Nanotechnology and its relevance
to Aushadha - Nirman
K V GOPINATH M Pharm PhD,CPhT
Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams
TIRUPAT...
NANOTECHNOLOGY - DEFİNİTİON
 Nanotechnology is the term derived from the Greek word “nano”
meaning “dwarf”
 Applies the ...
Advantages of Nanotechnology
 Methods of preparation simple and easy to scale up
 Nano scale components have very high s...
Advantages of Nanotechnology
 Mucosal delivery of high molecular weight substances, such as
peptides, proteins, oligonucl...
Nanoscale Processes and Fabrication
Top-down Approaches Bottom-up Approaches
Optical and x-ray lithography Layer-by-layer ...
Equipments for Nanoparticles
 Homogenizer
 Ultra Sonicator
 Mills
 Spray Milling
 Supercritical Fluid Technology
 El...
Schematic representation of
Nanosphere Formation –Method 1
Ethyl acetate
+
PLGA
Stirring 1000 rpm
2 hours
Passed through
0...
Polymerization method
Different Methods to Prepare Nanospheres
and Nanocapsules
Polymer
Method based on physico-chemical properties of polymer s...
microencapsulation techniques-Nanospheres
& Nanocapsules
Polymer
Emulsification
Simple emulsion (W/O) Simple emulsion (O/W...
Nanotechnology Applications
Medicine
- Cancer treatment
- Bone treatment
- Drug delivery
- Appetite control
- Drug develop...
Nanotechnology Applications
 Medical Nanotechnology or Nano medicine
 Nano medicine is the application of nanotechnology...
Nanotechnology in Health Care -
Detection and Diagnosis
 Nanotechnology offers tools
and techniques for more effective
de...
Nanotechnology in Health Care - Thermal
ablation of cancer cells
 Thermal ablation of cancer cells
− Nano shells have met...
Nanotechnology in Health Care - Treatment
 Targeted drug deliver
− Nano particles containing drugs are coated with target...
Nanotechnology Based Drug Delivery
 In biopharmaceuticals, in addition to the main technologies covered
liposomal, monocl...
Nanotechnology Based Drug Delivery
� Minimizing the drug use would significantly reduce the effective
cost of drug which w...
SOME SIGNIFICANT NANODEVICES
 Development of one dose a day ciprofloxacin using nanotechnology
 Tumor targeted taxol del...
Nanotechnology Applications
1) SiO2-Nanoparticles as a new platform for non-viral gene delivery
(favourable size 10 - 50 n...
Nanotechnology Applications
3) Brain Drug Targeting : Polysorbate-coated NPs to enhance
penetration to the blood-brain bar...
Nanotechnology Applications
_The NPs may be endocytosed by the endothelial cells followed by the release of
the drugs with...
Nanotechnology Applications
 Nanoelectromechanical System
(NEMS) Sensors
− NEMS technology enables
creation of ultra smal...
Nanotechnology Applications
5) Nano medicine - Continuous Therapy for
Preventing Cancer in Astronauts:
Engineered multilay...
Nanotechnology Applications
Targeting of intracellular
bacteria with antibiotic
colloidal carriers:
liposomes or nanoparti...
Nanotechnology Applications- DNA
Sequencing
8) In DNA Sequencing: DNA molecules, under
the influence of an electric field,...
Nanotechnology Applications - Immunoisolation for
Cell-encapsulation therapy
9) Liver Dysfunction: Encapsulation of Hepati...
Nanotechnology Applications
10) Targeting Tumours: « Smart Bombs »
 Conventional Therapy: Chemotherapy that poisons surro...
Nano engineering – Bio -
analogous Structures
 Bone-cartilage composite ?
 Muscle ?
 Brain-machine Interface ?
CHALLENGES & Methods of
Drug Delivery
 Prevention of drug from biological degradation (Oral dosage form)
 Effective Targ...
