Natallia Patapchuk
What kinds of rhetorical
strategies promote and impede
value co-creation experience in
the online colla...
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
I would like to express my sincere thankfulness to thesis advisor Professor Per
Skålén for the continuous...
Abstract
Introduction: The Internet facilitates the innovation between external
stakeholders and companies. For this purpo...
ideas are not published twice. Moreover, “Advisory Strategy” mainly employed
for interactions between community members wi...
3
Table
 of
 Contents
 
1.
 Introduction
 .........................................................................
4
1. Introduction
The business wisdom states "Listen carefully to what your customers want and then
respond with new produ...
5
products are highly heterogeneous in many fields (von Hippel 2005). When
users’ needs are heterogeneous, the strategy of...
6
1.2. Research Questions
The aim of this paper is to study the rhetorical strategies employed by
customers to co-create v...
7
2. Theoretical Framework
This research paper is centered on three distinctive concepts: collaborative
innovative communi...
8
interactions, companies can enter into the implicit dimensions of customer
knowledge, experiences and feelings. Therefor...
9
But what motivate customers to participate in the online collaborative
communities? Antikainen (2011) clarifies that the...
10
reasoning made public with the goal of influencing an audience. Appeals are
those symbolic strategies that aim either t...
11
2.2.1. Social functions of rhetoric
According to Herrick (2000), the art of rhetoric has six social functions,
namely i...
12
available facts. Third, the clash of differing argumentative cases that often
accompanies rhetorical efforts brings new...
13
Figure 1: Rhetorical Strategies. (Scaraboto, D., Rossi, C.A.V., Costa, D. (2012) How Consumers
Persuade Each Other: Rhe...
14
performing rituals, individuals can easily recognize and identify with the
community values, and are thus persuaded aut...
15
2.3. Value Co-creation
From a service-dominant logic viewpoint, value creation is an interactive and
collaborative proc...
16
sources of competitive advantage (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2000). Later
authors resume (2003) that co-creation puts the spo...
17
Next in this section the customer experience and consumer empowerment
through co-creation will be reviewed since it is ...
18
persistence of task performance, while a sense of powerlessness leads to lack
of responsibility and demotivation (Fülle...
19
3. Research Methodology
Methodology is the way in which a researcher conducts research, i.e. how s/he
chooses to deal w...
20
little studies; probably because of the newness of this phenomenon.
Consequently, the frame of literature references is...
21
because it aims to investigate relationship between variables, namely what kids
of rhetorical strategies promote or imp...
22
eliminate not organically created messages, only three discourse interactions
such as (1) Customer to Company, (2) Cust...
23
time company has received: 22,355 ideas, 446,119 votes and 872 ideas were
delivered. In average, 174 ideas delivered a ...
24
solely on the sharing the advanced professional knowledge and seeking the
ways to enhance these products. Therefore, th...
25
discourses embody the universe of dialogic communication, rhetoric is the
planned and effectual way to articulate persu...
26
but also interpreting the meaning of these textual components (both in
isolation and in combination) for the other peop...
27
3.8.2. Replicability
Study must be capable of replication in a case if other researches choose to
replicate the finding...
28
generate, discus and evaluate ideas they all have the similar characteristics;
therefore the result of this study can b...
29
4. Findings
The goal of this study requires a deep understanding of the inner processes
and architecture of the online ...
30
Box Communication (BBC) to track the popularity of ideas among customers.
Thus, the demote button subtracts 10 points f...
31
The analysis of collected data allowed identification of the ten distinctive types
of rhetorical strategies, which take...
32
2. “Advocating Strategy” is employed by those who publicly support the
idea and provide the detailed arguments in favor...
33
3. “Approving Strategy”. Customers who choose to follow this strategy
persuade the company by showing that they are agr...
34
“Seems
 like
 a
 simple
 thing
 to
 offer.”
 
“Did
 SF
 build
 their
 DB
 in
 such
 a
 sh...
35
7. “Criticizing Strategy” used by customers who want the implementation of
the idea so badly that they start to express...
36
“OMG
  Salesforce,
  this
  is
  such
  a
  no
  brainer.
  Get
  with
  it.
