Copyright © 2015 A. T. M. Badruzzaman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribu...
2 International Journal of Biological Research
during the period from January to December, 2013. The handling
of animals i...
International Journal of Biological Research 3
Table 2: Prevalence of Diseases in Cattle with respect to Breed and Sex dur...
4 International Journal of Biological Research
ic disease prevalence as 4.24%. Among the metabolic diseases,
prevalence of...
of 4

Prevalence of infectious

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  • 1. Copyright © 2015 A. T. M. Badruzzaman et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. International Journal of Biological Research, 3 (1) (2015) 1- 4 International Journal of Biological Research Journal home page: www.sciencepubco.com/index.php/IJBR doi: 10.14419/ijbr.v3i1.3760 Research Paper Prevalence of infectious and non-infectious diseases in cattle population in Chittagong district of Bangladesh A. T. M. Badruzzaman 1 , Md. Saiful Islam Siddiqui 1 , Md. Omer Faruk 2 , Nasrin Sultana Lucky 1 , Mohammad Ali Zinnah 3 , Ferdaus Mohd. Altaf Hossain1 , Md. Masudur Rahman 1 * 1 Faculty of Veterinary and Animal Science, Sylhet Agricultural University, Sylhet 3100, Bangladesh 2 Veterinary Surgeon, Hathazari Veterinary Hospital, Hathazari, Chittagong, Bangladesh 3 Department of Microbiology and Public Health, Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujibur Rahman Agricultural University, Gazipur, Bangladesh *Corresponding author E-mail: rahmanmm.dpp@sau.ac.bd Abstract Background: Cattle are affected by many infectious and noninfectious diseases that can lead to economic losses to the farmers in terms of reduced growth and production performance and mortality. Objectives: This study was conducted to investigate the prevalence of infectious and noninfectious diseases of cattle in Chittagong dis- trict of Bangladesh. Methods: A total of 2614 clinical cases were diagnosed at five different veterinary hospitals in Chittagong district of Bangladesh during the year 2013. Disease diagnosis was made on the basis of owner’s statement, general examination, clinical signs, gross pathology, and laboratory procedures. Data were analyzed to determine disease prevalence in cattle with respect to breed, sex and season. Results: Diagnosed diseases were categorized as infectious diseases, parasitic diseases, digestive disorders, metabolic diseases, respirato- ry diseases and other diseases. According to our results, the prevalence of digestive disorders was the highest (45.14%) followed by para- sitic diseases (30.64%), infectious diseases (9.49%), respiratory diseases (3.90%), metabolic diseases (3.18%) and other diseases (3.18%). Disease prevalence was highest in Cross-bred cattle (44. 23%) followed by Red Chittagong cattle (28.46%) and Non-descript Deshi (27.31%). Female were more susceptible to diseases (54.32%) than male cattle (45.68%). Disease prevalence varied according to seasons. Highest prevalence was recorded in summer season (37.49%) followed by rainy season (34.81%) and winter season (27.70%). Conclusions: Our large set of data on cattle disease prevalence in Chittagong district of Bangladesh provides valuable insight to design and implement priority based research on specific disease and to take efficient control strategies against the diseases. Keywords: Bangladesh; Cattle; Infectious Disease; Non-Infectious Disease; Prevalence. 1. Introduction Bangladesh is an over populated, rural and agrarian country in the world. Cattle are very important component of the mixed farming system practiced in Bangladesh from long time. In Bangladesh, similar to high population density, livestock population is also high and near about 80% of population is employed in agriculture and livestock farming (BBS, 2008). Livestock is a vital compo- nent of rural economy in Bangladesh and is performing multifari- ous functions such as provisions of food, draft power and transport. Bangladesh earns foreign currency by exporting several byproducts such as hides, skin, bone etc and now biogas is also producing from cattle dung. The contribution of livestock in the magnitude of Gross Domestic Product (GDP) is about 16.23 % in Bangladesh (BBS, 2008). There are about 22.53 million cattle and 14.69 million goat popu- lation in Bangladesh (DLS, 2009). However, most of the animals are weak and emaciated with non-satisfactory productive perfor- mance due to malnutrition and diseases. Among the various con- strains in the development of cattle, both infectious and noninfec- tious diseases are the most important limiting factors that cause significant mortality of adult cattle and neonatal calves each year (Debnath et al. 1990, Debnath et al. 1995). It was reported that variation in different cattle breed, their sex and environmental factors greatly influence the disease prevalence in livestock ani- mals including cattle (Alim et al. 2011, Sarker et al. 2011, and Islam et al. 2014). The present study was undertaken to investigate the prevalence of cattle diseases considering breed, sex and seasons at five different locations of Chittagong division in Bangladesh. The results of the current study will provide an overall idea about the distribution of diseases of cattle in the region which may assist researchers or clinicians to design and implement priority based research on specific disease and to take efficient control strategies against the diseases. 