HUNTING AND GATHERING SOCIETY
Once found all over the planet
Technologically simple
This is not a formal government, mo...
AGRARIAN SOCIETY
Agrarian societies are larger, with specialized jobs and material surpluses.
In these societies, a smal...
POLITICAL STATE
As societies grew bigger, politics tales the form of a national government.
National government is also ...
NATION STATES
•More complex technology brings about the larger scale system of nation-states.
•Currently the world has 194...
TYPES OF POLITICS
Monarchy Democracy Authoritarianism
Totalitarianism
Dictatorship &
Oligarchies
MONARCHY
• Monarchy (one ruler) is a political system in which a single family rules from generation to
generation.
• It i...
•During the middle age, absolute monarchs in much of the world claimed a
monopoly of power based on divine right.
•But tod...
•With industrialization, however, monarchs gradually pass from the scene in
favor of elected officials.
•All the European ...
DEMOCRACY
•DEMOCRACY: A Political system that gives power to the people as a whole.
•More accurately it can be said that, ...
•Most high income countries including those which still have royal families,
claim to be democratic.
•Industrialization an...
•But high income countries like UNITED STATES are not truly democratic for two
reasons.
•First: there is the problem of bu...
• The second problem involves economic inequality, since rich people have far more political
power than poor people.
• Exa...
DEMOCRACY
•Democracy and freedom: capitalist and socialist approaches
----- Though democracy has some problems but the ric...
•CAPITALISM:
•The political life of the united states, Canada and the nations of Europe
is largely shaped by the economic ...
•Thus capitalist approach through political freedom translates into personal
liberty.
•It means, the freedom to act in wha...
•Criticism: capitalist societies are marked by a striking inequality
of income and wealth.
•If everyone acts according to ...
•Socialist system: Socialist system also they are democratic because their
economies meet everyone’s basic needs for housi...
•Criticism: Critics of socialism counter that the extensive
government regulation of social life in these countries is cru...
AUTHORITARIANISM
•Some nations prevent their people from having a voice in politics.
•Authoritarianism is political system...
•Example: the absolute monarchies in Saudi Arabia And Oman.
•Similarly, the Military Junta in Ethiopia is also authoritari...
•Singapore is not a democratic country in the conventional sense.
•Its political system offers a simple bargain.
•Governme...
TOTALITARIANISM
•The most intensely controlled political form is totalitarianism.
•It means a highly centralized political...
•EXAMPLE: VIETNAM, NORTH KOREA.
•Vietnamese government closely monitored the activities of not only the
visitors but also ...
•Totalitarianism, as the term itself implies, such governments have a total
concentration of power, allowing no organized ...
•This kind of government span the political spectrum from fascist (as in
Nazi Germany) to communist (as in North Korea).
•...
•Socialization in totalitarian societies is intensely political, with the goal of
obedience and commitment to the system.
...
THEORIES OF POWER IN SOCIETY
The Pluralist
Model: People
Rule
The Marxist
Model: The
system is biased
The Power Elite
Mode...
•Power is very difficult to study because decision making is complex and often
takes place behind close doors.
•Implementa...
THE PLURALIST MODEL: THE PEOPLE RULE
• The pluralist model, closely related to structural-functional theory.
• It is an an...
•2.
----- The political process relies heavily on creating unions and
compromises among numerous interest groups so that p...
THE POWER- ELITE MODEL: A FEW PEOPLE RULE
•The power-elite model, based on social-conflict theory.
•It is an analysis of p...
•Mills claimed that members of the power elite head up the three major
sector of U.S. Society: the economy, the government...
•Further, mills explained, these elites move from one sector to another,
building power as they go.
•For example: Former V...
CRITICISM
•Power elite theorists say that the United States is not a democracy because the
influence of a few people with ...
THE MARXIST MODEL : THE SYSTEM IS BIASED
• Marxist-political economy model : is an analysis that explains politics in term...
•As Karl Marx claimed that a society’s economic system (capital or capitalist)
SHAPES its political system.
•Therefore the...
•The problem does not lie in the people who exercise great power or the people
who do not vote, the problem is rooted IN T...
 politics & government types and theories
 politics & government types and theories
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politics & government types and theories

Slides presentation for Intro to Sociology subject.
Published on: Mar 4, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - politics & government types and theories

  • 1. HUNTING AND GATHERING SOCIETY Once found all over the planet Technologically simple This is not a formal government, mostly operated like large families. Leadership mostly based on unusual strength, hunting skills, or personal charisma. And with few resources, such leaders might control their own people but could never rule a large area.
  • 2. AGRARIAN SOCIETY Agrarian societies are larger, with specialized jobs and material surpluses. In these societies, a small elite gains control of most of the wealth and power. So politics moves from the family to these elite and politics started to become a social institution. In this point, leaders start to claim a divine right to rule (quite similar with weber’s traditional authority).
