence structure for meaning  AF5, AF6 and effect use a range of punctuation correctly to support meaning and emphasis convey meaning through grammatically accurate and correctly punctuated sentences.Strand 12: PresentationMost children learn to: Aspects of this learning objective are taken account of in the assessment of writing at levels develop a clear and fluent joined handwriting 1 to 3 style use keyboard skills and ICT tools confidently to compose and present work.These guideline sheets support teachers’ assessments from levels 1 to 5 and focus on the keylevel borderlines at Key Stage 2.The assessment guidelines can be accessed at:www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies by searching for ‘APP assessment guidelines’.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 25. 25 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookMaking judgements in APPWhen making a periodic teacher assessment judgement using the APP approach, the sameprocess is followed in all attainment targets/subjects. Collect together: Identify level borderline for attainment target  pupils’ work that demonstrates independence and choice  any other evidence, plans or notes  assessment guidance materials: o level judgement flowchart o assessment guidelines to be completed Look through the work for each assessment focus and highlight the applicable criteria Consider which level offers the best fit and tick the appropriate level-related box for each AF Make an overall level judgementWhile there is guidance available to support teachers in arriving at these judgements on theNational Strategies web area (see below), a good degree of professional judgement is alsoneeded as there is no exact mathematical formula which has to be applied.As in some subjects there are key requirements at particular levels. There is a separate flow chartfor each of reading, writing, science and mathematics, which give step-by-step guidance on howto complete assessment guidelines.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 26. 26 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookMathematicsUse these steps to formalise your assessments of pupils’ mathematics into attainment target leveljudgements.Step 1 Making AF judgements in Ma2 NumberBegin with the assessment guidelines for Ma2 Number.Look at the criteria within each AF. Decide which level describes the pupil best.Record the level for each AF in the appropriate box.Record insufficient evidence’ (IE) if you do not know enough about this aspect of the pupil’s mathematics tomake a judgement. This has implications for planning.If you feel the pupil is operating below the level, check the criteria on the assessment guidelines for thelevel below.Step 2 Making an overall level judgement for Ma2 NumberNow make your level decision for Ma2 Number. Your assessment focus judgements give an impression of the best-fit level for Ma2. Read the complete level descriptions for both levels to confirm your impression of the best-fit level for Ma2.Decide whether the level is Low, Secure or High. Do this by thinking about what the pupil demonstrates. How much of the level? How consistently? How independently? In what range of contexts?Tick the relevant Low, Secure or High box for the level.Step 3 Repeat the process for Ma3, Ma4 and then Ma1For the Ma1 judgement, consider how the pupil uses and applies the mathematics of Ma2, Ma3 and Ma4.Step 4 Making an overall level judgement for mathematicsIf you require an overall level judgement for mathematics, review your judgements for each of Ma2, Ma3,Ma4 and Ma1.Now make an overall best-fit level judgement and refine this to Low, Secure or High.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 27. 27 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookReadingThe following guidance may be helpful in determining an overall level for writing, and thenwhether the level is low, secure and high, since there are key requirements for each level.Step 1: Making assessment focus judgementsFor each AF, starting with AF1 for levels 1, 2 and 3 and AF2 for all other levels: look at the evidence in relation to all the criteria for both the higher and lower levels at this borderline and highlight those that have been met make a best-fit judgement on whether the higher or the lower level has been achieved and tick the appropriate level-related box if there is some evidence for an AF but not enough to make a judgement at the lower level, tick the BL (below level) box if there is no evidence for a particular AF, tick the IE (insufficient evidence) box.If you have ticked BL for more than one AF, check whether you should be using the assessment guidelinesfor the next lower level borderline.If you have ticked all, or almost all, the criteria for the higher level, check whether you should be using theassessment guidelines for the next higher level borderline.Step 2: Making an overall level judgementCheck your AF judgements against the requirements for each level.For level 1: ticks at level 1 for AF1 and AF2 and some highlighting at level 1 for AF3.For level 2: ticks at level 2 for AF1 and AF2 and some highlighting at level 2 for AF3.For level 3: ticks at level 3 for AF2, AF3 and one other AF out of AFs 1, 4, 5, 6, and 7.AF1 is not assessed separately beyond level 3.For level 4: ticks at level 4 for AF2 and AF3 and at least one other AF.For level 5: ticks at