Nanotechnology and ICT Miniaturisation and Nanotechnology The Information and Communication Technology ...
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Nanotechnology and ICT

Introduction of the applications of nanotechnologies in the field of ICT
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Technology      Business      

Transcripts - Nanotechnology and ICT

  • 1. Nanotechnology and ICT Miniaturisation and Nanotechnology The Information and Communication Technology (ICT) sector has undergone rapid expansion as work and social activities are transformed by new and varied technologies. This has required computers to become faster, enabled by the production of smaller transistors through advanced fabrication processes. Decreasing the size of the transistor allows more to be placed on an integrated circuit, increasing the performance of the computer. Moore’s Law predicts that the number of transistors placed on an integrated circuit doubles every two years. There are now challenges to continue this miniaturisation path because as the materials of semiconductors, metals and i t i l f i d t t l d insulators are reduced t a nano-size, l t d d to i their properties begin to be determined and dominated by quantum effects. Nanotechnology offers the opportunity to exploit, rather than avoid, quantum effects for the development of the next generation of integrated circuits. As miniaturisation Graph shows the increase in number of transistors on a computer chip, which follows Moore´s prediction. (Image cannot proceed forever with the methods and tools that have been used so far, new credit:, approaches will be needed. Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0) Emerging technologies in ICT g g g Devices will be faster, more powerful and have a greater number of features thanks to Nanotechnology. Conventional transistor manufacturing is By using the inherent properties of New fabrication techniques allow the constantly striving for smaller transistors. nanomaterials to perform calculations, synthesis of compliant circuits, making New architectures and increased future computers may not need to rely on flexible and stretchable devices a reality. fabrication complexity enable more traditional Si-based technology. Materials These devices can be rolled or folded advanced circuitry to be developed. such as single nanowires or quantum dots without damaging the performance of the could be used. device. 500nm A memory device built around a single zinc oxide Photography of processors on an Intel nanowire. Each nanowire is less than 100 nm in Compliant thin film transistors using 45nm Penryn Wafer. diameter. organic semiconductor molecules on a rubbery substrate bb b t t Beyond Miniaturisation: Integration of Nanotechnology in everyday gadgets The evolution of the ICT sector will go beyond what we consider as “electronics” (i.e., devices that perform a task for us). There are visions of having electronics embedded in our clothing or in the environment around us in what is conceived as a network of devices that create “ambient intelligence”. Future mobile communication devices will have multi- functionality at a far greater level than current models. Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) technology Wi l Wireless sensing and C i d Communication i ti Numerous popular electronic •New battery technology and power products have components management. that use an effect called the GMR. The electrical •Conformable. resistance of structures •Transparent electronics and novel made of very thin layers of display technology. magnetic and non-magnetic •Functional surfaces e.g. self metals can change by an © Nokia Research Centre cleaning. unexpectedly large amount The Morph concept device in the presence of an applied •Sensor technology for monitoring of Modern hard disks make use of GMR. contains nanoscale technologiesg magnetic field. ti fi ld (Image credit:, the environment environment. Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0) that will potentially create a world of radically different devices. •Integration into textiles Display technology e.g. organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) Made using thin layers of organic molecules which can be easily deposited onto a substrate OLED films about 200nm Advantages Disadvantages thick. (Image credit: R. •Consume less power than LCD displays •Poor lifetime due to molecular degradation Ovilla, University of Texas •Good picture quaility •Molecules are sensitive to moisture so expensive at Dallas, NISE Network, •Much thinner and lighter than LCD panels packaging is needed, licensed •Operate well under sunlight and at different angles. •Currently designed to need expensive electrode under NISE network terms materials. and conditions)

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