Naman bhel project
In flame cutting, first heat the metal to its kindling temperature. Then a stream of oxygen is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the kerf as slag.
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - Naman bhel project
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS
A ROTATION REPORT AND PROJECT REPORT ON
CNC FLAME CUTTING MACHINE
SUBMITTED TO: SUBMITTED BY:
SHRI HARISH BANSAL NAMAN JAIN
ENGINEER (FBM) B.tech (MECHANICAL) 3rdYEAR
B.H.E.L. JHANSI (U.P.) HCST MATHURA(U.P)
We are highly thankful to B.H.E.L. (Jhansi) engineers and technical staff for
providing us vital information and valuable information about different faces and
industrial management system.
We express our attitude to HRD department for giving us a chance to feel
industrial environment and its working BHEL.
We are thankful to MR. HARISH BANSAL (ENGINEER (FBM)) for various
theoretical and practical aspects of our project. We would also like to thank all other
members of fabrication section for providing enough support and co-operation.
Last but not the least, I would like to thank my parents & all my fellow
trainees who have been a constant source of encouragement & inspiration during
my studies & have always provided me support in every walk of life.
B.tech (Mechanical) 3rd YEAR
HCST Mathura (UP)
At very outset of the prologue it becomes imperative to insist that vocational
training is an integral part of engineering curriculum. Training allows us to gain an
insight into the particle aspects of the various topics we wish. We came across
while pursuing our B.tech. (Mechanical) that is vocational training gives us particle
implementation of various topics. We have already learner and will learn in near
future. Vocational training always emphasizes on logic common sense instead of
theoretical aspect of subject.
On my part I persuaded four weeks of training at B.H.E.L. (Jhansi). The
training involved a study of various department of organization as per the time
logically scheduled and well planned given to us.
The rotation in various departments was necessary in order to get an
overall idea of the working of the organization.
B.tech (Mechanical) 3rd YEAR
HCST MATHURA (U.P)
A - BRIEF INTRODUCTION
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICAL LIMITED
OVERVIEW OF BHEL
Bharat Heavy Electricals Limited (BHEL) is an Indian state-owned integrated
power plant equipment manufacturer and operates as engineering and
manufacturing company based in New Delhi, India. BHEL was established in 1964,
ushering in the indigenous Heavy Electrical Equipment industry in India. The
company has been earning profits continuously since 1971-72 and paying
dividends since 1976-77. It is one of the only 7 mega Public Sector Undertakings
(PSUs) of India clubbed under the esteemed 'Maharatna' status. On 1 February
2013, the Government of India granted Maharatna status to Bharat Heavy
BHEL is the largest engineering and manufacturing enterprise in India in the
energy related infrastructure sector today. BHEL was established more than 40
years ago when its first plant was setup in Bhopal ushering in the indigenous
Heavy Electrical Equipment Industry in India a dream which has been more than
realized with a well-recognized track record of performance it has been earning
profits continuously since 1971-72.
BHEL caters to core sectors of the Indian Economy viz., Power Generation's &
Transmission, Industry, Transportation, Telecommunication, Renewable Energy,
Defence, etc. The wide network of BHEL's 14 manufacturing division, four power
Sector regional centres, over 150 project sites, eight service centres and 18
regional offices, enables the Company to promptly serve its customers and
provide them with suitable products, systems and services – efficiently and at
competitive prices. BHEL has already attained ISO 9000 certification for quality
management, and ISO 14001 certification for environment management
Power generation sector comprises thermal, gas, hydro, and nuclear power plant
BHEL also caters to Telecommunication Sector by way of small, medium and large
TRANSMISSION AND DISTRIBUTION (T&D)
BHEL offers wide-ranging products and systems for T&D applications. Products
manufactured include: power transformers, instrument transformers, dry type
transformers, series &shunt reactors, capacitor banks, vacuum &SF6 circuit breakers,
gas-insulated switchgears and insulators.
BHEL is a major contributor of equipment and systems to industries, cement, sugar,
fertilizer, refineries, petrochemicals, paper, oil and gas, metallurgical and other
process industries. The range of systems & equipment supplied includes: captive
power plants, co-generation plants, DG power plants, industrial steam turbines,
industrial boilers and auxiliaries, waste heat recovery boilers, gas turbines, heat
exchangers and pressure vessels, centrifugal compressors, electrical machines,
pumps, valves, seamless steel tubes, electrostatic precipitators, fabric filters, reactors,
fluidized bed combustion boilers, chemical recovery boilers and process controls.