level 5 for any four AFs provided there is level 4 for AF3.For all other levels: ticks for any four AFs at the target level.If you have ticked IE for more than two AFs, there may be insufficient evidence to make an overall leveljudgement, in which case IE should be awarded.Now finalise the overall level judgement by deciding whether the level is Low, Secure or High.Low – meets the minimum requirements for the level.Secure – meets the minimum requirements for the level with some additional highlighting of criteria at thelevel in most other AFs.High – the criteria for the level are highlighted across all, or almost all, the AFs, with some criteria in thelevel above likely to be highlighted as well.Your decision should take account of how fully and consistently the criteria have been met and how far thepupil demonstrates independence and choice across a range of evidence.Step 3: Checking the overall level judgementFinally, check the overall judgement by comparing the evidence with the relevant standards files.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 28. 28 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookWritingThe following guidance may be helpful in determining an overall level for writing, and thenwhether the level is low, secure and high, since there are key requirements for each level.Step 1: Making assessment focus judgementsFor each AF, starting with AF5: look at the evidence in relation to all the criteria for both the higher and lower levels at this borderline and highlight those that have been met make a best-fit judgement whether the higher or the lower level has been achieved and tick the appropriate level-related box if there is some evidence for an AF but not enough to make a judgement at the lower level, tick the BL (Below Level) box if there is no evidence for a particular AF, tick the IE (Insufficient Evidence) box.If you have ticked BL for more than one AF out of AFs 1 to 6, check whether you should be using theassessment guidelines for the next lowest level borderline.If you have ticked all, or almost all, the criteria for the higher level, check whether you should be using theassessment guidelines for the next highest level borderline.Step 2: Making an overall level judgementCheck your AF judgements against the requirements for each level.For level 1: ticks at level 1 for three out of AF5, AF6, AF1 and AF2 and either AF7 or AF8, plus somehighlighting of level 1 criteria for handwriting.For level 2: ticks at level 2 for three out of AF5, AF6, AF1 and AF2 and either AF7 or AF8.For all other levels: ticks at the target level for any four AFs out of AFs 1 to 6.If you have ticked IE for more than two AFs, there may be insufficient evidence to make an overall leveljudgement, in which case IE should be awarded.Now finalise the overall level judgement by deciding whether the level is Low, Secure or High.Low – meets the minimum requirements for the level.Secure – meets the minimum requirements for the level with some additional highlighting of criteria at thelevel in most other AFs.High – the criteria for the level are highlighted across all, or almost all, the AFs, with some criteria in thelevel above likely to be highlighted as well.Your decision should take account of how fully and consistently the criteria have been met and how far thepupil demonstrates independence and choice across a range of evidence. Where evidence for AF7 andAF8 is significantly better/worse than the evidence for other AFs, it is likely to influence your judgement ofLow, Secure or High.Step 3: Checking the overall level judgementFinally, check the overall judgement by comparing the evidence with the relevant standards files.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 29. 29 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookScienceStage 1: Making AF judgements Begin with the assessment guidelines for the appropriate levels. Look at the criteria within each AF. Decide which level describes the pupil best. Record the level for each AF in the appropriate box. Record ‘insufficient evidence’ (IE) if you do not know enough about this aspect of the pupil’s science to make a judgement. This has implications for planning.If you feel the pupil is operating below the level, check the criteria on the assessment guidelines for thelevel below, or in the case of level 1, record ‘below level’ (BL).Stage 2: Making an overall level judgement Make your overall level decision for science. Your assessment focus judgements give an impression of the best-fit level for each AF. Now use your professional judgement to decide whether the level is Low, Secure or High. Take into consideration how fully, consistently and independently the criteria have been met in different contexts. Confirm you initial judgement and tick the box for Low, Secure or High as follows:Low – meets some of the criteria for the level across some of the AFsSecure – meets most of the criteria for the level across the full range of AFsHigh – meets all, or almost all of the criteria for the level across the AFs with some highlighting of criteria inthe level above.Step 3: Checking the overall level judgementFinally, check the overall judgement by comparing the evidence with the relevant standards files.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 30. 