Natural Solutions:
Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change in the Pacific Islands
P. Leavai, S. Chape
PACC Project Ma...
Science &
Knowledge
Donor
Funding &
Coordination
National
Government
Provincial/
Sub-national
Government
Local
Government/...
Island Ecosystem Diversity
High Biodiversity Values
Cultural Diversity
Population: ~ 10 million
Languages: ~ 2,000
Tenure: ~ 90%
customary
Pacific island people reliant on natural resources
Climate Change in the Pacific Islands Region
Climate Change in Pacific Islands Region
9
Non-Climate Change Environment Issues
Mining and Logging
Emerging
Uses
Invasive
Species
Unsustainable
Fishing
Coastal Deve...
13
14
15
Non-CC Impacts
16
Climate Change Impacts
Lower Capacity for Resilience
Lower Capacity for Resilience
Ecosystem-based Adaptation:
Application of ‘Natural Solutions’ to Climate
Change Adaptation
17
By taking into account the ...
18
Benefits of Ecosystem-based Adaptation
1. Aligns with and enhances poverty alleviation and sustainable
development strateg...
Benefits of Ecosystem-based Adaptation
5. Precautionary and addresses risk management – ensures
that long-term natural res...
Understand the Options
21
A long term plan?
22
23
24
Weapons of Mass Destruction
High Cost
Maldives
25 Sea wall around Malé cost $54 million, or $12.4 million per km
Kiribati
26
What Needs to Change
27
 Integration of climate change adaptation options with the
ecosystem approach
 Holistic – all ad...
An example of an
EbA project.
An example of a
medium-to-long
term adaptation
planning &
implementation @
the community
lev...
29
San Francisco Bay, USA
30
Landscape Scale: Community and Ecosystem Focus
National policy
implementation
Sub-national policy
implementation
Commun...
Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)
Mainstream: incorporating CCA & CC Risks into
existing legislations & regulations
Socio-Environmental
Safeguards:
Fit CC i...
Results:
• A. Revised EIA guidelines incorporating CCA/DRR to be used against all
infrastructure projects in Kosrae.
• B. ...
34
Louisiana, USA
Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands: Partnership Approach
EbA in the Solomon Islands: Ridge to Reef
36
37
Inappropriate coastal structures
adding to shoreline erosion
Logging damaging catchments
and water supplies
Loss of man...
Threats identified by Choiseul communities
Partner interventions
Sustainable agriculture
and land use
Crop production & food
security
Water storage
infrastructure
Fi...
40
 €5 million – 5 years
 Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands
 National, whole-of-island, urban
components
Science &
Knowledge
Donor
Funding &
Coordination
National
Government
Provincial/
Sub-national
Government
Local Government/...
Thank You!
NAP Expo 2015 Session III, II Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Pacific Islands
NAP Expo 2015 Session III, II Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Pacific Islands
NAP Expo 2015 Session III, II Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Pacific Islands
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NAP Expo 2015 Session III, II Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Pacific Islands

Natural Solutions: Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change in the Pacific Islands by P. Leavai, SPREP
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Environment      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NAP Expo 2015 Session III, II Ecosystem-based Adaptation in the Pacific Islands