BHEL is involved in the development, design, engineering, marketing, production,
installation, and maintenance and after-sales service of rolling stock and traction
propulsions systems. BHEL manufactures electric locomotives up to 5000 HP,
diesel electric locomotives from 350 HP to 3100 HP, both for mainline and
shunting duty applications. It also produces rolling stock for special applications viz.
overhead equipment cars, special well wagons, and Rail-cum road vehicle.
Technologies that can be offered by BHEL for exploiting non-conventional and
renewable sources of energy include: wind electric generators, solar photovoltaic
systems, solar heating systems, solar lanterns and battery-powered road vehicles.
OIL AND GAS
BHEL’s products range includes Deep Drilling Oil Rigs, Mobile Rigs, Work Over
Rigs, Well Heads and X-Mas Trees, Choke and Kill Manifolds, Full Bore Gate
Valves, Mudline Suspension System, Casing Support system Sub-Sea Well Heads,
Block valves, Seamless pipes, Motors, Compressor, Heat Exchangers etc.
BHEL is one of the largest exporters of engineering products & services from
India, ranking among the major power plant equipment suppliers in the world. .
Apart from over 1110MW of boiler capacity contributed in Malaysia, and
execution of four prestigious power projects in Oman, Some of the other major
successes achieved by the Company have been in Australia, Saudi Arabia, Libya,
Greece, Cyprus, Malta, Egypt, Bangladesh, Azerbaijan, Sri Lanka, Iraq etc.
VISION, MISSION AND VALUES OF BHEL
A global engineering enterprise providing solutions for a better tomorrow.
Providing sustainable business solutions in the fields of Energy, Industry &
GOVERNANCE: We are stewards of our shareholders investments and we take
that responsibility very seriously. We are accountable and responsible for delivering
superior results that make a difference in the lives of the people we touch.
RESPECT: We value the unique contribution of each individual. We believe in
respect for human dignity and we respect the need to preserve the environment
EXCELLENCE: We are committed to deliver and demonstrate excellence in
whatever we do.
LOYALTY: We are loyal to our customers, to our company and to each other.
ENTEGRITY: We work with highest ethical standards and demonstrate a behavior
that is honest, decent and fair. We are dedicated to the highest levels of personal
and institutional integrity.
COMMITMENT: We set high performance standards for ourselves as individuals
and our teams. We honour our commitments in a timely manner.
INNOVATION: We constantly support development of newer technologies,
products, improved processes, better services and management practices.
TEAM WORK: We work together as a team to provide best solutions & services to
our customers. Through quality relationships with all stakeholders we deliver value
to our customers.
VARIOUS BHEL UNITS
FIRST GENERATION UNITS
Bhopal : Heavy Electrical Plant.
Haridwar : Heavy Electrical Equipment Plant.
Hyderabad: Heavy Electrical Power Equipment Plant.
SECOND GENERATION UNITS
Tiruchy : High Pressure Boiler Plant.
Jhansi : Transformer and Locomotive Plant.
Haridwar : Central Foundry and Forge Plant.
Tiruchy : Seamless Steel Tube Plant.
UNITS THROUGH ACQUISTION & MERGER
Bangalore : Electronics Division
Electro Porcelain Division.
NEW MANUFACTURING UNITS
Ranipet : Boiler Auxiliaries Plant.
Jagdishpur: Insulator Plant.
Govindwal : Industrial Valve Plant.
Rudrapur : Component and Fabrication Plant.
Bangalore : Energy Systems Division
BHEL is growing concern to meet the changing needs of the nation has taken it
beyond power into the total gamut of energy, industry and transportation BHEL is
able to offer a service in each of this fields. It;s manufacturing capability is supported
by a corporate R&D division at Hyderabad works closely with the research and
development cells at various units and Welding Research Institute at Tiruchinapalli.
ACTIVITY PROFILE OF BHEL
POWER SECTOR PROJECTS
Thermal sets and Auxiliaries.