30 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookHow to secure judgements inAPPThe information from APP judgements is only valuable if the judgements are secure and in linewith national standards. Everyone involved needs the reassurance that APP judgements areconsistent within and between schools.Teachers’ judgements should be consistent between colleagues in the years above and below,within school and in transition between schools. The Roles and responsibilities chart on the nextpage outlines who should be responsible for the APP activities in school to ensure that teacherassessment judgements are consistent, reliable and matched to national standards.Roles and responsibilitiesThe following diagram outlines the suggested minimum involvement and the activities of schoolstaff to be involved both in introducing APP and at each assessment round, usually termly: a school senior leader the APP lead teacher for each subject – mathematics, science and/or reading and writing classroom teachers, a minimum of two from the same or adjacent year groups.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 31. 31 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookAPP school leader APP lead subject teacher TeachersInitial review and work on whole-school assessment policy, and Attend external APP trainingpractice and APP focus for school, including how often assessments The model of assessmentare made (see Planning to secure judgements, below) The assessment focuses Making a judgement using APP Planning for APP Subject leader standardisationDeliver teacher training 1APP model and approach disseminated to subject teachersDeliver teacher training 2: 1st school standardisation Teaching and learning, ongoing assessment information gatheredAPP subject teachersDeliver ongoing teacher standardisation to strengthen teachers’ Make judgements for pupils andjudgements (as required) record these on assessment guidelines(see In-school standardisation, p.32)Review of school curriculum In-school moderation Assemble range of work orprovision and assessment policy, information for one or two pupils Assessments of at least one pupilpractice and planning in the light per teacher to be reviewed andof APP assessment outcomes agreed with at least one other teacher Review outcomes and plan accordingly (see In-school moderation, p.33)External moderation Review weekly teaching plans and teaching sequences and adjust as necessaryQCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 32. 32 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookPlanning to secure judgementsPlanning to introduce and support the APP approach in your school will be central to its success.Here we outline the initial considerations for you and your school senior leadership team (SLT),the planning decisions required to identify the staff to be involved, their continuing professionaldevelopment (CPD) and training needs and the activities to secure your teachers’ assessmentjudgements through planned in-school standardisation and moderation activity.Initial considerations for the school leadership team (SLT)The SLT should consider the school context and how its assessment policies and practices fit theAPP approach. This will help the SLT decide with which subjects, year groups and teachers yourschool is going to start using APP.School assessment policy review School assessment practice review When and how assessments are undertaken  Current teacher assessment practice The balance between teacher assessment and  Medium- and short-term planning summative testing  Reviewing progress with pupils, Progress reviews parents/carers, colleagues Effective in-school standardisation and moderation  Grouping pupils activity to ensure:  Use of planning, preparation and — the consistency of teacher judgements within assessment (PPA) time school (between teaching and year groups)  How you gather, record, and use evidence — the robustness and reliability of judgements and information from assessments against national standards  Use of end of unit, term and year tests Involvement of teaching assistants (TAs) and other  A cross-curricular approach to assessing adults literacy, mathematics and science Enhancing what is passed on to the next teacherIn-school standardisation and moderationStandardisation and moderation are central activities of the APP approach to ensure consistencyof judgements within school. They have different functions and occur at different stages in theassessment process. Standardisation is designed to ensure that national standards are understood and can be applied consistently. It occurs: — before teachers assess their pupils initially — from time to time, to review and strengthen teachers’ judgements within AFs or attainment targets as appropriate. Moderation is designed to check that national standards have been applied consistently, and occurs after teachers have made their assessments.In-school standardisationThe purpose of in-school standardisation is to check the consistency of teachers’ judgementsbefore they assess pupils in their class. The APP lead teacher for the subject should run aschool-based session for all teachers involved before they make their APP assessments.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 33. 