  What
  a
  van...
37
either
  this
  fear
  is
  true
  or
  they
  lay
  the
  technical
  prowess
  to
  implement...
38
10. “Self-governing Strategy” indicates that customers take control of the
community because they try to avoid the simi...
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis
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Natallia Jarl_Business Administration Master’s Thesis

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  • 1. Natallia Patapchuk What kinds of rhetorical strategies promote and impede value co-creation experience in the online collaborative innovative communities? Case Study: Salesforce.com Semester: Autumn 2012 Supervisor: Prof. Per Skålén Business Administration Master’s Thesis 30 ECTS
  • 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I would like to express my sincere thankfulness to thesis advisor Professor Per Skålén for the continuous support, for his patience, enthusiasm, motivation and immense knowledge. His guidance helped me in all the time of research and writing of this thesis. My deepest gratitude goes to my family and friends for their unflagging love and support throughout my study at Karlstad Business School. Patapchuk Natallia
  • 3. Abstract Introduction: The Internet facilitates the innovation between external stakeholders and companies. For this purpose, companies have constructed online platforms, which help to form collaborative communities. Currently, there are many remarkable firms that benefit from the “wisdom of the crowd”; nevertheless the most innovative one according to Forbes (2012) is Salesforce.com whose IdeaExchange community became the case study for this research. Business science is still far away from understanding how value is co-created online but first steps have already been made. This thesis aims to contribute to the knowledge base in the co-creation area. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to identify the rhetorical strategies employed by customers in online collaborative innovative communities to co- create value and, based on findings, to construct the value co-creation model. Methods: This study has a Qualitative Research Design with Netnography as a data collection method. Case study is used as the overall methodology approach. The dataset of this study consists of 2018 comments gathered from the case study community organized by Salesforce.com. To analyze the findings, Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis and Rhetorical Analysis were applied. Results: The unique contribution of this study is that ten rhetorical strategies were identified based on Aristotle’s persuasive appeals, which are described in Analysis chapter. Additionally, the social functions of rhetoric for the online collaborative community are clarified. Also the rhetorical situation is described in relation to innovative communities where audience, exigencies and constraints are defined. Finally, the “Model of Value Co-Creation” is designed through the lens of identified rhetorical strategies. Conclusion: The results show that value might not only be co-created but also impeded in the online collaborative communities. As the “Value co- creation model” illustrates, such rhetorical strategies as “Requesting Implementation”, “Advocating Strategy”, “Approving Strategy”, “Instructing Strategy”, and “Exploratory Strategy” indicate about a high demand of the discussed idea, meanwhile “Warning strategy” indicates that the idea contradicts to the personal values or the social norms therefore customers apply this rhetorical strategy to prevent the idea’s implementation. Additionally, such rhetorical strategy as “Self-governing Strategy” is usually employed by so-called “community officers” who take control that innovative
  • 4. ideas are not published twice. Moreover, “Advisory Strategy” mainly employed for interactions between community members with a purpose to share experience. Above mention rhetorical strategies indicate though in a different extend, about the customers’ empowerment and the value co-creation experience. However, this study identified two rhetorical strategies i.e. “Criticizing Strategy” and “Provoking strategy” which reveal that value can be also impeded in the online collaborative communities. Mainly it happens because of a company’s ignorance of its customers’ needs and therefore might lead to the decreased customers’ motivation for the further involvement. The results of this study offer a new way of understanding the value co- creation processes through the lens of the identified rhetorical strategies that are presented in the figure 4: “Model of Value Co-creation” (p. 48). Hence, it is an important addition to the literature on the customer satisfaction and value co-creation research. The practical purpose of this paper is to increase the ability of managers to analyze vast streams of data for better decisions and a better customer experience. Key words: Rhetorical Strategies, Value Co-creation, Online Collaborative Innovative Communities, Crowdsourcing.