Steam generators and Auxiliaries.
Air pre heaters.
Nuclear power equipments.
Hydro sets and Auxiliaries.
Seamless steel tubes.
Casting and forging.
Turnkey power station.
Data acquisition Systems.
HVDC Commissioning systems.
Modernization and Rehabilitation.
Diesel Electric generators.
DC locomotives and loco shunters.
Traction system for railways.
Electric trolley buses.
Photo Voltaic cells.
BHARAT HEAVY ELECTRICALS LIMITED JHANSI (UNIT)
A BRIEF INTRODUCTION
By the end of 5th
five-year plan, it was envisaged by the planning commission that the
demand for power transformer would rise in the coming years. Anticipating the
country’s requirement BHEL decided to set up a new plant, which would
manufacture power and other types of transformers in addition to the capacity
available in BHEL Bhopal. The Bhopal plant was engaged in manufacturing
transformers of large ratings and Jhansi unit would concentrate on power
transformer upto 50 MVA, 132 KV class and other transformers like Instrument
Transformer s, Traction transformers for railway etc.
This unit of Jhansi was established around 14 km from the city on the N.H. No 26
on Jhansi Lalitpur road. It is called second-generation plant of BHEL set up in 1974
at an estimated cost of Rs 16.22 crores inclusive of Rs 2.1 crores for township. Its
foundation was laid by late Mrs. Indira Gandhi the prime minister on 9th
The commercial production of the unit began in 1976-77 with an output of Rs 53
lacs since then there has been no looking back for BHEL Jhansi.
The raw material that are produced for manufacture are used only after thorough
material testing in the testing lab and with strict quality checks at various stages of
productions. This unit of BHEL is basically engaged in the production and
manufacturing of various types of transformers and capacities with the growing
competition in the transformer section, in 1985-86 it under took the re-powering of
DESL, but it took the complete year for the manufacturing to begin. In 1987-88,
BHEL has progressed a step further in under taking the production of AC
locomotives, and subsequently it manufacturing AC/DC locomotives also.
BHEL JHANSI PERFORMANCE FINANCIAL (In Rs. /Crore)
PRODUCT 2011 – 12
2012 – 13
Power Transformer 564 457 –19
Non Power Transformer 304 376 24
Loco 430 532 24
Total 1300 1365 5
THE PRODUCT PROFILE OF BHEL JHANSI UNIT
1. Power transformer up to 400 KV class 250
2. Special transformer up to 180 KV.
3. ESP transformer. 95 KVp, 1400 mA.
4. Freight Loco transformer 3900 to 5400 KVA &
7350 KVA for 3 phase
5. ACEMU transformer up to 1000 KVA (1-phase)
1385 KVA (3 phase)
6. Dry type transformer up to 6300 KVA 33 KV class
7. Instrument transformer VT & CT up to 220 KV class
8. Diesel electric locomotives up to 2600 HP.
9. AC/DC locomotives 5000 HP
10. Over Head Equipment cum Test
Rail cum road vehicle
Dynamic track stabilizer
Fabrication is nothing but production. It comprises of 3 bays i.e., Bay0, Bay1
It is the preparation shop while the other two bays form the
This section has the following machines:
1. Planner machine – To reduce thickness
2. Shearing machine
3. CNC Flame Cutting machine – To cut complicated shaft items using
using oxy acetylene flame
4. Bending machine
5. Rolling machine
6. Flattening machine
7. Drilling machine
8. Nibbling machine
9. Pantograph flame cutting machine
It is also a sub part of Fabrication. It is an assembly shop where different parts of
tank come from bay 0.Here welding processes are used for assembly, after which
a rough surface is obtained Grinder operating at 1200 rpm is used to eliminate the
It is also a sub part of Fabrication It is an assembly shop dealing with making
different objects mentioned below.
1-Tank assembly 5-cross feed assembly
2-Tank cover assembly 6-core clamp assembly
3-End Frame assembly 7-pin and pad assembly
Before assembly, short blasting (firing of small materials i.e., acid pickling) is
done on different parts of jobs to clean the surface before painting.
Here are basically three sections in the bay:
It is the winding section.