33 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookTeachers assess a small sample of pupils’ work from the school and/or use a training standardsfile (of no more than two pupils) and standardise their judgements using the APP materials. TheAPP lead teacher for the subject draws attention to any variations in standards and resolves thedifferences before teachers make assessments of their own pupils.The standards files should be used as a reference to answer queries about or resolve differencesin judgements.The materials needed for delivering a standardisation session are: assessment guidelines (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘APP assessment guidelines’) standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘standards files’) sample work of one or two pupils from the school and/or from the training standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘Using the training standards files’).In-school moderationThe purpose of in-school moderation is to check the consistency of teachers’ judgements afterthey have made their assessments, to identify and resolve any differences and to agree schoolstandards.To make the process manageable, it is helpful to have a focus for the moderation rather than tryto moderate all the judgements made. You will need to select a sample of work on which you willagree judgements within your school.The focus for the sample: should reflect your school interests and concerns can vary at each assessment round.In mathematics, the focus for the first moderation might be Ma1 and Ma2 and for the second Ma1,Ma3 and Ma4. The pilot project demonstrated that it is important for schools to keep Ma1 a focusat each round as it permeates across Ma2, Ma3 and Ma4.In English and science, choose your own focus for each moderation. The focus could be aparticular level or level boundary. For example, the focus might be pupils on the level 3/4boundary in writing for the first moderation and pupils at level 4 in reading for the secondmoderation.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 34. 34 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookStandards filesThe standards files for reading, writing, mathematics and science are a central part of the APPapproach. Their main purpose is to exemplify national standards and act as a resource andreference point for teachers: on assessing pupils’ work on diagnosing pupils’ strengths and weaknesses for training and professional development purposes.Each standards file includes: examples of pupils’ ongoing classroom work which have been assessed to exemplify the APP approach and show national standards commentary on the evidence at AF level, which leads to a summative judgement on the pupils’ work the assessment guidelines sheet that records both a profile of attainment across the AFs and a National Curriculum level for the attainment target.The files exemplify attainment from Years 1 to 6 at National Curriculum levels 1 to 5. Theseparate collections of work for reading and writing are provided so that the annotations andcommentaries are presented as clearly as possible to focus on the evidence for each modeseparately, and to help sharpen teachers’ judgements accordingly. In some circumstances acollection of pupils’ work could well provide evidence for the assessment of both reading andwriting, but teachers will need to judge the two modes separately.Pupils’ work in the standards filesEach standards file comprises a number of pieces of work from individual pupils in schoolsdirectly involved in the piloting phases of APP. Some of the evidence is written, some of it is in theform of notes made by the teacher when working with the pupils, or when observing them inclass; in some files, video material of what pupils can do is included.In the mathematics standards files, there are also summary notes made by the teacher aboutwhat the range of work demonstrates about a pupil’s mathematical attainment. For mathematicsand reading and writing, the level of annotation on the work presented in the standards files is farmore than a classroom teacher would be expected to record. The standards files have a largeamount of annotation as they need to stand alone and the classroom teacher is not available todiscuss what the evidence amounts to and what additionally they know about a pupil’s work.Background information about the context of the work has been kept to a minimum since eachcollection has been selected primarily to exemplify attainment at a particular National Curriculumlevel and in a relevant year group, rather than as an example of recommended curriculumpractice. In some cases, the pupil’s work in a file represents that pupil’s entire output during theperiod; in others, it is a small sample. In each case, the criterion for the size of the collection is thesame: how much is sufficient to support a teacher in making a level judgement against the AFs?QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 35. 