  • 5. 3 Table  of  Contents   1.  Introduction  .............................................................................................................  4   1.1.   Background  and  Problem  Statement  ................................................................  4   1.2.   Research  Questions  .................................................................................................  6   1.3.   Thesis  Relevance  .....................................................................................................  6   2.   Theoretical  Framework  ....................................................................................  7   2.1.   Online  Collaborative  Innovative  Communities  .............................................  7   2.2.   Rhetoric  .......................................................................................................................  9   2.2.1.   Social  functions  of  rhetoric  ......................................................................................  11   2.2.2.   Rhetorical  Situation  .....................................................................................................  12   2.2.3.   Aristotle's  Appeals  .......................................................................................................  12   2.2.1.   Characteristics  of  Cyber-­‐Rhetoric  .........................................................................  14   2.2.2.   Rhetorical  strategies  ...................................................................................................  14   2.3.   Value  Co-­‐creation  .................................................................................................  15   2.3.1.   Understanding  Customer  Experience  ..................................................................  17   2.3.2.   Consumer  Empowerment  Through  Co-­‐creation  ............................................  17   3.   Research  Methodology  ...................................................................................  19   3.1.   Methodological  Paradigm.  .................................................................................  19   3.2.   Research  Strategy  .................................................................................................  19   3.3.   Research  Design  ....................................................................................................  20   3.4.   Research  Process  ..................................................................................................  21   3.5.   Case  Study  Research:  Salesforce.com,  Inc.  ...................................................  22   3.6.   Netnography  as  a  data  collection  method  ....................................................  23   3.7.   Qualitative  Data  Analysis  Methods  .................................................................  24   3.7.1.   Computer-­‐mediated  discourse  analysis  .............................................................  25   3.7.2.   Rhetoric  Analysis  ..........................................................................................................  25   3.8.   Reliability  and  Validity  .......................................................................................  26   3.8.1.   Reliability  .........................................................................................................................  26   3.8.2.   Replicability  ....................................................................................................................  27   3.8.3.   Validity  ..............................................................................................................................  27   4.   Findings  ...............................................................................................................  29   4.1.   Innovating  processes  in  the  online  collaborative  community  ..............  29   4.2.   Rhetorical  strategies  ...........................................................................................  30   5.   Analysis  ................................................................................................................  39   5.1.   Analysis  of  the  identified  rhetorical  strategies  ..........................................  39   5.2.   Analysis  of  value  co-­‐creation  experience  .....................................................  43   5.2.1.   Analysis  of  Rhetorical  Situation  .............................................................................  44   5.2.2.   Analysis  of  social  functions  of  rhetoric  ...............................................................  45   5.2.3.   Value  Co-­‐creation  Model  ...........................................................................................  46   6.   Conclusion  ...........................................................................................................  50   6.1.   Managerial  Implications  ....................................................................................  51   6.1.   Research  Limitations  ...........................................................................................  52   6.2.   Future  Research  ....................................................................................................  52   6.3.   Reflections  on  the  Thesis  ...................................................................................  52   7.   References  ..........................................................................................................  53   Appendix  1  ..................................................................................................................  58