Nano technology and its releavance to aushadha nirman 08072013
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Nano technology and its releavance to aushadha nirman 08072013

it helps for post graduate and graduate students of ayurveda and pharmacy
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Business      
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Transcripts - Nano technology and its releavance to aushadha nirman 08072013

  • 1. Nanotechnology and its relevance to Aushadha - Nirman K V GOPINATH M Pharm PhD,CPhT Tirumala Tirupati Devasthanams TIRUPATI e-mail:gopinath.karnam@gmail.com
  • 2. NANOTECHNOLOGY - DEFİNİTİON  Nanotechnology is the term derived from the Greek word “nano” meaning “dwarf”  Applies the principles in various sciences at a atomic , molecular or submicron level  Dimension range: 0.1 – 100 nm (10-1000 nm for pharmaceutical nanoparticles)  Definition: “Research and technology development at the atomic, molecular or macromolecular levels, in the length scale of approximately 1-100 nanometer range, to provide a fundamental understanding of phenomena and materials at the nano scale, and to create and use structures, devices and systems that have novel properties and functions because of their small and/or intermediate size”.
  • 3. Advantages of Nanotechnology  Methods of preparation simple and easy to scale up  Nano scale components have very high surface areas  Stable and easily freeze-dried  Successful tissue targeting of many drugs (antibiotics, cytostatics, peptides and proteins, nucleic acids etc.)  Protection of drugs against chemical and enzymatic degradation  Reduction of side effects of some active drugs
  • 4. Advantages of Nanotechnology  Mucosal delivery of high molecular weight substances, such as peptides, proteins, oligonucleotides and plasmids  Increased solubility and dissolution rate of poorly soluble substances due to nanosizing improvement of drug bioavailability  New functions arising from nanosizing, such as improved solubility, targetability, and adhesion to tissues  Bionanomaterials:1) Biological materials utilized in nanotechnology - Proteins, enzymes, DNA, RNA, peptides 2) Synthetic nano materials in biomedical applications - Polymers, porous silicon, carbon nanotubes
  • 5. Nanoscale Processes and Fabrication Top-down Approaches Bottom-up Approaches Optical and x-ray lithography Layer-by-layer self assembly E-beam and ion-beam lithography Molecular self assembly Scanning probe lithography Direct assembly Atomic force microscopic lithography Coating and growth Material removal and deposition (Chemical, mechanical, or ultrasonic) Colloidal aggregation Printing and imprinting
  • 6. Equipments for Nanoparticles  Homogenizer  Ultra Sonicator  Mills  Spray Milling  Supercritical Fluid Technology  Electro spray  Ultracentrifugation  Nano filtration
  • 7. Schematic representation of Nanosphere Formation –Method 1 Ethyl acetate + PLGA Stirring 1000 rpm 2 hours Passed through 0.2 µm filter Aqueous PVA-Chitosan 2 hours Passed through 0.2 µm filter Stirring 1000 rpm Mixing 3 hours Stirring 1000 rpm Homogenize 10 min 13,500 rpm Water Stirring 2 hours Water bath, 40 oC Add organic to aqueous NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 Ethyl acetate + PLGA Stirring 1000 rpm 2 hours Passed through 0.2 µm filter Aqueous PVA-Chitosan 2 hours Passed through 0.2 µm filter Stirring 1000 rpm Mixing 3 hours Stirring 1000 rpm Homogenize 10 min 13,500 rpm Water Stirring 2 hours Water bath, 40 oC Add organic to aqueous NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2 NH2
  • 8. Polymerization method
  • 9. Different Methods to Prepare Nanospheres and Nanocapsules Polymer Method based on physico-chemical properties of polymer solutions Phase gelation Non solvent Salting-out calcium tripolyphosphates (polymer soluble (polymer soluble in water) in organic solvent) Nanocapsules Nanospheres Alginate nanospheres Chitosan nanospheres Nanospheres
