GLOBAL BUSINEESS SCHOOL HUBLI
ASSIGNMENT
ON
CYBER LAW
SUBMITTED TO.
Dr.Bhargav .Revankar
PROF. GBS
HUBLI
SUBMITTED...
CONTENTS
1. Objectives of IT legislation in India ..........................................................................
1. OBJECTIVES OF IT LEGISLATION IN INDIA
The Government of India enacted its Information Technology Act 2000 with the obj...
Elaborate procedures for certifying authorities and electronic signatures have been spelt out.
The civil offence of data ...
4.WHAT IS A CYBER CRIME?
Cyber Crime is not defined officially in IT Act or in any other legislation. In fact, it cannot ...
6. Notable features of the IT act:
 Focussing on data privacy
 Focussing on Information Security
 Defining cyber caf...
6. denies or causes the denial of access to any person authorized to access any computer,
computer system or computer net...
Related Case: Mphasis BPO Fraud: 2005
In December 2004, four call centre employees, working at an outsourcing facility op...
"65.Tampering with computer source documents.-Whoever knowingly or intentionally
conceals, destroys or alters or int...
Section 66A - Punishment for sending offensive messages through
communication service
Relevant Case #1: Fake profile of ...
Section 66C - Punishment for identity theft
Relevant Cases:
The CEO of an identity theft protection company, Lifelock, T...
Section 66D - Punishment for cheating by impersonation by using
computer resource
Relevant Case: Sandeep Vaghese v/s Sta...
Section 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy
Relevant Cases:
1) Jawaharlal Nehru University MMS scandal
In a sever...
D) SECTION 67
67. Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic
form
Whoever publishes or tr...
Verdict:
The accused was found guilty of offences under section 469, 509 IPC and 67 of IT Act 2000.
He is convicted and ...
67 B Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting
children in sexually explicit act, etc. in electroni...
67 C. Preservation and Retention of information by intermediaries
(1) Intermediary shall preserve and retain such informa...
F) SECTION 70
70 Protected system.
1) The appropriate Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare a...
G) SECTION 71
71 Penalty for misrepresentation. -Whoever makes any misrepresentation to,
or suppresses any material fact...
THANK
YOU.
Nadeem cyber law assignment
of 21

Nadeem cyber law assignment

Cyber law assignment IT Act 200 All Section an Realted casess
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - Nadeem cyber law assignment

  • 1. GLOBAL BUSINEESS SCHOOL HUBLI ASSIGNMENT ON CYBER LAW SUBMITTED TO. Dr.Bhargav .Revankar PROF. GBS HUBLI SUBMITTED BY. Nadeem. Kazi Md. Gouse . H Shahid . R
  • 2. CONTENTS 1. Objectives of IT legislation in India ..................................................................................... 3 2. What does IT Act 2000 legislation deals with ……………………………..……………..3 3. Structure of IT Act................................................................................................................... 3 a. How is IT Act structured? ................................................................................................... 3 b. What is the applicability of IT Act?..................................................................................... 4 4. What is a cyber crime? ............................................................................................................. 5 5. Brief about IT Act 2000……………………………………………………………………..5 6. Notable feature of IT Act…………………………………………………………………....5 7. Sections of IT Act and Cases ……………………………………………………………….6 A) SECTION 43………………………………………………………………………...….6 B) SECTION 65…………………………………………………………………………….7 C) SECTION 66………………………………………………………………………...….11 D) SECTION 67……………………………………………………………………………12 E) SEDCTION 69…………………………………………………………………………..15 F) SECTION 70………………………………………………………………………….…16 G) SECTION 71……………………………………………………………………….……18
  • 3. 1. OBJECTIVES OF IT LEGISLATION IN INDIA The Government of India enacted its Information Technology Act 2000 with the objectives stating officially as: “to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as "electronic commerce", which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.” 2. What does IT Act 2000 legislation deals with? The Act essentially deals with the following issues: Legal Recognition of Electronic Documents Legal Recognition of Digital Signatures Offenses and Contraventions Justice Dispensation Systems for cyber crimes. 3 .STRUCTURE OF IT ACT a. How is IT Act structured? The Act totally has 13 chapters and 90 sections. Sections 91 to 94 deal with the amendments to the four Acts namely Indian Penal Code 1860, The Indian Evidence Act 1872, The Bankers’ Books Evidence Act 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act 1934. The Act has chapters that deal with authentication of electronic records, electronic signatures etc.