  • 6. 4 1. Introduction The business wisdom states "Listen carefully to what your customers want and then respond with new products that meet or exceed their needs" (Thomke & Hippel 2002, p.5). As a result of this trend in today's “markets of one”, customers as innovators have the power to completely transform industries. People’s involvement in collaboration processes has already influenced how goods and services are invented, produced, marketed and distributed on a global basis. This age of participation is giving rise to new collaborative capabilities and business models that will empower the prepared firm and destroy those that fail to adjust (Tapscott & Williams 2006). Chesbrough (2004) argues that currently we are observing a “paradigm shift” in how businesses commercialize knowledge from "Closed Innovation" to "Open Innovation" which enables firms to use external and internal ideas and various paths to market. Prahalad and Ramaswamy (2004) add that customers are increasingly attracted to both, defining and creating value. This co-creation experience of the consumers becomes the very basis of value because these business practices encourage customers from being isolated and passive to becoming connected and active. 1.1. Background and Problem Statement Lerne (2012) claims that innovation can be understood and managed. Rochford (1991) adds that the Internet enabled companies to use their virtual network communities for the opportunity identification as the initial stage of innovation process in order to evaluate the new products or services so that company will allocate the resources to only those ideas that show potential interest from customers (Rochford 1991). For these reasons, online collaboration with customers became a popular tool to delegate the initial stages of innovation process to virtual communities. Furthermore Prandelli et al. (2008) state that virtual environments play a key role in enhancing co-creation with customers by presenting low-cost opportunities for customers to interact with firms. The unique capabilities of the Internet are allowing leading firms to directly involve customers in their new product development activities, a phenomenon called “collaborative innovation”. However, online innovative collaborations are not panacea because according to a meta-analysis of market-segmentation studies, the users’ needs for
  • 7. 5 products are highly heterogeneous in many fields (von Hippel 2005). When users’ needs are heterogeneous, the strategy of “a few sizes fit all” will leave many users somewhat dissatisfied with the commercial products on offer and probably will leave some users seriously dissatisfied. Therefore, persuasive messages are essential to manifest ones needs in online innovative communities, where consumers interact mainly through text. Since persuasion is a goal of rhetoric (Zachry 2009), it is important to understand how customers use arguments in an online collaborative environment. Clearly, language provides a system of categories for our experiences and how we allocate meanings to them. As Alvesson and Kärreman (2000, p. 1126) argue, language, and its use, is increasingly being understood as one of the most important phenomena in social and organizational research. Although recently the interest has risen significantly among practitioners to the value co-creation in the online collaborative communities, little academic research currently exists on the interactive value creation experience throughout the process of co-innovation. Thus, this thesis helps to fill that gap by applying traditional rhetorical theory to identify the rhetorical strategies which are used to promote and impede the value co-creation experience. This research theme was partly inspired by Zachry (2009), who claims that for scholars in professional communication, the possible applications for rhetorical analysis are seemingly limitless. For example, as digital technologies multiply and thus complicate our traditional assumptions about the nature of communication, rhetorical analysis seems to offer the flexibility needed for analysts to continue to develop insight for others; and hence rhetorical theory continues to be developed. Despite recent efforts to contextualize knowledge of online interpersonal influence (e.g. Kozinets et al. 2010; Scaraboto et al. 2012), there is still a lack of a fully developed and culturally informed theoretical perspective that explains the processes which happen in online collaborative communities, especially from the customer perspective. In particular, we do not know much about the social relationships constituting such communities and don’t know which rhetorical strategies are employed for online value co-creation. Therefore, the goal of this paper is to complement and extend prior research by addressing the following question: what kinds of rhetorical strategies promote and impede value co-creation experience in the online collaborative innovative communities.
  • 8. 6 1.2. Research Questions The aim of this paper is to study the rhetorical strategies employed by customers to co-create value and collaboratively innovate online. Consequently, two open research questions were formulated for this purpose. Research question 1: What kinds of rhetorical strategies are used by customers in the online collaborative innovative communities? In order to answer the research question, the rhetorical analysis based on Aristotle’s persuasive appeals and on the core rhetorical purpose of an argument will be applied to identify the rhetorical strategies. Research question 2: How the Value Co-creation Model can be constructed so that it shows what kinds of rhetorical strategies promote and impede the value co-creation experience? The second research question requires the understanding of the social relationships and ties, which occur between members of an online collaborative innovating community. In light of it, the rhetorical situation of the collaborative innovative community will be analyzed and the social function of rhetoric will be examined through the lens of the identified rhetorical strategies. In order to develop an explanatory theory that associates rhetorical strategies with the value co-creation, the Model of the Value Co- creation for the online collaborative innovative communities will be constructed. 1.3. Thesis Relevance This study adopts an exploratory approach to derive patterns and implications through a detailed case-study analysis; consequently it seeks to provide deeper insight into the processes of value-co-creation. The intention of this thesis is to deliver theoretical and practical relevance for managing the collaborative innovative communities in terms of value-co-creation experience.