There are four types of coil fixed in a transformer, they are :
1. Low voltage coil (LV)
2. High voltage coil (HV)
3. Tertiary coil
4. Tap coil
The moulds are of following types
1. Belly types
2. Link types
3. Cone type
It is core and punch section. The lamination used in power, dry, ESP transformer
etc for making core is cut in this section.
CRGO (cold rolled grain oriented) silicon steel is used for lamination, which is
imported in India from Japan, U.K. Germany. It is available in 0.27 and 0.28 mm
thick sheets, 1mt wide and measured in Kg.The sheet s are coated with very thin
layer of insulating material called “carlites”.
For the purpose of cutting and punching the core three machines are installed in
Single-phase traction transformer for AC locomotives is assembled in this
section. This Freight locomotive transformers are used where there is frequent
change in speed. In this bay core winding and all the assembly and testing of
traction transformer is done.
Three-phase transformers for ACEMU are also manufactured in this section. The
supply lines for this transformer are of 25 KV and power of the transformer is
6500 KVA. The tap changer of rectifier transformer is also assembled in this bay.
These transformer used in big furnance like Thermal Power Plant(TPP).
1. This is the insulation shop. Various types of insulations are
2. AWWW - All Wood Water Washed press paper.
3. The paper is 0.2-0.5mm thick cellulose paper and is wound on the
conductors for insulation.
4. PRE COMPRESSED BOARD: This is widely used for general insulation
& separation of conductors in the forms of blocks.
5. PRESS BOARD: This is used for separation of coils e.g. L.V. from H.V. It
is up to 38 mm thick.
6. UDEL(Un Demnified Electrical Laminated) wood or Permawood
7. This is special type of plywood made for insulation purposes.
8. FIBRE GLASS: This is a resin material and is used in fire pron areas.
10.GASKET- It is used for protection against leakage.
11.SILICON RUBBER SHEET- It is used for dry type transformer.
It is the instrument transformer and ESP transformer manufacturing section.
These are used for measurement. Actual measurement is done by measuring
instruments but these transformers serve the purpose of stepping down the
voltage to protect the measuring instrument. They find application in protection
of power system and for the operation of over voltage, over current, earth fault
and various other types of relays.
The Electrostatic Precipitator transformer is used for environmental application. It
is used to filter in a suspended charge particle in the waste gases of an industry.
They are of particular use in thermal power stations and cement industry.
The ESP is a single-phase transformer. It has a primary and secondary. The core is
laminated and is made up of CRGOS. It is a step up transformer. The output of the
transformer must be DC the is obtained by rectifying AC using a bridge rectifier
(bridge rectifier is a combination of several hundred diodes).
One side of the transformer output is taken and other side has an ‘marshalling box’
which is the control box of the transformer.
In this bay power transformer are assembled. After taking different input from
different bays 0-9 assembly is done Power transformer is used to step and step
down voltages at generating and sub-stations. There are various ratings –11KV,
22KV, manufactured, they are
1. Generator transformer.
The stepS involved in assembly are:
1. Core building
2. Core Lifting.
4. Delacing and end-frame mounting.
5. High voltage terminal gear and low volt terminal gear mounting
6. Vapour phasing and oil soaking
7. Final servicing and tanking.
8. Case fitting.
There are three sections in store:
1. Control Receiving Section
2. Custody Section
3. Scrap Disposal Section
LOCOMOTIVE PRODUCTION (LMP)
There are following products are manufactured at Loco shops
Alternating Current Locomotive (ac Loco)
Diesel Electric Locomotive Shunting (DESL)
1150 HP and 1350 HP DESL s are non-standard locomotives and are
modified versions of 1400 HP DESL based on requirement of customer.
Under mention are the new non-conventional products designed and
developed for Indian Railways based on their requirement.
OHE (Overhead electric) recording and testing cars
UTV(Utility vehicle )
RRV(Rail cum road vehicle)
DETV( Diesel electric tower car)
BPRV(Battery power road vehicle)
BCM(Blast cleaning machine)
200 T Well wagon for BHEL Haridwar
Metro Rake-Kolkata Metro Railways
LOCOMOTIVE MANUFACTURING (LMM)
This section deals with manufacturing of locomotives. The main parts of the
Under frame: The frame on which a locomotive is built
Super structure: The body of locomotive is called superstructure
or Shell and is made of sheet of Mild steel
Bogie-The wheel arrangement of a loco is called a bogie. A bogie
1-wheel axle arrangement
It is fixed on under frame and gets supply from an overhead line by
equipment called pantograph. The type of pantograph depends on supply.