  • 4. Elaborate procedures for certifying authorities and electronic signatures have been spelt out. The civil offence of data theft and the process of adjudication and appellate procedures have been described. Then the Act goes on to define and describe some of the well-known cyber crimes and lays down the punishments therefore. Then the concept of due diligence, role of intermediaries and some miscellaneous provisions have been described. b. What is the applicability of IT Act? The Act extends to the whole of India and except as otherwise provided, it also applies to any offence or contravention there under committed outside India by any person. Rules and procedures mentioned in the Act have also been laid down in a phased manner, defined as recently as April 2011. For the sake of simplicity, here we will be only discussing the various penalty and offences defined as per provisions of ITA 2000 and ITAA 2008. Please note that wherever the terms IT Act 2000 or 2008 are used, they refer to same act because the IT Act now includes amendments as per IT 2008 Amendment Act. Specific exclusion(s) to the Act where it is not applicable are: Negotiable instrument (other than a cheque) as defined in section 13 of the Negotiable Instruments Act, 1881; A power-of-attorney as defined in section 1A of the Powers-of-Attorney Act, 1882; A trust as defined in section 3 of the Indian Trusts Act, 1882 A will as defined in clause (h) of section 2 of the Indian Succession Act, 1925 including any other testamentary disposition
  • 5. 4.WHAT IS A CYBER CRIME? Cyber Crime is not defined officially in IT Act or in any other legislation. In fact, it cannot be too. Offence or crime has been dealt with elaborately listing various acts and the punishments for each, under the Indian Penal Code, 1860 and related legislations. Hence, the concept of cyber crime, is just a "combination of crime and computer". Cybercrime in a narrow sense (computer crime): Any illegal behaviour directed by means of electronic operations that targets the security of computer systems and the data processed by them. Cybercrime in a broader sense (computer-related crime): Any illegal behaviour committed by means of, or in relation to, a computer system or network, including such crimes as illegal possession and offering or distributing information by means of a computer system or network. Any contract for the sale or conveyance of immovable property or any interest in such property; Any such class of documents or transactions as may be notified by the Central Government 5. Informational Technology Act 2000 The Government of India enacted its Information Technology Act 2000 with the objectives stating officially as: “to provide legal recognition for transactions carried out by means of electronic data interchange and other means of electronic communication, commonly referred to as "electronic commerce", which involve the use of alternatives to paper-based methods of communication and storage of information, to facilitate electronic filing of documents with the Government agencies and further to amend the Indian Penal Code, the Indian Evidence Act, 1872, the Bankers' Books Evidence Act, 1891 and the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and for matters connected therewith or incidental thereto.”