  • 9. 7 2. Theoretical Framework This research paper is centered on three distinctive concepts: collaborative innovative communities, online rhetoric and value co-creation. The search of EBSCOhost databases does not bring any results that contain all three terms. Therefore below are presented the previous researches that could help to unify these areas in order to answer the research questions. Therefore in this part of the thesis the relevant theories regarding online collaborative innovative communities, online rhetoric and value co-creation are presented. 2.1. Online Collaborative Innovative Communities Billions of connected people can now actively participate in innovation, wealth creation, and social development (Tapscott & Williams 2006). Virtual communities have been studied using various perspectives (Jones 1998; Rheingold 1993; Hagel & Armstrong 1997). Increasing attention is devoted to the exploration of consumer power in the online communities. Rossi (2011) states that in a discontinuous business environment facing a high competition and the growing expectations of the consumers, companies are compelled to manage innovation on a continuous basis. According to Gallouj and Weinstein (1997, p.547), innovation can be defined as “…any change affecting one or more terms of one or more vectors of characteristics”. As innovation occurs through combining different knowledge bases, firms need to nurture their ability to create, integrate and recombine knowledge from different contributors, not only inside but also outside their boundaries (Rossi 2011). Collaborative online innovation communities can maximize users’ innovation potential by enabling collective thinking, which is superior to the ideas of individual users (Antikainen 2011). Therefore collaboration has become an established way of doing business with suppliers, channel partners and clients. As von Hippel (1988 in Prandelli et al. 2008) claims, customer interaction has always been important for innovation in order to improve the fit between the firm's offerings and customer needs. Moreover, Sawhney et al. (2005) and Verona and Prandelli (2006) highlight, the virtual environment greatly enhances the firm’s ability to engage customers in collaborative innovation. It allows companies to transform episodic and one-way customer interactions into a persistent dialogue with customers and manage an ongoing dialogue. By supporting the customer-to-customer
  • 10. 8 interactions, companies can enter into the implicit dimensions of customer knowledge, experiences and feelings. Therefore online conversations in the network of online innovations can become a source of customer insight, making available to the company a new understanding of customer beliefs, values, habits, desires, motives, emotions or needs (Rossi 2011). Consequently, customers as co-­‐creators are invited to actively participate by generating and evaluating new product ideas; elaborating, evaluating, or challenging product concepts; discussing and improving optional solution details; selecting or individualizing the preferred virtual prototype; demanding information about or just consuming the new product. For example, in the Idea Generation (ideation) phase, customers can serve as a resource for virtual brainstorming; thus, the virtual environment must be created in a way to enable and motivate consumers to play an active role in innovative processes as well as to make them participate in further projects (Füller et al. 2009). It is critical to understand that the ability of a virtual community to find and generate innovation is due to the value of the members’ contributions. Mainly, individuals approach information exchange in different ways, although it relies on an equal blend of selfish and altruistic attitudes. A thriving virtual community will exist over time only if its collective membership believes that participation is worth their time and efforts. Through the process of information exchange, members share knowledge, solve problems, and work toward achieving shared goals and objectives (Baim 2006). Von Hippel (2005, p.96) defines “innovation community” as an organized cooperation in the development, testing, and diffusion of user-initiated innovations. Users as well as manufacturers can be members; the innovation community can be purely functional but may also fulfill the role of a social (virtual) community providing sociability, support, a sense of belonging, and social identity. Additionally, Muniz and O’Guinn (2001, p.412) define a brand community as “…a specialized, non-geographically bound community, based on a structured set of social relationships among admirers of a brand”; and like other communities it is marked by a shared consciousness, rituals and traditions, and a sense of moral responsibility. Ridings et al. (2002) explains that communities develop a sense of membership, because its members form relationships with each other, which leads to the formation of strong codes of conduct, and that in some cases members develop a dependence on their virtual community.