  • 3. POLITICAL STATE As societies grew bigger, politics tales the form of a national government. National government is also known as political state. The effectiveness of a political state depends on the available technology. Centuries ago, armies moved slowly on foot, and communication over even short distances was uncertain. This is why, small city states was at that time. The early political empires such as Mesopotamia, in the middle east about 5,000 years ago, took the form of many small states.
  • 4. NATION STATES •More complex technology brings about the larger scale system of nation-states. •Currently the world has 194 independent nation-states, each with a somewhat distinctive political system. •Generally, these political system fall into four categories. •Monarchy, democracy, authoritarianism and totalitarianism.
  • 5. TYPES OF POLITICS Monarchy Democracy Authoritarianism Totalitarianism Dictatorship & Oligarchies
  • 6. MONARCHY • Monarchy (one ruler) is a political system in which a single family rules from generation to generation. • It is commonly found in the ancient agrarian societies. • Example: from bible we know about the Great King Of David and Solomon. • Even in today’s world, twenty-seven nations have royal families. • Some trace their ancestry back for centuries. • In Webers terms, monarchy is legitimized by tradition.
  • 7. •During the middle age, absolute monarchs in much of the world claimed a monopoly of power based on divine right. •But today claims of divine right are rare. •Example: Kuwait, Saudi Arabia Or Oman.
  • 8. •With industrialization, however, monarchs gradually pass from the scene in favor of elected officials. •All the European nations with royal families today are constitutional monarchies. •Meaning that their monarchs are little more than symbolic heads of state; actual governing is the responsibility of elected officials, led by prime minister and guided by a constitution.
  • 9. DEMOCRACY •DEMOCRACY: A Political system that gives power to the people as a whole. •More accurately it can be said that, because it would be impossible for all citizens to act as leaders, a system is devised. •A system of representative democracy that puts authority in the hands of leaders chosen by the people in elections.
  • 10. •Most high income countries including those which still have royal families, claim to be democratic. •Industrialization and democratic government go together. •Because both require literate populace. •Again, democracy and rational-legal authority go together, just like monarchy and traditional authority.
  • 11. •But high income countries like UNITED STATES are not truly democratic for two reasons. •First: there is the problem of bureaucracy. • The us federal government has 2.7 million regular employees, 1.4 million uniformed military personnel, and 8 million employees paid by various grants and special funding. • Another 19 million people work in almost 90,000 local governments across the country. • Most people who run the government are never elected by anyone and do not have to answer directly to the people.
  • 12. • The second problem involves economic inequality, since rich people have far more political power than poor people. • Example: John Mccain And Barack Obama. • Became more rich by using the game of politics, “money talks”. • This is why, though there are some problems in democracy but as it has few advantages also, it is expected by most of the people.
  • 13. DEMOCRACY •Democracy and freedom: capitalist and socialist approaches ----- Though democracy has some problems but the rich capitalist nations such as the united states claim to operate as democracies. ----- Similarly, some socialist countries like Cuba and The People’s Republic Of China make the same claim. To know their politics, it is necessary to look at their economic system also.
  • 14. •CAPITALISM: •The political life of the united states, Canada and the nations of Europe is largely shaped by the economic principles of capitalism. •The pursuit of profit in a market system requires that “freedom” be defined in terms of people’s right to act in their own self interest.
  • 15. •Thus capitalist approach through political freedom translates into personal liberty. •It means, the freedom to act in whatever ways maximize profit or other personal advantage. •Political democracy thus, means that individuals have the right to select their leaders from among those running for office.
  • 16. •Criticism: capitalist societies are marked by a striking inequality of income and wealth. •If everyone acts according to self interest, the inevitable result is that some people has much more power to get their way than others.
  • 17. •Socialist system: Socialist system also they are democratic because their economies meet everyone’s basic needs for housing, schooling, work and medical care. •Despite being a much poorer country than united states, for example, Cuba provides basic medical care to all its people regardless of their ability to pay.
  • 18. •Criticism: Critics of socialism counter that the extensive government regulation of social life in these countries is cruel. •The socialist governments of China and Cuba for example, do not allow their people to move freely across or even within their borders and tolerate no organized political opposition.
  • 19. AUTHORITARIANISM •Some nations prevent their people from having a voice in politics. •Authoritarianism is political system that denies the people participation in government. •This government is indifferent to people’s needs. •Offers the people no voice in selecting leaders. •This government uses force in response to dissent or opposition.
  • 20. •Example: the absolute monarchies in Saudi Arabia And Oman. •Similarly, the Military Junta in Ethiopia is also authoritarian. •Usually, authoritarianism means a heavy-handed government. But sometimes the different is also true for some countries. •Example: a “soft authoritarianism” is available in Singapore.