  • 6. 6. Notable features of the IT act:  Focussing on data privacy  Focussing on Information Security  Defining cyber café  Making digital signature technology neutral  Defining reasonable security practices to be followed by corporate  Redefining the role of intermediaries  Recognising the role of Indian Computer Emergency Response Team  Inclusion of some additional cyber crimes like child pornography and cyber terrorism  Authorizing an Inspector to investigate cyber offences. 7. Sections of IT Act & Realted cases are discussed below: A) Section 43 Section 43: Penalty and compensation for damage to computer, computer system,etc. If any person without permission of the owner or any other person who is in charge of a computer, computer system or computer network, or computer resource — 1. accesses or secures access to such computer, computer system or computer network; 2. downloads, copies or extracts any data, computer data base or information from such computer, computer system or computer network including information or data held or stored in any removable storage medium; 3. introduces or causes to be introduced any computer contaminant or computer virus into any computer, computer system or computer network; 4. damages or causes to be damaged any computer, computer system or computer network, data, computer data base or any other programmes residing in such computer, computer system or computer network; 5. disrupts or causes disruption of any computer, computer system or computer network;
  • 7. 6. denies or causes the denial of access to any person authorized to access any computer, computer system or computer network by any means; (g) provides any assistance to any person to facilitate access to a computer, computer system or computer network in contravention of the provisions of this Act, rules or regulations made there under; 7. charges the services availed of by a person to the account of another person by tampering with or manipulating any computer, computer system, or computer network, he shall be liable to pay damages by way of compensation to the person so affected. 8. destroys, deletes or alters any information residing in a computer resource or diminishes its value or utility or affects it injuriously by any means; 9. steel, conceals, destroys or alters or causes any person to steal, conceal, destroy or alter any computer source code used for a computer resource with an intention to cause damage; Ingrediants: For the purposes of this section: 1. "computer contaminant" means any set of computer instructions that are designed — o to modify, destroy, record, transmit data or programme residing within a computer, computer system or computer network; or o by any means to usurp the normal operation of the computer, computer system, or computer network; 2. "computer data base" means a representation of information, knowledge, facts, concepts or instructions in text, image, audio, video that are being prepared or have been prepared in a formalised manner or have been produced by a computer, computer system or computer network and are intended for use in a computer, computer system or computer network; 3. "computer virus" means any computer instruction, information, data or programme that destroys, damages, degrades or adversely affects the performance of a computer resource or attaches itself to another computer resource and operates when a programme, daia or instruction is executed or some other event takes place in that computer resource; 4. "damage" means to destroy, alter, delete, add, modify or rearrange any computer resource by any means. 5. "computer source code" means the listing of programmers, computer commands, design and layout and programme analysis of computer resource in any form.
  • 8. Related Case: Mphasis BPO Fraud: 2005 In December 2004, four call centre employees, working at an outsourcing facility operated by MphasiS in India, obtained PIN codes from four customers of MphasiS’ client, Citi Group. These employees were not authorized to obtain the PINs. In association with others, the call centre employees opened new accounts at Indian banks using false identities. Within two months, they used the PINs and account information gleaned during their employment at MphasiS to transfer money from the bank accounts of CitiGroup customers to the new accounts at Indian banks. By April 2005, the Indian police had tipped off to the scam by a U.S. bank, and quickly identified the individuals involved in the scam. Arrests were made when those individuals attempted to withdraw cash from the falsified accounts, $426,000 was stolen; the amount recovered was $230,000. Verdict: Court held that Section 43(a) was applicable here due to the nature of unauthorized access involved to commit transactions. B) SECTION 65 section 65 of IT Act 2000. Tampering with computer source documents. Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals, destroy, or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer programme, computer system or computer network, when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in force, shall be punishable with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both. Ingredients – For the purposes of this section, “computer source code” means the listing of programmes, compute commands, design and layout and programme analysis of computer resource in any form. “Under the Information Technology Act, 2000, the offences under the said Act are categorised in Chapter 11. Section 65 of the Act makes the tampering with computer stores documents, punishable upto 3 years or with a fine of Rs.2 lakhs or with both: Section 65 of the Information Technology Act reads as follows:
  • 9. "65.Tampering with computer source documents.-Whoever knowingly or intentionally conceals, destroys or alters or intentionally or knowingly causes another to conceal, destroy, or alter any computer source code used for a computer, computer programme, computer system or computer network, when the computer source code is required to be kept or maintained by law for the time being in force, shall be punishable with imprisonment up to three years, or with fine which may extend up to two lakh rupees, or with both. Explanation.-For the purposes of this section, "computer source code" means the listing of programmes, computer commands, design and layout and programme analysis of computer resource in any formation. Related case http://dict.mizoram.gov.in/uploads/attachments/cyber_crime/tampering-with-computer- source-code.pdf C) SECTION 66 an u/S Section 66 - Computer Related Offences Related Case: Kumar v/s Whiteley In this case the accused gained unauthorized access to the Joint Academic Network (JANET) and deleted, added files and changed the passwords to deny access to the authorized users. Investigations had revealed that Kumar was logging on to the BSNL broadband Internet connection as if he was the authorized genuine user and ‘made alteration in the computer database pertaining to broadband Internet user accounts’ of the subscribers. The CBI had registered a cyber crime case against Kumar and carried out investigations on the basis of a complaint by the Press Information Bureau, Chennai, which detected the unauthorised use of broadband Internet. The complaint also stated that the subscribers had incurred a loss of Rs 38,248 due to Kumar’s wrongful act. He used to ‘hack’ sites from Bangalore, Chennai and other cities too, they said. Verdict: The Additional Chief Metropolitan Magistrate, Egmore, Chennai, sentenced N G Arun Kumar, the techie from Bangalore to undergo a rigorous imprisonment for one year with a fine of Rs 5,000 under section 420 IPC (cheating) and Section 66 of IT Act (Computer related Offence).