  • 11. 9 But what motivate customers to participate in the online collaborative communities? Antikainen (2011) clarifies that there are various causes such as new viewpoints, a sense of efficacy, a sense of community, fun, interesting objectives, an open and constructive atmosphere, making and acquiring better products, winning and rewards. Besides, Hemetsberger (2002) recognizes five kinds of motives: (1) gaining knowledge needed for personal use; (2) achieving a common goal with other members of the virtual community; (3) experiencing joy in the challenge of the task involved; (4) developing/valuing communal relationships; and (5) validating the individual’s personal definition of the meaning of exchange. Similarly, previous studies of Blanchard & Markus (2004) and Koh & Kim (2004) suggest that members in successful virtual communities have a strong “sense of virtual community” that has four dimensions, i.e. feelings of membership, feelings of influence, integration and fulfillment of needs, and shared emotional connection (McMillan & Chavis, 1986). These affective bonds are crucial in ensuring that members continue participating in that particular virtual community (Shan et al. 2006). 2.2. Rhetoric The phenomenon of rhetoric elaborated since Greek antiquity the various concepts. For example, Kennedy (1991, p.7) defines rhetoric as: [...]  the  energy  inherent  in  emotion  and  thought,  transmitted  through  a   system  of  signs,  including  language,  to  others  to  influence  their  decisions   or  actions.   Rhetoric is sometimes seen as synonymous with discourse, and often used interchangeably with ideology. Rhetoric is, however, distinguished by a focus on persuasion, and implicit in any definition of rhetoric is the notion of power (Brummett 2000 in Higgins & Walker 2012). Rhetorical studies are concerned with how language and other symbolic forms influence the way an audience thinks, feels or acts. Rhetoric sits in harmony with discourse, but is not necessarily a ‘subset’ of discourse analysis (Green 2004; Cyphert 2010 in Higgins & Walker 2012). In contemporary economics, a person acts by and for himself. For example McCloskey (1994, p.15) cites Smith who argues: [...]   Men   always   endeavor   to   persuade   others...   (and)   in   this   manner   everyone  is  practicing  oratory  through  the  whole  of  his  life.   Primary, rhetoric seeks to persuade by means of argument. An argument is made when a conclusion is supported by reasons. An argument is basically
  • 12. 10 reasoning made public with the goal of influencing an audience. Appeals are those symbolic strategies that aim either to elicit an emotion or to engage the audience's loyalties or commitments. Arrangement refers to the planned ordering of a message to achieve the greatest effect, whether of persuasion, clarity, or beauty. The aesthetics of rhetoric are elements adding form, beauty, and force to symbolic expression (Herrick 2000). Rhetorical Discourse is usually intended to influence an audience to accept an idea, and then to act in a manner consistent with that idea. Rhetorical discourse has five distinguishing features: normally it is planned, adapted to an audience, shaped by human motives, responsive to a situation, and persuasion- seeking (Herrick 2000). For instance, Burke (1969, p. 72 in Higgins & Walker 2012) explains the relationship between rhetoric, persuasion and meaning as:  [...]  wherever  there  is  persuasion,  there  is  rhetoric.  And  wherever  there  is   meaning,  there  is  persuasion.   Rhetoric has been studied for thousands of years, from at least the time of Plato. Rhetorical analysis is used as the primary methodological approach for developing insight into particular forms of business discourse. For example, rhetorical analysis has played a key role in studies of corporate strategies and marketing materials (e.g. Skerlep 2001; Ewald and Vann 2003; Martin 2007 in Zachry 2009). Rhetorical analysis has also been explored recently as a mean of understanding business communication in the digitally mediated spaces, including business websites (Zachry 2009). King & Kugler (2000) observed that most previous research in communication is related to the format of a message rather than its content. However, Scaraboto et al. (2012) studied how consumers exert, verify, and respond to interpersonal influence in online communities. While similar in approach and used research methods, mentioned research differs from the current one by nature of relationships, which apparently happen in consumer forums and business collaborative environments. Consequently, this research is a first one that applied rhetorical analyses for understanding the value co-creation processes in the online collaborative communities through the lens of rhetorical strategies. Next in this section the terminology associated with rhetoric will be explained deeper since its understanding is essential for the answering the first research question of this study, namely to identify what kinds of the rhetorical strategies are employed by customers to co-create value and collaboratively innovate online.