  • 21. •Singapore is not a democratic country in the conventional sense. •Its political system offers a simple bargain. •Government demand loyalty from its people. •In return it provides them security and prosperity. •Critics called this system as a “soft authoritarianism” as it controls peoples lives and suffocates political dissent.
  • 22. TOTALITARIANISM •The most intensely controlled political form is totalitarianism. •It means a highly centralized political system that extensively regulates people’s lives. •This political system emerged in the twentieth century. •Technological advances gave governments the ability to control their populations rigidly.
  • 23. •EXAMPLE: VIETNAM, NORTH KOREA. •Vietnamese government closely monitored the activities of not only the visitors but also all its citizens. •Similarly, North Korea uses surveillance equipment and powerful computers to control its people by collecting and storing information about them.
  • 24. •Totalitarianism, as the term itself implies, such governments have a total concentration of power, allowing no organized opposition. •It denies people’s right to assemble and controlling access to information and thus these governments create an atmospheres of personal isolation and fear. •Example: in the final year of Soviet Union, ordinary citizens had no access to telephone directories, copying equipment, fax machines, or even accurate city maps.
  • 25. •This kind of government span the political spectrum from fascist (as in Nazi Germany) to communist (as in North Korea). •In all cases, one party claims total control of the society and permits no opposition.
  • 26. •Socialization in totalitarian societies is intensely political, with the goal of obedience and commitment to the system. •For example: North Korea, one of the world’s most totalitarian states. •Pictures of this country’s leaders and political messages are everywhere, reminding the citizens that they owe total allegiance to the state. •Government-controlled schools and mass media present only official versions of events.
  • 27. THEORIES OF POWER IN SOCIETY The Pluralist Model: People Rule The Marxist Model: The system is biased The Power Elite Model: A few people rule
  • 28. •Power is very difficult to study because decision making is complex and often takes place behind close doors. •Implementation of power its vary and its based highly on the state political and economy conditions. •Despite this difficulty, researcher have developed three competing models of power in regards; the case of power spread over United States population.
  • 29. THE PLURALIST MODEL: THE PEOPLE RULE • The pluralist model, closely related to structural-functional theory. • It is an analysis of politics that sees power as spread among many competing interest groups. • Pluralist claim: 1. -----Politics is an arena of negotiation. ----- It means, with limited resources, no organization can expect to achieve all its goals. ----- Organizations therefore, operate as veto groups, realizing some success but mostly keeping opponents from achieving all their ends.
  • 30. •2. ----- The political process relies heavily on creating unions and compromises among numerous interest groups so that policies gain wide support. 3. ----- In short, pluralists see power as spread throughout society, with all people having at least some voice in the political system.
  • 31. THE POWER- ELITE MODEL: A FEW PEOPLE RULE •The power-elite model, based on social-conflict theory. •It is an analysis of politics that sees power as concentrated among the rich. •The term power-elite was coined by c. Wright mills (1956). •He argued that a small upper class holds most of society’s wealth, prestige and power.
  • 32. •Mills claimed that members of the power elite head up the three major sector of U.S. Society: the economy, the government and the military. •The power elite is made up of the “super-rich” (corporate executive and major stockholders). •For example: top officials in Washington, D. C. and state capitals around the country; and the highest-ranking officers in the U.S. Military.
  • 33. •Further, mills explained, these elites move from one sector to another, building power as they go. •For example: Former Vice President Dick Cheney has moved back and forth between powerful positions in the corporate world and the federal government. •Similarly, Colin Powell moved from a top position in The U. S. Military to become secretary of state.
  • 34. CRITICISM •Power elite theorists say that the United States is not a democracy because the influence of a few people with great wealth and power is so strong that the average person’s voice can’t be heard. •They reject the pluralist idea that various centers of power serve as checks and balances on one another. •According to the power elite model, those at the top are so powerful that they face no real opposition.
  • 35. THE MARXIST MODEL : THE SYSTEM IS BIASED • Marxist-political economy model : is an analysis that explains politics in terms of the operation of a society’s economic system. • Like the power elite model, Marxist model REJECTS the idea that the U.S. operates as a political democracy. • Power-elite model focuses on just the enourmous whealth and power of certain individuals, the Marxist model goes further and sees BIASED rooted in the nations institutions, especially its economy.
  • 36. •As Karl Marx claimed that a society’s economic system (capital or capitalist) SHAPES its political system. •Therefore the power elite do not simply appear out of nowhere, they are the CREATIONS of the capitalist economy. •From this point of view, REFORMING the political system – by limiting the amount money that rich people can contribute to political candidates
  • 37. •The problem does not lie in the people who exercise great power or the people who do not vote, the problem is rooted IN THE SYSTEM ITSELF, or what Marxist all the “political economy of capitalism”. •In other words, as long as U.S. has a mostly capitalist economy, the majority of people wil be shut out of politics, just as they are exploited in the workplace.

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