35 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbookNational standards exemplifiedEach collection of work in the standards files has been assessed using an assessment guidelinessheet. Four kinds of annotation or commentary may support assessment of the pupil’s work.Completed assessment guidelines sheetsA completed assessment guidelines sheet shows how the pupil’s work is assessed and providesinformation towards making a judgement of ‘Low’, ‘Secure’ or ‘High’ within a level.Marginal annotationThese annotations indicate where a particular criterion in the guidelines is met. The annotationsrefer directly to criteria for an AF at a particular level.Commentary/teacher’s notes on a piece of evidenceAt the end of each piece of a pupil’s work in reading or writing a commentary summarises whathas been demonstrated across the AFs. In mathematics, after each piece of a pupil’s workteacher’s notes are provided along with next steps for the pupil.Assessment summariesThese consider all the evidence and conclude with a level judgement for the attainment target.Using the standards filesThe standards files enable classroom teachers to have a common understanding of differentlevels, and the nature and demands of the AFs that underpin each one.There are different ways of using the standards files: to standardise judgements, that is, to ensure that teachers judgements are in line with national standards before making assessments as a reference when assessing your own pupils to support moderation activity to clarify what it means to make progress to exemplify the APP approach.Standardisation materialsTo ensure that judgements made by teachers in your school are in line with national standards,standardisation training in school could use the materials in the following ways. Each teacher assesses one pupil, and agrees the level judgement with a colleague by comparing and contrasting the pupil’s work with that of a standards file pupil at that level. Teachers assess the work of one standards file pupil, using a training version of the standards files with the references to level judgements removed, and then compare their judgements with those in the full standards file. Teachers copy one or two collections of work from their own pupils, without any annotation or commentary, and ask colleagues to identify pupils in the standards files to which each is closest in performance.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 36. 36 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook Using two standards files at the same level (e.g. Low 3 and Secure 3) with all the annotations but without the assessment summaries or assessment guidelines sheets, groups discuss and agree which is Low and which is Secure. To clarify progress, look through all standards files that cover one identified attainment target to track the evidence for a particular AF or group of AFs.ReferenceWhen assessing your own pupils you should use the standards files for reference: as a benchmark when making periodic assessment judgements to compare the performance of your pupils at a particular level with exemplars that have been assessed against national standards to check what constitutes sufficient evidence of attainment in an AF at a specific level to refine your judgement of what is typical of performance in adjacent levels, for example comparing two collections of work in the same attainment target, one on either side of a level borderline to check what progression in a particular AF looks like.Supporting in-school moderationModeration activity generally involves a group of teachers reviewing a sample of class teachers’initial assessments, reconciling any disagreements and agreeing a final judgement. Thestandards files are essential tools in this process of bringing differing views to agreement in anevidence-based way that is in line with national standards. Disagreement can be resolved byrecourse to the question: How does the pupil under discussion compare with pupil X or Y from thestandards files?Exemplifying the APP modelSubject leaders, and others running training sessions, could use selected pupil standards files toillustrate how the principles that underpin the APP model of periodic assessment operate inpractice, or to illustrate particular aspects of assessment. Discussion can be focused, forexample, on: attainment at a particular level in different year groups, or in a particular AF at different levels the range of potential evidence in using and applying mathematics or reading, for example, how much evidence of attainment for a particular AF is required to support a judgement differences between evidence gathered from oral work, practical science activities and from writing whether it is harder to find evidence for some AFs than others identifying the next steps in teaching and learning for a particular pupil or groups of pupils.The links for the standards files are as follows: mathematics standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘mathematics standards files’) reading standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘reading standards files’)QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009
  • 37. 37 of 37 The National Strategies  Primary Assessing Pupils’ Progress: A teachers’ handbook writing standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘writing standards files’) science standards files (go to www.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘science standards files’).Using the training standards filesA number of the standards files have been made available without the annotations that reveal thelevel at which each pupil is working. These are the training standards files. They will provide auseful resource when training staff and can be used with groups of staff to show the process ofmaking a level judgement. For more details of this process go towww.standards.dcsf.gov.uk/nationalstrategies and search for ‘Making judgements in APP’.QCDA 01064-2009PDF-EN-01 © Crown copyright 2009