This transformer steps down voltage and is fitted with a tap changer.
Different taps are taken from it for operating different equipment. One tap
is taken and is rectified into DC using MSR and is fed to the DC motor.
Railways has two types of power supplies – 25 KV , 1 Phase ,50hz AC
-1500 V DC
An AC/DC loco is able to work on both of these supplies.
For e.g. WCAM-3.
Compliance with applicable Environmental Legislation/Regulation;
Continual Improvement in Environment Management Systems to protect
our natural environment and control pollution;
Promotion of activities for conservation of resources by Environmental
Enhancement of Environmental awareness amongst employees, customers
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND SAFETY POLICY
Compliance with applicable Legislation and Regulations.
Setting objectives and targets to eliminate/control/minimize risks due to
Occupational and Safety Hazards.
Appropriate structured training of employees on Occupational Health and
Safety (OH&S) aspects.
Formulation and maintenance of OH&S Management programmes for
Periodic review of OH&S Management System to ensure its continuing
suitability, adequacy and effectiveness;
Communication of OH&S Policy to all employees and interested parties
CNC stands for “Computer Numerated Control. ” A CNC machine directs a cutting
tool, based on directions that the operator has entered into a computer that controls
the movement of the head holding the tool.
This lead to results that are far faster and more accurate than cutting by hand or on
manually controlled power tools.
There are few main types of CNC machines used in metal shop as well as
production shops around the world today.
These machine uses computer controls to make intricate movements to cut and
shape metal, wood and plastics..
To manufacture complex curved geometries in 2D or 3D was extremely expensive
by mechanical means (which usually would require complex jigs to control the
Machining components with repeatable accuracy
Unmanned machining operations
CNC allows a computer to dictate the moves a machine makes to perform cutting
function. Originally, all machines are operated manually with distinct possibility of
The CNC machine performs these actions with more precision as well as more
speed. The first CNC was manufactured in 1970s to speeds up production t large
manufacturing plants and were very expensive and difficult to use.
Types of CNC machines
Based on Motion Type:
Point-to-Point or Continuous path
Based on Control Loops:
Open loop or Closed loop
Based on Power Supply:
Electric or Hydraulic or Pneumatic
Based on Positioning System
Incremental or Absolute
Open Loop vs. Closed Loop controls
HOW TO USE A TYPICAL CNC MACHINE
Develop or obtain the 3D geometric model of the part, using CAD..
Run CAM software to generate the CNC part program.
Verify and edit program.
Download the part program to the appropriate machine.
Verify the program on the actual machine and edit if necessary.
Run the program and produce the part.
The design is loaded into the computer which is attached to the CNC machine The
computer change the design into a special code [numerical] that controls the way
the CNC cuts and shapes the material.
In oxy-fuel cutting, metal is heated to its kindling temperatue. A stream of oxygen
is then trained on the metal, burning it into a metal oxide that flows out of the
kerf as slag.
The metal is first heated by the flame until it is cherry red. Once this temperature
is attained, oxygen is supplied to the heated parts by pressing the "oxygen-blast
trigger". This oxygen reacts with the metal, forming iron oxide and producing
heat. It is this heat that continues the cutting process. The cutting torch only
heats the metal to start the process; further heat is provided by the burning
The melting point of the iron oxide is around half that of the metal; as the metal
burns, it immediately turns to liquid iron oxide and flows away from the cutting
Acetylene when combined with oxygen burns at 3200 °C to 3500 °C (5800 °F to
6300 °F), highest among commonly used gaseous fuels. As a fuel acetylene's
primary disadvantage, in comparison to other fuels, is high cost.
Cutting is initiated by heating the edge or leading face (as in cutting shapes such
as round rod) of the steel to the ignition temperature (approximately bright
cherry red heat) using the pre-heat jets only, then using the separate cutting
oxygen valve to release the oxygen from the central jet. The oxygen chemically
combines with the iron in the ferrous material to oxidize the iron quickly into
molten iron oxide, producing the cut. Initiating a cut in the middle of a workpiece
is known as piercing.