2. Methods 2.1. Study area and study period This study was undertaken at five different Veterinary Hospitals located at five different Upazila (sub-district) under Chittagong district of Bangladesh namely Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Science University Satellite Clinic at Potia Upazila; Veterinary Hospital at Sadar Upazila; Veterinary Hospital at Hathajari Upazila; Community Based Veterinary Clinic at Sithakundo Upazila; Veterinary Hospital at Mirsorai Upazila. A total of 2614 clinical cases of cattle of different breed and sex were diagnosed
  • 2. 2 International Journal of Biological Research during the period from January to December, 2013. The handling of animals in the study was performed in accordance with current Bangladesh legislation (Cruelty to Animals Act 1920, Act No. I of 1920 of the Government of the People’s Republic of Bangladesh). 2.2. Diagnosis of diseases Diagnosis of diseases was made by general physical examination of animals, clinical signs, gross pathology and laboratory proce- dures. During general physical examination animal’s body condi- tion, behavior, posture, gait, locomotive disturbance, pulse, respi- ration, temperature, abdominal distension, defecation etc were observed and/or recorded. Examination of different parts and sys- tems of the body of sick animals were performed by using the procedure of palpation, percussion, auscultation, needle puncture and walking of animals. Owner’s complaints were taken into ac- count while performing general physical examination of a sick animal. Animal’s breed, sex, age etc were also recorded in regis- tered book. Specific bacterial, viral, and fungal diseases were di- agnosed on the basis of specific clinical signs and gross lesions (Jones et al. 1996, Khan 2000). In some cases, confirmatory diag- nosis were made by cultural and biochemical characteristics of causative organisms following standard procedure. Parasitic infes- tations were diagnosed by faeces examination under microscope as described previously (Soulsby 1986). Blood smears were pre- pared and examined under microscope after Giemsa’s staining according to the methods described elsewhere (Hendrix & Robin- son, 2006) to confirm hemoprotozoan infestation. 2.3. Data analysis Diagnosed diseases were categorized as infectious disease, parasit- ic disease, digestive disorder, respiratory disease, metabolic dis- ease and other diseases for statistical analysis. Obtained data were analyzed by using statistical software 'STATA/IC-11.0' where descriptive statistics was expressed as proportion with 95% confi- dence interval (CI). For Chi-square test, results were expressed in percentage with P-value and significance was determined when P<0.05. The influences of cattle breed, sex and season on the prevalence of diseases were also analyzed. 3. Results A total of 2614 clinical cases were diagnosed and the diseases were categorized as infectious disease, parasitic disease, digestive disorder, respiratory disease, metabolic disease and other disease. As shown in Table 1, the highest prevalence was recorded for digestive disorders (45.14%) and the lowest prevalence was rec- orded for metabolic diseases (3.18%). Prevalence of digestive disorders (45.14%) and parasitic diseases (30.64%) were signifi- cantly higher among six categories (p <0.01). Disease prevalence in Cross-bred cattle (44.23%) was significantly higher (p<0.01) than that of Red Chittagong cattle (28.46%) and Non-descriptive Deshi (27.31%) and females were more susceptible to diseases than male cattle (p<0.05) (Table 2). Significantly higher preva- lence of diseases (p<0.05) were recorded in summer season (37.49%) than in rainy season (34.81%) and winter season (27.70%) (Table 3). Table 1: Prevalence of Diseases in Cattle during the Year 2013 in Chittagong District of Bangladesh Disease category Name of disease No. of identified cases Prevalence (%) Prevalence (%) by category Infectious disease Anthrax 1 0.04 9.49 (248)§ Hemorrhagic septicemia 7 0.27 Tetanus 2 0.08 Foot rot 9 0.34 Mastitis 34 1.30 Arthritis 19 0.73 Foot and mouth disease 124 4.74 Ephemeral fever 7 0.27 Wart 37 1.41 Rabies 3 0.12 Dermatophilosis 5 0.19 Parasitic disease Babesiosis 21 0.80 30.64 (801)** Anaplasmosis 5 0.19 Coccidiosis 12 0.46 Balantidiasis 7 0.27 Fascioliasis 273 10.44 Paramphistomiasis 159 6.08 Hump sore 69 2.64 Strongyloidiasis 43 1.65 Myiasis 212 8.11 Digestive disorder Ruminal acidosis 320 12.24 45.14 (1180)** Anorexia 368 14.08 Simple indigestion 418 15.99 Ruminal alkalosis 74 2.83 Metabolic disease Milk fever 33 1.26 3.18(83) Grass tetany 23 0.88 Weak calf syndrome 27 1.03 Respiratory disease Aspiration pneumonia 68 2.60 3.90 (102) Upper respiratory tract infestation 34 1.30 Others Skin disease 42 1.61 7.65 (200) Surgical affection 120 4.59 Reproductive 21 0.80 Congenital 17 0.65 Total 2614 100 100 (2614) § Values in the parenthesis indicate number of identified cases in each category; ** Significant at p <0.01 by Chi-square test.
