ICT and Governance in East Africa:
Preliminary Study Findings from Kenya,
Uganda and Tanzania.
Nanjira Sambuli (@NiNanjira...
We set out to
identify, describe and analyze conditions
under which ICT tools have facilitated two
way interaction between...
More specifically…
 if/how they promote rights/access to information,
 if/ how they facilitate civic participation (tran...
Mixed Methods:
Semi Structured Interviews, Focus Group Discussion,
Crowdsourcing.
Study Sites:
Kenya - Nairobi and Nakuru
...
Stakeholders interviewed:
1. Citizens: Two Focus Group Discussions with 8-10
citizens in each of the 6 study sites
2. Gove...
1. FACILITATING ACCESS TO INFORMATION:
Tool: Websites
Government : ‘One stop shop’ government portals.
Eg: Kenya’s mygov.g...
• Citizen feedback: information on govt. websites is
basic and/or insufficient, outdated, jargon-laden,
‘retrievable on Go...
2. FACILITATING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION:
i. Listening to citizen voice
• amplifying citizens' voice by providing communicati...
iii. Participation via Social Media
• Slow pick up – more engagement on Twitter than Facebook.
(case of Mzalendo, Parliame...
Citizen Participation
• Citizens are generally eager to have their voices
heard and take opportunities to do so but are al...
3. SERVICE DELIVERY.
Govts.
• ICTs popular for facilitating payment of taxes,
utilities – electricity, water.
• Websites, ...
Monitoring Government Service Delivery:
• Government efforts were most visible in service delivery
through ICTs, more than...
Monitoring Government Service Delivery:
• CSOs monitoring service delivery are particularly
focused in rural areas using n...
4. TRACKING CORRUPTION.
Govt.
• Websites and online portals to report corruption.
• SMS numbers
CSOs.
• Toll-free lines – ...
4. TRACKING CORRUPTION.
● Citizens in FGDs indicated contentment with leveraging
ICTs to report corruption cases; the use ...
Tracking Corruption:
● CSOs have no capacity/mandate to prosecute an
offender-they have to refer issues raised to appropri...
IN SUM:
• Low-cost (to end users) and non-Internet based tools
(radio, SMS eg) found to be most effective in Kenya,
Uganda...
IN SUM:
• Citizen motivation to leverage ICTs:
– Ease and convenience (minimizing queuing time eg)
– Diminished fear of vi...
Emerging Questions (for discussion)
What informs the creation and deployment of civic tech
applications?
How can end users...
Emerging Questions (for discussion)
How do we balance access to information with
understanding of the information availed?...
For more on the study, please visit
bitly.com/ICTGovEA
Get in touch
nanjira@ihub.co.ke
research@ihub.co.ke
#ICTGOVEA
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ICT and Governance in East Africa: Preliminary Study Findings from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania by Nanjira Sambuli (iHub Research)

Nanjira presented a session at The Impacts of Civic Technology Conference (TICTeC2015) on 25 March 2015 in London. To see more coverage of TICTeC2015, visit: http://lanyrd.com/2015/tictec/
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - ICT and Governance in East Africa: Preliminary Study Findings from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania by Nanjira Sambuli (iHub Research)