  • 10. microencapsulation techniques-Nanospheres & Nanocapsules Polymer Emulsification Simple emulsion (W/O) Simple emulsion (O/W) Double emulsion (W/O/W) (Water soluble) (polymer soluble in organic solvent) (polymer soluble in organic solvent) Gelation Polymer precipitation Solvent evaporation Polymer precipitation İnverse salting out Solvent extraction Solvent evaporation
  • 11. Nanotechnology Applications Medicine - Cancer treatment - Bone treatment - Drug delivery - Appetite control - Drug development - Medical tools - Diagnostic tests - Imaging Consumer Goods Foods and beverages −Advanced packaging materials, sensors, and labon-chips for food quality testing Appliances and textiles −Stain proof, water proof and wrinkle free textiles Household and cosmetics − Self-cleaning and scratch free products, paints, and better cosmetics
  • 12. Nanotechnology Applications  Medical Nanotechnology or Nano medicine  Nano medicine is the application of nanotechnology in medicine, including to cure diseases and repair damaged tissues such as bone, muscle, and nerve and its monitoring  Key Goals for Nano medicine: −To develop cure for traditionally incurable diseases (e.g. cancer) through the utilization of nanotechnology −To provide more effective cure with fewer side effects by means of targeted drug delivery systems
  • 13. Nanotechnology in Health Care - Detection and Diagnosis  Nanotechnology offers tools and techniques for more effective detection, diagnosis and treatment of diseases  Fig: The micro fluidic channel with nano wire sensor can detect the presence of altered genes associated with cancer – J. Heath, Cali. Insti. of Technology  Lab on chips help detection and diagnosis of diseases more efficiently  Nano wire and cantilever lab on chips help in early detection of cancer biomarkers. (Carcinoembryonic antigen – CEA; Alfa-fetoprotein-CEA; Prostate Specific antigen –PSA)  Fig: The nano scale cantilever detects the presence and concentration of various molecular expressions of a cancer cell – A. Majumdar, Univ. of Cal. at Berkeley
  • 14. Nanotechnology in Health Care - Thermal ablation of cancer cells  Thermal ablation of cancer cells − Nano shells have metallic outer layer and silica core kills the cancer cells by Thermal ablation − Selectively attracted to cancer shells either through a phenomena called enhanced permeation retention or due to some molecules coated on the shells
  • 15. Nanotechnology in Health Care - Treatment  Targeted drug deliver − Nano particles containing drugs are coated with targeting agents (e.g. conjugated antibodies) − The nano particles circulate through the blood vessels and reach the target cells − Drugs are released directly into the targeted cells
  • 16. Nanotechnology Based Drug Delivery  In biopharmaceuticals, in addition to the main technologies covered liposomal, monoclonal antibody-based, and polymer-based technologies host of newer technologies such as nano particles including various nano dimensional entities such as molecular imprinted polymers, pro drug delivery, oral, injectable and implantable, pulmonary, and transdermal and transmucosal delivery have come up.  Importance of Drug Delivery Technology to Pharma Industry 􀂉 Drug delivery formulations involve low cost research compared that for discovery of new molecule,
  • 17. Nanotechnology Based Drug Delivery � Minimizing the drug use would significantly reduce the effective cost of drug which would give financial relief to the patients, � Delivery systems increase commercial opportunity by distinguishing a drug from competitive threats posed by “me too” drugs and � Novel means of delivery particularly using nano-carriers, can allow branded drugs to be rescued from abyss of generic competition (may be called “resurrection of drug”).