  • 3. International Journal of Biological Research 3 Table 2: Prevalence of Diseases in Cattle with respect to Breed and Sex during the Year 2013 in Chittagong District of Bangladesh Disease category (n=2614) Breed Sex Non-descript Deshi Red Chittagong cattle Cross-bred Male Female Infectious disease 1.19 (31)§ 2.52 (66) 5.78 (151) 4.36 (114) 5.13 (134) Parasitic disease 9.41 (246) 9.03 (236) 12.06 (319) 10.75 (281) 19.89 (520) Digestive disorder 12.7 (332) 12.36 (323) 20.09 (525) 23.41 (612) 21.73 (568) Metabolic disease 1.03 (27) 0.76 (20) 1.38 (36) 0.35 (9) 2.83 (74) Respiratory disease 1.11 (29) 1.34 (35) 1.46 (38) 2.72 (71) 1.18 (31) Others 1.87 (49) 2.45 (64) 3.33 (87) 4.09 (107) 3.56 (93) Total 27.31 (714) 28.46 (744) 44.23 (1156)** 45.68 (1194) 54.32 (1420)* § Values in the parenthesis indicate number of identified cases and values outside the parenthesis indicate percent prevalence in each category; * Signifi- cant at p<0.05 by Chi-square test; **Significant at p<0.01 by Chi-square test. Table 3: Seasonal Prevalence of Diseases in Cattle during the Year 2013 in Chittagong District of Bangladesh Disease category (n=2614) Summer Rainy Winter No. of cases Prevalence (%) No. of cases Prevalence (%) No. of cases Prevalence (%) Infectious disease 78 2.98 94 3.60 76 2.91 Parasitic disease 334 12.78 256 9.79 211 8.07 Digestive disorder 468 17.90 431 16.49 281 10.75 Metabolic disease 14 0.54 35 1.39 34 1.30 Respiratory disease 20 0.76 30 1.15 52 1.99 Others 66 2.52 64 2.45 70 2.68 Total 980 37.49* 910 34.81 724 27.70 *Significant at p<0.05 by Chi-square test. Overall prevalence of infectious diseases among six categories was 9.49% which constituted foot and mouth disease (4.74%), wart (1.41%), mastitis (1.30%), arthritis (0.73%), foot rot (0.34%), ephemeral fever (0.27%), hemorrhagic septicemia (0.27%), dermatophilosis (0.19%), rabies (0.12%), tetanus (0.08%) and anthrax (0.04%) (Table1). The prevalence of infectious diseases was highest in Cross-bred cattle (5.78%) and lowest in Non- descriptive Deshi (1.19%) (Table 2). Females (5.13) were more susceptible to infectious diseases than male cattle (4.36%) (Table 2) and the prevalence in summer, rainy and winter seasons were 2.98%, 3.60% and 2.91% respectively (Table 3) In parasitic disease category, nine parasitic diseases were identi- fied of which five were gastrointestinal parasitic diseases and four were protozoan diseases (Table 1). Major parasitic diseases consti- tuted fascioliasis (10.44%), myiasis (8.11%), paramphistomiasis (6.08%), hump sore (2.64%), strongyloidiasis (1.65%), babesiosis (0.80%), coccidiosis (0.46%), balantidiasis (0.27%), and anaplasmosis (0.19%) (Table 1). As in infectious disease category, Cross-bred female cattle were more susceptible to parasitic diseas- es (Table 2) and the prevalence in summer, rainy and winter sea- sons were 12.78%, 9.79% and 8.07% respectively (Table 3). Highest prevalence (45.14%) was recorded in digestive disease category of which simple indigestion was 15.99% followed by anorexia (14.08%), ruminal acidosis (12.24%), ruminal alkalosis (2.83%) (Table1). Considering breed, sex and season, prevalence of digestive disorders were recorded as 20.09% in Cross-breed; 12.36% in Red Chittagong cattle; 12.7% in Non-descriptive Deshi; 23.41% in male; 21.73% in female; 17.90% in summer; 16.49% in rainy and 10.75% in winter (Table 2 & 3). The overall prevalence of metabolic diseases was 3.18% of which milk fever constituted 1.26%; weak calf syndrome 1.03% and grass tetany 0.88% (Table 1). Considering breed, sex and season, prevalence of metabolic diseases were recorded as 1.38% in Cross-breed; 0.76% in Red Chittagong cattle; 1.03% in Non- descriptive Deshi; 0.35% in male; 2.83% in female; 0.54% in summer; 1.39% in rainy and 1.30% in winter (Table 2 & 3). The prevalence