  • 10. Section 66A - Punishment for sending offensive messages through communication service Relevant Case #1: Fake profile of President posted by imposter On September 9, 2010, the imposter made a fake profile in the name of the Hon’ble President Pratibha Devi Patil. A complaint was made from Additional Controller, President Household, President Secretariat regarding the four fake profiles created in the name of Hon’ble President on social networking website, Facebook. The said complaint stated that president house has nothing to do with the facebook and the fake profile is misleading the general public. The First Information Report Under Sections 469 IPC and 66A Information Technology Act, 2000 was registered based on the said complaint at the police station, Economic Offences Wing, the elite wing of Delhi Police which specializes in investigating economic crimes including cyber offences. Relevant Case #2: Bomb Hoax mail In 2009, a 15-year-old Bangalore teenager was arrested by the cyber crime investigation cell (CCIC) of the city crime branch for allegedly sending a hoax e -mail to a private news channel. In the e-mail, he claimed to have planted five bombs in Mumbai, challenging the police to find them before it was too late. At around 1p.m. on May 25, the news channel received an e-mail that read: “I have planted five bombs in Mumbai; you have two hours to find it.” The police, who were alerted immediately, traced the Internet Protocol (IP) address to Vijay Nagar in Bangalore. The Internet service provider for the account was BSNL, said officials.
  • 11. Section 66C - Punishment for identity theft Relevant Cases: The CEO of an identity theft protection company, Lifelock, Todd Davis's social security number was exposed by Matt Lauer on NBC’s Today Show. Davis’ identity was used to obtain a $500 cash advance loan. Li Ming, a graduate student at West Chester University of Pennsylvania faked his own death, complete with a forged obituary in his local paper. Nine months later, Li attempted to obtain a new driver’s license with the intention of applying for new credit cards eventually.
  • 12. Section 66D - Punishment for cheating by impersonation by using computer resource Relevant Case: Sandeep Vaghese v/s State of Kerala A complaint filed by the representative of a Company, which was engaged in the business of trading and distribution of petrochemicals in India and overseas, a crime was registered against nine persons, alleging offences under Sections 65, 66, 66A, C and D of the Information Technology Act along with Sections 419 and 420 of the Indian Penal Code. The company has a web-site in the name and and style `www.jaypolychem.com' but, another web site `www.jayplychem.org' was set up in the internet by first accused Samdeep Varghese @ Sam, (who was dismissed from the company) in conspiracy with other accused, including Preeti and Charanjeet Singh, who are the sister and brother-in-law of `Sam' Defamatory and malicious matters about the company and its directors were made available in that website. The accused sister and brother-in-law were based in Cochin and they had been acting in collusion known and unknown persons, who have collectively cheated the company and committed acts of forgery, impersonation etc. Two of the accused, Amardeep Singh and Rahul had visited Delhi and Cochin. The first accused and others sent e-mails from fake e-mail accounts of many of the customers, suppliers, Bank etc. to malign the name and image of the Company and its Directors. The defamation campaign run by all the said persons named above has caused immense damage to the name and reputation of the Company. The Company suffered losses of several crores of Rupees from producers, suppliers and customers and were unable to do business.
