Nacaa wheat poster reiter 13 july2012
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Nacaa wheat poster reiter 13 july2012
Novel Nitrogen Fertilizer Applications for No-Tillage Wheat g pp No Tillage g J S Reiter1 and M S Reiter2 J.S. M.S. 1P i PrinceG g C ty U it Vi gi i C ti E t i Pi G g 23875 USA George County Unit, Virginia Cooperative Extension, Prince George, VA 23875. USA. 2Department of Crop and Soil Environmental Sciences, Eastern Shore Agricultural Research and Extension Center, Virginia Tech, Painter, VA 23420. USA. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION MATERIALS AND METHODS ABSTRACT Site description:Winter wheat fertilization has been studied extensively in intensive Pamunkey l P k y loam (P ( k y fine-loamy, mixed, semiactive, (Pamunkey fi l y i d i igrain management systems in Virginia. Over the pg g y g past 15 yyears, , thermic Ultic Hapludalfs)there has been a trend towards no tillage wheat production for soil no-tillage Brandon Plantation, Prince George County, Virginia. Nitrogen Rateerosion control and labor savings. The high cost of nitrogen O of th l One f the longest running agricultural enterprises in the t i i lt l t i i th LSD is compared within years only. onlyfertilizer as well as more attention to nutrient management i thf tili ll tt ti t ti t t in the United States In continuous operation since 1614. States. 1614 Generally Generally, yield increased with increasingChesapeake Bay watershed has increased farmers’ interest in farmers No-tillage wheat planted in rotation with corn. g p N rates i a quadratic relationship (Fig. 3). t in d ti l ti hi (Fig 3) ( )more efficient fertilizer application methods. The main objectives of pp j Fall N application = 30 lbs /A over entire field area. lbs./A area Th highest The hi h t N rate of 160 lb N/A was not t f tthis study were to identify novel nitrogen application methods in no no- Spring N applied in 50-50 split applications at Zadok growth stage 50 50 statistically different from the VCEtillage wheat and to determine if these application methods allow 25 and 30 d 30. recommendation of 120 lb N/A.producers t maintain or i d to i t i increase yi ld with less nitrogen fertilizer. yields ith l it g f tili Source = Urea-ammonium nitrate solution (30%) (30%). The Th 2010 season f ll followed an above d bThe study was conducted in Prince George County and on the Nitrogen application methods: g pp average corn crop. The winter growing cropEastern S o e o Virginia. The app cat o methods were t ad t o a aste Shore of g a e application et ods e e traditional Surface broadcast (Standard Extension recommendation). recommendation) season was abnormally cold and wet;broadcast spraying, subsurface injection (15 and 30 inch spacing),b d t i b f i j ti d i h i ) Surface band and Subsurface band band. resulting i average yields. lti in i ldand surface banding (15 and 30 inch spacing) The five nitrogen spacing). 15 i h apart. inches t Nitrogen Application Method The 2011 season followed a devastatingfertilizer rates were 0, 40, 80, 120, and 160 pounds of nitrogen per p g p 30 inches apart apart. d ithi y ly LSD i compared within years only. is summer drought with low corn yields andacre (lbs N/A) applied in a split Spring application at Zadok growth (lbs. g Nitrogen rates:stages 25 and 30. Optimum wheat yields (86.1 bu/A) were I 2010 and 2011 all f tili In d 2011, ll fertilizer application methods li ti th d high hi h pre-plant soil nitrate levels. The winter l t il it t l l Th i t lbs./A 40 lbs /A bt i d h lb lit li d Th b dobtained when 120 lbs. N/A were split applied. The broadcast, t were statistically similar (Fig. 1). (Fig 1) growing season was drier than normal; 80 lbs /A lbs./Ainjected and banded application methods revealed no yieldinjected, Heavy corn residue did not affect nitrogen resulting in record y g yields. 120 lbs./A (Standard Extension recommendation). / (S ( )differences in 2 out of 3 y years. Grain yields indicate that current y deposition d p iti as much as anticipated. h ti ip t d g y The 2012 season followed high yielding g lbs./A 160 lbs /AVCE spring N application rates of up to 120 lbs. N/A are acceptable lbs In 2012, d I 2012 advanced wheat d d h t development resulted in l t lt d i corn with a wet fall and dry winter and Control plots:for no till wheat production. Yield data also indicated that injecting no-till making applications at GS 31 which caused plant spring; resulting in low to average yields. No-fertilizer. N f tilior b di nitrogen on winter wheat did not i banding it i t h t t increase N f tili fertilizer use stages. No-fertilizer + knifing rig at both growth stages damage ( g 2). g (Fig. )efficiencyefficiency. Harvested with a plot combine and g p g grain weights corrected to Th injection q ip p The i j i equipment was operated with no N d ih 13.5% moisture 13 5% moisture. applied which resulted in yield reductions in 2 of 3 years (Fig. 2). INTRODUCTION Application EquipmentWheat is an important crop to Virginia producers as we annually j y Photo 1. Coulter injection systempproduce over 262,000 acres valued in excess of US$80.1 million f S$(5 year averages; USDA NASS 2012). Nitrogen losses commonly USDA-NASS, 2012)occur by leaching, volatilization when using urea containingf tili d i il ti b ti i b i thfertilizers, and assimilation by competing microbes in the soil ilsystem Nitrogen losses from volatilization are aggravated insystem.conservation tillage systems where large amounts of crop residue g y g p surface.remain on the soil surface Exorbitant losses waste naturalresources, pollute sensitive waterways, add to greenhouse gasemissions, and cause a d i i d decrease i f tili ffi i th t in fertilizer use efficiency thatreduces farmers’ profit margins Research in Kansas indicated farmers margins.that subsurface fertilizer applications may increase efficiency by pp y y y Photo 2. Injection system operating in j y p g30% and warrants research in the Mid-Atlantic (Kelley and Mid Atlantic GS 30 wheat. wheat Photo 3. Effect of 30 inch surface band CONCLUSIONSSweeney 2007)Sweeney, 2007). @ 160 lbs N/A on wheat growth. growth Surface and subsurface banding of urea- ammonium nitrate results in y yields equal to q traditional broadcast methods methods. Neither banding method increased N use efficiency by decreasing N application rates. OBJECTIVE g g Sub-surface N banding would significantly y increase fertilizer application costs to wheat. wheat To increase N efficiency in Virginia winter wheat Current Virginia Cooperative Extension p oduct o through production t oug innovative fertilizer application o at e e t e app cat o nitrogen rate recommendations provide d procedures. i i ld f till h t maximum yield for no-tillage wheat.