of respiratory diseases was recorded as 3.90% of which aspiration pneumonia was 2.60% and upper respiratory tract infection was 1.30% (Table 1). Considering breed, sex and season, prevalence of respiratory diseases were recorded as 1.46% in Cross-breed; 1.34% in Red Chittagong cattle; 1.11% in Non- descriptive Deshi; 2.72% in male; 1.18% in female; 0.76% in summer; 1.15% in rainy and 1.99% in winter (Table 2 & 3). In other diseases category, surgical affection, skin diseases, repro- ductive cases and congenital cases were included and the preva- lence were recorded as 4.59%, 1.61%, 0.80%, and 0.65% respec- tively (Table 1). 4. Discussion To investigate the prevalence of cattle diseases at Chittagong divi- sion of Bangladesh, a total of 2614 clinical cases were diagnosed in six categories among which the prevalence of digestive disor- ders (45.14%) and parasitic diseases (30.64%) were significantly higher (p <0.01). Our results are in agreement with Pallab et al. (2012) who reported digestive disorders as 47.05% and parasitic infestation as 26.79% among other diseases in cattle. We found comparatively lower disease prevalence in local breed (28.46% in Reg Chittagong and 27.31% in Non-descriptive Deshi) than in cross-bred cattle (44.23%) which might be due to their natural resistance to diseases especially under rural production systems (Bhuiyan 2007, Mannan et al. 2009). Overall prevalence of infectious diseases among six categories was 9.49% of which foot and mouth disease was recorded as 4.74%. Sarker et al (2011) reported higher prevalence of foot and mouth disease (25.07%) in Rajshahi district of Bangladesh. This variation might be due to different geographical locations and related environmental factors. In our study the prevalence of mas- titis was 1.30% which is slightly lower than the report of Rahman et al (1972) and Pallab et al (2012). The prevalence of infectious diseases was highest in Cross-bred cattle (5.78%) and lowest in Non-descriptive Deshi (1.19%). Females were more susceptible to infectious diseases than male cattle. Our results are in agreement with the findings of Bhuiyan (2007) and Mannan et al (2009). In parasitic disease category, fascioliasis was recorded as 10.44% and among hemoprotozoan parasites, prevalence of babesiosis and anaplasmosis were 0.80% and 0.19% respectively. Alim et al (2012) reported the overall prevalence of hemoprotozoan diseases as 16.18 and 12.02% in crossbred and indigenous cattle, respec- tively where babesiosis and anaplasmosis were predominant. Is- lam et al (2014) reported that prevalence of fascioliasis in house hold and slaughtered goats were 31.75% and 10.10% respectively. Variations in parasitic disease prevalence might be due to envi- ronmental factors, animal species and other related factors. Highest prevalence (45.14%) was recorded in digestive disease category of which simple indigestion was 15.990% followed by anorexia (14.07%), ruminal acidosis (12.24%), ruminal alkalosis (2.83%). The prevalence of digestive disorders in our study was slightly lower than the report by Pallab et al (2012) and higher than the report by Rahman et al (1972) and Kabir et al (2010). In Bangladesh, most farmers are rearing cattle for fattening purpose and they are trying to feed their cattle excessively to make their cattle fatten within short period which might be the cause of high- est prevalence of digestive disorders. Overall prevalence of metabolic diseases (3.18%) in our study was lower than the report by Pallab et al (2012) who reported metabol-