  • 13. Section 66E - Punishment for violation of privacy Relevant Cases: 1) Jawaharlal Nehru University MMS scandal In a severe shock to the prestigious and renowned institute - Jawaharlal Nehru University, a pornographic MMS clip was apparently made in the campus and transmitted outside the university. Some media reports claimed that the two accused students initially tried to extort money from the girl in the video but when they failed the culprits put the video out on mobile phones, on the internet and even sold it as a CD in the blue film market. 2) Nagpur Congress leader’s son MMS scandal On January 05, 2012 Nagpur Police arrested two engineering students, one of them a son of a Congress leader, for harassing a 16-year-old girl by circulating an MMS clip of their sexual acts. According to the Nagpur (rural) police, the girl was in a relationship with Mithilesh Gajbhiye, 19, son of Yashodha Dhanraj Gajbhiye, a zila parishad member and an influential Congress leader of Saoner region in Nagpur district. Section-66F Cyber Terrorism Relevant Case: The Mumbai police have registered a case of ‘cyber terrorism’—the first in the state since an amendment to the Information Technology Act—where a threat email was sent to the BSE and NSE on Monday. The MRA Marg police and the Cyber Crime Investigation Cell are jointly probing the case. The suspect has been detained in this case. The police said an email challenging the security agencies to prevent a terror attack was sent by one Shahab Md with an ID sh.itaiyeb125@yahoo.in to BSE’s administrative email ID corp.relations@bseindia.com at around 10.44 am on Monday. The IP address of the sender has been traced to Patna in Bihar. The ISP is Sify. The email ID was created just four minutes before the email was sent. “The sender had, while creating the new ID, given two mobile numbers in the personal details column. Both the numbers belong to a photo frame-maker in Patna,’’ said an officer. Status: The MRA Marg police have registered forgery for purpose of cheating, criminal intimidation cases under the IPC and a cyber-terrorism case under the IT Act.
  • 14. D) SECTION 67 67. Punishment for publishing or transmitting obscene material in electronic form Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published in the electronic form, any material which is lascivious or appeals to the prurient interest or if its effect is such as to tend to deprave and corrupt persons who are likely, having regard to all relevant circumstances, to read, see or hear the matter contained or embodied in it, shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to three years and with fine which may extend to five lakh rupees and in the event of a second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and also with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees. Relevant Case: This case is about posting obscene, defamatory and annoying message about a divorcee woman in the Yahoo message group. E -mails were forwarded to the victim for information by the accused through a false e- mail account opened by him in the name of the victim. These postings resulted in annoying phone calls to the lady. Based on the lady’s complaint, the police nabbed the accused. Investigation revealed that he was a known family friend of the victim and was interested in marrying her. She was married to another person, but that marriage ended in divorce and the accused started contacting her once again. On her reluctance to marry him he started harassing her through internet.
  • 15. Verdict: The accused was found guilty of offences under section 469, 509 IPC and 67 of IT Act 2000. He is convicted and sentenced for the offence as follows:  As per 469 of IPC he has to undergo rigorous imprisonment for 2 years and to pay fine of Rs.500/-    As per 509 of IPC he is to undergo to undergo 1 year Simple imprisonment and to  pay Rs 500/-   As per Section 67 of IT Act 2000, he has to undergo for 2 years and to pay fine of  Rs.4000/- All sentences were to run concurrently. The accused paid fine amount and he was lodged at Central Prison, Chennai. This is considered the first case convicted under section 67 of Information Technology Act 2000 in India. 67 A Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material containing sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form Whoever publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted in the electronic form any material which contains sexually explicit act or conduct shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years and also with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees. Exception: This section and section 67 does not extend to any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure in electronic form- (i) the publication of which is proved to be justified as being for the public good on the ground that such book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science ,literature, art, or learning or other objects of general concern; or (ii) which is kept or used bona fide for religious purposes.