  • 1. ICT and Governance in East Africa: Preliminary Study Findings from Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. Nanjira Sambuli (@NiNanjira) For @ihubresearch
  • 2. We set out to identify, describe and analyze conditions under which ICT tools have facilitated two way interaction between government and citizens. #ICTGOVEA
  • 3. More specifically…  if/how they promote rights/access to information,  if/ how they facilitate civic participation (transparency and accountability)  if/how such tools assist in monitoring government's service delivery (health, water etc) and  if/how ICT tools have been, or can be utilized in tracking corruption. #ICTGOVEA
  • 4. Mixed Methods: Semi Structured Interviews, Focus Group Discussion, Crowdsourcing. Study Sites: Kenya - Nairobi and Nakuru Uganda - Kampala, Fort Portal, Lira, Apac Tanzania - Dar es Salaam, Mwanza NB: A Qualitative study. Study Approach #ICTGOVEA
  • 5. Stakeholders interviewed: 1. Citizens: Two Focus Group Discussions with 8-10 citizens in each of the 6 study sites 2. Governments: Semi-Structured Interviews 3. Civil Society Organizations: Semi-Structured Interviews 4. Developers: Semi-Structured Interviews 36 CSOs were interviewed, 6 Government Institutions/Departments, 5 Developers Study Approach:
  • 6. 1. FACILITATING ACCESS TO INFORMATION: Tool: Websites Government : ‘One stop shop’ government portals. Eg: Kenya’s mygov.go.ke , Uganda’s www.gov.ug , Tanzania’s www.tanzania.go.tz/ CSOs: Websites containing information, • Parliamentary proceedings - Mzalendo (KE), Parliament Watch (UG) • mapping health institutions - AfyaMap (TZ). #ICTGOVEA
  • 7. • Citizen feedback: information on govt. websites is basic and/or insufficient, outdated, jargon-laden, ‘retrievable on Google’. • Govts' take: effort to keep website information up to date is difficult, dependent on willingness by various institutions/depts. to avail info. • CSOs’ take : govt. info availed via websites useful to their work. Citizen interaction with info on websites yet to pick up. Access to Info.
  • 8. 2. FACILITATING CITIZEN PARTICIPATION: i. Listening to citizen voice • amplifying citizens' voice by providing communication avenues through toll-free lines (SMS, voice) • popular in localized contexts, and especially when combined with topical radio shows/community radio stations. ii. Participation via SMS • SMS polls, eliciting citizens’ ideas on tackling issues, combined with mapping and publishing of results. • Bulk SMS systems, facilitating communication between govt. officials and citizens
  • 9. iii. Participation via Social Media • Slow pick up – more engagement on Twitter than Facebook. (case of Mzalendo, Parliament Watch, among others). • Expression of opinion on various governance issues, not necessarily in response to CSO efforts… • Ties to citizen (youth esp.) perception of social media as platforms for entertainment rather than civic engagement… • Fear of being targeted for voicing concern via social media also noted.
  • 10. Citizen Participation • Citizens are generally eager to have their voices heard and take opportunities to do so but are also discouraged from continued participation because of a belief that no action will be taken. • Topical radio talk shows have very high numbers of listeners and people who call in to contribute to discussions. This is primarily an effort in community radio stations across the region.
  • 11. 3. SERVICE DELIVERY. Govts. • ICTs popular for facilitating payment of taxes, utilities – electricity, water. • Websites, USSDs, apps. CSOs. • SMS, digital cameras (for evidence-based monitoring) deployed.
  • 12. Monitoring Government Service Delivery: • Government efforts were most visible in service delivery through ICTs, more than in other areas of focus in the study eg revenue authorities. • Tools for payment of services are used out of necessity and convenience by citizens. • User experience issues noted. #ICTGOVEA
  • 13. Monitoring Government Service Delivery: • CSOs monitoring service delivery are particularly focused in rural areas using non-Internet based tools (SMS, digital cams eg. • Information collected on service delivery is shared among CSOs and with Government; responsible service delivery institutions noted to be responsive.
  • 14. 4. TRACKING CORRUPTION. Govt. • Websites and online portals to report corruption. • SMS numbers CSOs. • Toll-free lines – SMS and voice. (TI-Kenya, TI-Uganda).
  • 15. 4. TRACKING CORRUPTION. ● Citizens in FGDs indicated contentment with leveraging ICTs to report corruption cases; the use of ICT has minimized the fear of getting victimized; However, people become demotivated to make reports if there seems to be no action taken. ● Hardly any indication that government-deployed tools have been leveraged to report corruption (trust factor).
  • 16. Tracking Corruption: ● CSOs have no capacity/mandate to prosecute an offender-they have to refer issues raised to appropriate (govt.) institutions. ● sometimes misinterpreted by the citizens to be a sign of no action from their side, hence discouraging further reporting. ● Concerns on anonymity noted. #ICTGOVEA
  • 17. IN SUM: • Low-cost (to end users) and non-Internet based tools (radio, SMS eg) found to be most effective in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania. – Combinations of these tools (eg topical/community radio and SMS are particular effective in getting citizen engagement towards govt. response to issues) • Many websites, apps and other tools have slow uptake due to: – inadequate governance needs assessment. – terrible user experience. #ICTGOVEA
  • 18. IN SUM: • Citizen motivation to leverage ICTs: – Ease and convenience (minimizing queuing time eg) – Diminished fear of victimization given a perceived sense of anonymity via ICTs. – Minimal cost to users (especially to report, share opinions). • Demotivation to leverage ICTs: – Disillusionment, apathy among citizens (‘nothing will be done’ conviction). – Digital (il)literacy – Costs of deployment and maintenance (govt, CSOs).
  • 19. Emerging Questions (for discussion) What informs the creation and deployment of civic tech applications? How can end users (the citizens) be better involved/engaged in design processes for ICTs deployed to address governance issues? How can the growing popularity of social media be leveraged to address governance issues, bridge communication gaps between government and citizens? #ICTGOVEA
  • 20. Emerging Questions (for discussion) How do we balance access to information with understanding of the information availed? What informs governments’ ICT efforts? How do we go beyond apathy, disillusionment among citizens? Can ICTs help? #ICTGOVEA
  • 21. For more on the study, please visit bitly.com/ICTGovEA Get in touch nanjira@ihub.co.ke research@ihub.co.ke #ICTGOVEA

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