  • 4. 4 International Journal of Biological Research ic disease prevalence as 4.24%. Among the metabolic diseases, prevalence of milk fever was comparatively high which might be due to deficiency of calcium at the time of early lactation period. The prevalence of respiratory diseases was recorded as 3.90% which was lower than the report by Pallab et al (2012) who report- ed 6.20% prevalence. 5. Conclusion According to our study, major diseases of cattle in Chittagong district of Bangladesh include digestive disorder, parasitic disease, infectious disease, respiratory disease and metabolic disease of which digestive disorders and parasitic diseases are predominantly prevalent diseases. Cross-bred female cattle are highly susceptible to most of the diseases. Our large set of data on cattle disease prevalence in Chittagong district of Bangladesh provides valuable insight to design and implement priority based research on specif- ic disease and to take efficient control strategies against the dis- eases. Acknowledgements This research work was partly financed by Sylhet Argicultural University Research System (SAURES), Sylhet, Bangladesh. Authors are thankful to Veterinary surgeons of Sadar Upazila Veterinary Hospital and Hathajari Upazila Veterinary Hospital; Veterinary Consultant of Chittagong Veterinary and Animal Sci- ence University Satellite Clinic at Potia Upazila, Community Based Veterinary Clinic at Sithakundo and Mirsorai Upazila for their co-operation to conduct the research. References [1] Alim MA, Das S, Roy K, Masuduzzaman M, Sikder S, Hassan MM, Siddiki AZ & Hossain MA (2012) Prevalence of hemoprotozoan dis- eases in cattle population of Chittagong division, Bangladesh. Paki- stan Veterinary Journal 32, 221-224. [2] BBS (2008) Statistical year book on Bangladesh, Bangladesh Bureau Statistics, Ministry of Planning, and Dhaka. [3] Bhuiyan AKFH (2007) Cattle and livelihood in Bangladesh. Available at: http://www.vishwagou.org/Cattle%20and%20Livelihood.htm (ac- cessed 4 September 2014) [4] DLS (2009) Annual Report of Directorate of Livestock Services (2008-2009), Bangladesh. [5] Hendrix CM & Robinson E (2006) Diagnostic Parasitology for Veter- inary Technicians, Third editionn, Mosby Inc. and affiliated of Else- vier Inc, China, pp: 246-247. [6] Islam KM, Rahman M, Islam MS, Adhikary GN & Rauf SMA (2014) Epidemiological studies of fascioliasis (Fasciola gigantica) in black Bengal goats. Eurasian Journal of Veterinary Science 30, 152-156. http://dx.doi.org/10.15312/EurasianJVetSci.201436515. [7] Jones TC, Hunt RD & Kimg NW (1996) Veterinary Pathology, Sixth edition, Williams & Wilkins, A Waverly Company, pp: 1024-1041. [8] Kabir MH, Reza MA, Razi KMA, Parvez MM, Bag MAS & Mahfuz SU (2010) A report on clinical prevalence of diseases and disorders in cattle and goat at the Upazilla Veterinary Hospital, Ulipur, Kurigram. International Journal of BioResearch 2, 17-23. [9] Khan CM (2000) the Merck Veterinary Manual. Tenth edition, Merck Sharp & Dohme Corporation. USA, pp: 501-524. [10]Mannan MA, Siddique MP, Uddin MZ & Parvaz MM (2009) Preva- lence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle at Meghna upazila in Comilla in Bangladesh. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural Uni- versity 7, 317-319. [11]Pallab MS, Ullahb SM, Uddinc MM & Miazic OF (2012) A cross sectional study of several diseases in cattle at Chandanaish Upazilla of Chittagong district. Scientific Journal of Veterinary Advances 1, 28- 32. [12]Rahman MA, Ali KMKM & Rahman A (1972) Incidence of diseases of cattle in Mymensingh. Bangladesh Veterinary Journal 6, 25-30. [13]Sarker S, Talukder S, Haque MH, Islam MH & Gupta SD (2011) Epidemiological study on foot and mouth disease in cattle: prevalence and risk factor assessment in Rajshahi, Bangladesh. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science 3, 71-73. [14]Soulsby EJL (1986) Helminths, Arthropods and Protozoa of Domesti- cated Animals, Seventh edition, The ELBS and Baillier Tindall, Lon- don, UK, pp: 40-52.

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