  • 16. 67 B Punishment for publishing or transmitting of material depicting children in sexually explicit act, etc. in electronic form Whoever,- (a) publishes or transmits or causes to be published or transmitted material in any electronic form which depicts children engaged in sexually explicit act or conduct or (b) creates text or digital images, collects, seeks, browses, downloads, advertises, promotes, exchanges or distributes material in any electronic form depicting children in obscene or indecent or sexually explicit manner or (c) cultivates, entices or induces children to online relationship with one or more hildren for and on sexually explicit act or in a manner that may offend a reasonable adult on the computer resource or (d) facilitates abusing children online or (e) records in any electronic form own abuse or that of others pertaining to sexually explicit act with children, shall be punished on first conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to five years and with a fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees and in the event of second or subsequent conviction with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to seven years and also with fine which may extend to ten lakh rupees: Provided that the provisions of section 67, section 67A and this section does not extend to any book, pamphlet, paper, writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure in electronic form- (i) The publication of which is proved to be justified as being for the public good on the ground that such book, pamphlet, paper writing, drawing, painting, representation or figure is in the interest of science, literature, art or learning or other objects of general concern; or (ii) which is kept or used for bonafide heritage or religious purposes Explanation: For the purposes of this section, “children” means a person who has not completed the age of 18 years. Relevant Case: Janhit Manch & Ors. v. The Union of India 10.03.2010 Public Interest Litigation: The petition sought a blanket ban on pornographic websites. The NGO had argued that websites displaying sexually explicit content had an adverse influence, leading youth on a delinquent path.
  • 17. 67 C. Preservation and Retention of information by intermediaries (1) Intermediary shall preserve and retain such information as may be specified for such duration and in such manner and format as the Central Government may prescribe. (2) Any intermediary who intentionally or knowingly contravenes the provisions of sub section (1) shall be punished with an imprisonment for a term which may extend to three years and shall also be liable to fine. E) SECTION 69 k. Section 69 - Powers to issue directions for interception or monitoring or decryption of any information through any computer resource Relevant Case: In August 2007, Lakshmana Kailash K., a techie from Bangalore was arrested on the suspicion of having posted insulting images of Chhatrapati Shivaji, a major historical figure in the state of Maharashtra, on the social-networking site Orkut. The police identified him based on IP address details obtained from Google and Airtel - Lakshmana’s ISP. He was brought to Pune and detained for 50 days before it was discovered that the IP address provided by Airtel was erroneous. The mistake was evidently due to the fact that while requesting information from Airtel, the police had not properly specified whether the suspect had posted the content at 1:15 p.m. Verdict: Taking cognizance of his plight from newspaper accounts, the State Human Rights Commission subsequently ordered the company to pay Rs 2 lakh to Lakshmana as damages. The incident highlights how minor privacy violations by ISPs and intermediaries could have impacts that gravely undermine other basic human rights.
  • 18. F) SECTION 70 70 Protected system. 1) The appropriate Government may, by notification in the Official Gazette, declare any computer resource which directly or indirectly affects the facility of Critical Information Infrastructure, to be a protected system. Explanation. -For the purposes of this section, "Critical Information Infrastructure" means the computer resource, the incapacitation or destruction of which, shall have debilitating impact on national security, economy, public health or safety.] 2) The appropriate Government may, by order in writing, authorise the persons who are authorised to access protected systems notified under sub-section (1). 3)Any person who secures access or attempts to secure access to a protected system in contravention of the provisions of this section shall be punished with imprisonment of either description for a term which may extend to ten years and shall also be liable to fine. Case study: http://www.indiankanoon.org/docfragment/1514196/?big=2&formInput=in formation+technology+act+section+70++
  • 19. G) SECTION 71 71 Penalty for misrepresentation. -Whoever makes any misrepresentation to, or suppresses any material fact from the Controller or the Certifying Authority for obtaining any licence or 89[Electronic Signature] Certificate, as the case may be, shall be punished with imprisonment for a term which may extend to two years, or with fine which may extend to one lakh rupees, or with both. Case study: http://www.indiankanoon.org/doc/156967501/
  • 20. THANK YOU.