For preheating purpose usually neutral flame is used.
Types Of Various Flames
Neutral Flame with Oxygen Cutting Stream
CNC Flame Cutting
It provides a very efficient and accurate method for preparing component shapes
prior to fabricating part. Individual component drawings in DXF format are first
imported into a nesting software to generate an optimum layout on the available
raw material. Once the cutting plan is finalized, the layout is transferred to CNC
flame cutting machine which rapidly cut all the individual parts from the loaded
plate using a completely automated Oxy/Fuel flame cutting head.
Cutting and machining allowances as well as single bevels if any may be specified
ahead of time. Dimensional accuracy as well as cut surface finish are far superior
to manual methods and this directly translates to fast fabrication and machine
Metal Number cutting oxygen fuel gas speed KERF
Thickness orifice(kg/cm2) bar(kg/cm2) mm/min width(mm)
6 0 68 0.2-0.3 430-610 1.3
16 0 60 0.2-0.4 410-560 1.5
25 1 56 0.2-0.4 360-460 2
51 2 53 0.3-0.6 300-450 2.3
76 3 51 0.3-0.6 250-360 2.5
102 4 45 0.3-0.7 200-300 3
178 5 39 0.6-0.8 130-200 3.8
254 6 31 0.6-1.0 80-130 5.3
305 7 25 0.6-1.0 50-80 6.1
356 8 20 0.6-1.0 50-80 6.6
GAS CUTTING NOZZLE OPERATION PERFORMANCE TABLE
Basic Concept of Part Programming
Part programming contains geometric data about the part and motion
information to move the cutting tool with respect to the work piece.
Basically, the machine receives instructions as a sequence of blocks
containing commands to set machine parameters; speed, feed and other
A block is equivalent to a line of codes in a part program.
N135 G01 X1.0 Y1.0 Z0.125 T01 F5.0
Preparatory command (G code)
The G codes prepare the MCU for a given operation, typically involving a cutter
G00 rapid motion, point-to-point positioning
G01 linear interpolation (generating a sloped or straight cut)
G06 parabolic interpolation (produces a segment of a parabola)
G17 XY plane selection
G20 circular interpolation
G28 automatic return to reference point
G33 thread cutting
Miscellaneous commands (M code)
M00 program stop
M03 start spindle rotation (cw)
M06 tool change
M07 turn coolant on
Feed commands (F code)
Used to specify the cutter feed rates in inch per minute
Speed commands (S code)
Used to specify the spindle speed in rpm.
Tool commands (T code)
Specifies which tool to be used, machines with automatic tool changer.
Example of a part program
N001 G91 (incremental)
N002 G71 (metric)
N003 G00 X0.0 Y0.0 Z40.0 T01 M06
Positioning tool at P1
N004 G01 X75.0 Y0.0 Z-40.0 F350 M03 M08 Start coolant
Example of a part program
Moving tool from P1 to P3 through P2
N005 G01 X110
N006 G01 Y70.0
Moving tool from P3 to P4 along a straight line and from P4 to P5
clockwise along circular arc.
N007 G01 X-40.86
N008 G02 X-28.28 Y0.0 I-14.14 J-5.0
- Easier to program.
- Easy storage of existing programs.
- Easy to change a program.
- Avoids human errors.
- NC machines are safer to operate.
- Complex geometry is produced as cheaply as simple ones.
- Usually generates closer tolerances than manual machines.
1. CNC machines are more expensive than manually operated machines, although
costs are slowly coming down.
2. The CNC machine operator only needs basic training and skills, enough to
supervise several machines. In years gone by, engineers needed years of training
to operate centre lathes, milling machines and other manually operated
machines. This means many of the old skills are been lost.
3. Less workers are required to operate CNC machines compared to manually
operated machines. Investment in CNC machines can lead to unemployment.
Working on this live project and being a part of summer training in
BHEL, Jhansi has been a wonderful experience. Development of the
project provided immense learning opportunities to me. I have been
fortunate to be able to work with the widely used technologies.
It was a great exposure to real time development and implementation
issues and working in a team has been a priceless experience.
Following are some of the sources I reached out to while working on