  • 1. Natural Solutions: Ecosystem-based Adaptation to Climate Change in the Pacific Islands P. Leavai, S. Chape PACC Project Manager - Climate Change Division, Director - Biodiversity & Ecosystems Management Division Secretariat of the Pacific Regional Environment Programme
  • 2. Science & Knowledge Donor Funding & Coordination National Government Provincial/ Sub-national Government Local Government/ Communities Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Resilience
  • 3. Island Ecosystem Diversity
  • 4. High Biodiversity Values
  • 5. Cultural Diversity Population: ~ 10 million Languages: ~ 2,000 Tenure: ~ 90% customary
  • 6. Pacific island people reliant on natural resources
  • 7. Climate Change in the Pacific Islands Region
  • 8. Climate Change in Pacific Islands Region 9
  • 9. Non-Climate Change Environment Issues Mining and Logging Emerging Uses Invasive Species Unsustainable Fishing Coastal Development Pollution and Waste
  • 10. 13
  • 11. 14
  • 12. 15
  • 13. Non-CC Impacts 16 Climate Change Impacts Lower Capacity for Resilience Lower Capacity for Resilience
  • 14. Ecosystem-based Adaptation: Application of ‘Natural Solutions’ to Climate Change Adaptation 17 By taking into account the ecosystem services on which people depend for their livelihoods and social and economic security, EbA integrates sustainable use of biodiversity and ecosystem services in a comprehensive adaptation strategy (CBD 2009) Need to fully integrate non-climate change issues
  • 15. 18
  • 16. Benefits of Ecosystem-based Adaptation 1. Aligns with and enhances poverty alleviation and sustainable development strategies – temporal 2. More accessible to rural and poor communities – cost effective - spatial 3. Increases local engagement and action, drives resource management to rural communities - spatial 4. Enables vulnerable communities to participate directly in resource management decisions 19
  • 17. Benefits of Ecosystem-based Adaptation 5. Precautionary and addresses risk management – ensures that long-term natural resources that provide resilience are not destroyed by short-term or emergency responses to crisis 6. Provides both protective and provisioning services 7. Can contribute to climate change mitigation 8. Builds on existing investments in biodiversity conservation 9. Aligns to medium to long-term adaptation planning at the local level sustaining livelihoods of communities as well as supporting social and economic security in times of crisis 20
  • 18. Understand the Options 21
  • 19. A long term plan? 22
  • 20. 23
  • 21. 24 Weapons of Mass Destruction
  • 22. High Cost Maldives 25 Sea wall around Malé cost $54 million, or $12.4 million per km
  • 23. Kiribati 26
  • 24. What Needs to Change 27  Integration of climate change adaptation options with the ecosystem approach  Holistic – all adaptation options reviewed in the context of sustainability: livelihoods, ecosystem services protected  Non-climate change issues receive equal weight in government policy and its implementation  Donors to fund holistic national level approaches, not only community level  Governments need to undertake national scale long-term development planning and infrastructure relocation  Ecosystem and socio-economic resilience analysis and mapping (ESRAM) completed to integrate CC and non-CC threats into vulnerability assessments as a basis for adaptation planning at national, provincial and community levels
  • 25. An example of an EbA project. An example of a medium-to-long term adaptation planning & implementation @ the community level. Supported by government, regional partners 28
  • 26. 29 San Francisco Bay, USA
  • 27. 30 Landscape Scale: Community and Ecosystem Focus National policy implementation Sub-national policy implementation Community engagement Country-wide integrated planning Whole-of-island integrated planning, ridge to reef approach, watershed management, etc
  • 28. Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)
  • 29. Mainstream: incorporating CCA & CC Risks into existing legislations & regulations Socio-Environmental Safeguards: Fit CC into EIA Guidelines State Regulations Amendments to incorporate CC State Legislation Act Developed CC legislation into State Law 10-2 National Policy Addressed Climate Change (Baseline) Kosrae State CC Act (2011) SL 10-2 Regulations for Development Projects (January 2014) New EIA Guidelines NATIONAL LEVEL FSM Climate Change Act Public Law No. 18-34 SUB-NATIONAL: KOSRAE STATE SUB-NATIONAL: KOSRAE STATE SUB-NATIONAL: KOSRAE STATE
  • 30. Results: • A. Revised EIA guidelines incorporating CCA/DRR to be used against all infrastructure projects in Kosrae. • B. Existing environmental regulations modified to include CC • C. Climate proofed Shoreline Management Plan (2000) developed and approved. • D. The revised Kosrae SDP 2013-2023 incorporated CCA/DRR • E. FSM Climate Change Act Public Law No. 18-34( replaced FSM CC policy 2009) • All IDP now comply with the new EIA guideline • Building code now in the process • Other FSM states start adopting CC framework Indicator(s): Guidelines, regulations, policies/plans incorporate CC Lessons: . Focus on CCA/DRR as a cost saving in the long term and means to minimise vulnerability to livelihoods Kosrae State, Federated States of Micronesia (FSM)
  • 31. 34 Louisiana, USA
  • 32. Choiseul Province, Solomon Islands: Partnership Approach
  • 33. EbA in the Solomon Islands: Ridge to Reef 36
  • 34. 37 Inappropriate coastal structures adding to shoreline erosion Logging damaging catchments and water supplies Loss of mangroves impacting on shoreline stability and fisheries
  • 35. Threats identified by Choiseul communities
  • 36. Partner interventions Sustainable agriculture and land use Crop production & food security Water storage infrastructure Fisheries and coastal management Mangrove and coastal rehabilitation Ecosystem-based adaptation Climate change materials for schools Farmer field school Climate and risk sensitive infrastructure Taro tree planting programme
  • 37. 40  €5 million – 5 years  Fiji, Vanuatu, Solomon Islands  National, whole-of-island, urban components
  • 38. Science & Knowledge Donor Funding & Coordination National Government Provincial/ Sub-national Government Local Government/ Communities Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Ecosystem Approach and Environmental SustainabilityResilience Science & Knowledge Donor Funding & Coordination National Government Provincial/ Sub-national Government Local Government/ Communities Climate Change Adaptation Disaster Risk Reduction Ecosystem Approach and Environmental SustainabilityResilience
  • 39. Thank You!

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