  • 18. SOME SIGNIFICANT NANODEVICES  Development of one dose a day ciprofloxacin using nanotechnology  Tumor targeted taxol delivery using nano particles in Phase 2 clinical trial stage  Improved ophthalmic delivery formulation using smart hydrogel nano particles  Oral insulin formulation using nanoparticles carriers.  Liposomal based Amphotericin B formulation � Nano particles for Drug Delivery - Metal-based nano particles ; - Lipid-based nano particles - Polymer-based nano particles ; - Biological nano particles
  • 19. Nanotechnology Applications 1) SiO2-Nanoparticles as a new platform for non-viral gene delivery (favourable size 10 - 50 nm; controlled production possible; excellent phys.- chemical stability ; many possibilities for chemical modification); Probably cheaper and safer, but presently not safer. 2) Using Nanotechnology for New Medicines: E.g. Gene-Therapy mRNA Modified genevector Therapeutic Protein
  • 20. Nanotechnology Applications 3) Brain Drug Targeting : Polysorbate-coated NPs to enhance penetration to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) – Mechanism: – Binding of the NPs to the inner endothelial lining of the brain capillaries (subsequently, particles deliver drugs to the brain by providing a large concentration gradient, thus enhancing the passive diffusion) – Brain endothelial uptake by phagocytosis _ A general surfactant effect characterized by a solubilization of the endothelial cell membrane lipids that would lead to membrane fluidization and an enhanced drug permeability through the BBB. _ The NPs could lead to an opening of the tight junctions between the endothelial cells. The drug could then permeate through the tight junctions in free form or together with the NPs in bound form
  • 21. Nanotechnology Applications _The NPs may be endocytosed by the endothelial cells followed by the release of the drugs within these cells and delivery to the brain. _The NPs with bound drugs could be transcytosed through the endothelial cell layer _The polysorbate 80 used as the coating agent could inhibit the efflux system, especially P- glycoprotein (P-gp) 4) Semiconductor Nano Crystals or “QUANTUM Dots TM ” or Biodegradable bio polymers for ex-vivo optical diagnostics and some form of hybrid biodegradable nano capsule with MRI contrast agent core for in-vivo simultaneous diagnostics and therapeutics (“theragnostics”).
  • 22. Nanotechnology Applications  Nanoelectromechanical System (NEMS) Sensors − NEMS technology enables creation of ultra small and highly sensitive sensors for various applications − The NEMS force sensor shown in the figure is applicable in pathogenic bacteria detection Fig : A NEMS bacteria sensor
  • 23. Nanotechnology Applications 5) Nano medicine - Continuous Therapy for Preventing Cancer in Astronauts: Engineered multilayered nano particles targeted to radiation-damaged cells can initiate repair of damaged DNA using DNA repair genes manufactured inside individual living cells under the control of molecular biosensor switches. 6) Nanoparticles in cancer therapy : Increase in antitumor efficacy; Reduction of systemic side-effects; Selective delivery of oligonucleotides to tumor cells ; Reversion of multidrug resistance in tumor cells; 7) Targeted delivery of antibiotics using nanoparticles: Challenge is to design the means of carrying an antibiotic in a form that is able to be endocytosed by phagocytic cells and then released into these cells. Nanoparticles are one of the main carriers developed for these logistic strategies
  • 24. Nanotechnology Applications Targeting of intracellular bacteria with antibiotic colloidal carriers: liposomes or nanoparticles.
  • 25. Nanotechnology Applications- DNA Sequencing 8) In DNA Sequencing: DNA molecules, under the influence of an electric field, are forced through nano-scale channels (~100 nm) on a “gel biochip”. The molecules deform and stretch to pass through the small channels.  This process separates DNA fragments by length.  This is part of the method used to sequence the DNA in the human genome and in identifying a unique DNA “fingerprint”.
  • 26. Nanotechnology Applications - Immunoisolation for Cell-encapsulation therapy 9) Liver Dysfunction: Encapsulation of Hepatic Cell Pancreas Dysfunction: Encapsulation of Islets of Langerhans Disorders of the CNS: Parkinson’s, Alzheimer’s Pre-requisites for cell encapsulation – continued and optimal tissue/cell supply – maintenance of cell viability & function – successful prevention of immune rejection Nonporous Silicone-based biocapsules serves as Artificial Pancreas(Desai et al.)
  • 27. Nanotechnology Applications 10) Targeting Tumours: « Smart Bombs »  Conventional Therapy: Chemotherapy that poisons surrounding tissue  Strategy: Block angiogenesis selectively at tumor site  Nanoparticle: DNA + Cationic Polymer directed at tumourous cells  Starves blood cells
  • 28. Nano engineering – Bio - analogous Structures  Bone-cartilage composite ?  Muscle ?  Brain-machine Interface ?
  • 29. CHALLENGES & Methods of Drug Delivery  Prevention of drug from biological degradation (Oral dosage form)  Effective Targeting ( Inhalation)  Patient Compliance (Tran dermal)  Cost effectiveness (Implantation)  Product life extension (Injections)

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