  • 13. 11 2.2.1. Social functions of rhetoric According to Herrick (2000), the art of rhetoric has six social functions, namely ideas are tested, advocacy is assisted, power is distributed, facts are discovered, knowledge is shaped, and communities are built. Herrick (2000, p. 16) claims that one of the most important functions of rhetoric is that it allows ideas to be tested on their merits publicly. In order to win acceptance for an idea in a free society, in most cases a rhetor (an individual engaged in creating or presenting rhetorical discourse) has to advocate it so that a message will be memorable and persuasive. Audience is a vital element in rhetoric's capacity to test ideas because it will examine the case advanced to support that idea. One of the great benefits of this process is that the ideas will be verified and refined. Perelman and Olbrechts-Tyteca in their work “The New Rhetoric” (1969) argue that the quality of an argument is in direct proportion to the quality of the audience that gives its approval. The universal audience will assent to good arguments and reject poor ones. Therefore the quality of audiences determines the quality of rhetoric in a society. Herrick (2000) adds that some audiences test ideas carefully, while others are careless in this responsibility. Author concludes that the quality of ideas will be higher if audience is better prepared and give more attention to ideas’ testing. Another important function of the art of rhetoric is that it assists advocacy, which gives a public voice to private ideas, thus directing attention to them. People advocate ideas, which they believe to be important. However, false and destructive ideas also draw on rhetoric for achieving acceptance. When we disagree with a point of view, rhetoric helps us to prepare an answer, to advance the counterargument (Herrick 2000). Moreover, rhetoric is linked to power at three levels. Rhetoric as personal power provides an opportunity to success and personal advancement through training the capacity to express oneself effectively; as psychological power it shapes the thinking of other people; as political power it displays how influence gets distributed in a society (Herrick 2000). Furthermore, rhetoric helps to discover facts and truths that are crucial to decision making. Rhetoric assists this important task in at least three ways. First, in order to prepare a case, a rhetor must locate evidence to support her ideas. Second, creating a message involves thinking critically about the
  • 14. 12 available facts. Third, the clash of differing argumentative cases that often accompanies rhetorical efforts brings new facts to light and refines available facts. Consequently, through rhetorical interaction, people come to accept some ideas as true and to reject others as false. Once an idea has been thoroughly tested by a community, it becomes part of what is accepted as known by that group (Herrick 2000). Last but not least social function of rhetoric is building communities of people who find common cause with one another, who see the world in a similar way, who identify their concerns and aspirations with similar of other people. Therefore rhetoric shapes the character and health of communities in various ways (Herrick 2000). 2.2.2. Rhetorical Situation Lloyd Bitzer (1968, p.3) defines the rhetorical situation as: A  complex  of  persons,  events,  objects,  and  relations  presenting  an  actual   or  potential  exigence,  which  can  be  completely  or  partially  removed  if   discourse,  introduced  into  the  situation,  can  so  constrain  human  decision   or  action  as  to  bring  about  the  significant  modification  of  the  exigence.   Bitzer claims that the “situation” spawns rhetoric in much the same way that a question generates an answer. Bitzer describes the rhetorical situation as having three distinct characteristics: exigency, audience, and constraints. Exigency refers to the speaker or company’s (or audience’s) insufficiency, or the necessity for action (or marketing). Audience is, those who receives the messages, or to whom the messages are targeted. Constraints refer not only to the restrictions in given situations of the speaker, but also restrictions of the audience in receiving the message and acting upon it (Bitzer 1968). 2.2.3. Aristotle's Appeals Rhetoric defined by Aristotle (2006) as the ability, in each particular case, to see the available means of persuasion and appeals that are the ways in which a text seeks to engage its readers. Common approaches are appeals to ethos, appeals to logos, and appeals to pathos. Figure 1 illustrates the three classical rhetorical types of persuasive appeals. According to Aristotle (2006) logos concerns the logical reasoning, or argumentative content in speech; ethos points to the speaker's credibility, while pathos relates to emotion, or what role emotions play in the persuasion of an audience.
  • 15. 13 Figure 1: Rhetorical Strategies. (Scaraboto, D., Rossi, C.A.V., Costa, D. (2012) How Consumers Persuade Each Other: Rhetorical Strategies of Interpersonal Influence in Online Communities. BAR, Rio de Janeiro, 9 (3), p. 254). Meyer (2005) argues that ethos, pathos and logos should be considered on equal footing, since rhetoric is a relation between a speaker (ethos) and her audience (pathos) through some language (logos) that could be visual, written, or simply heard. Author defines rhetoric as the negotiation of the distance between individuals on a given question. If people speak and write, it is because they have question in mind. Without such a question that in some way "measures" out their distances, nobody would speak but remain silent. On the other hand, if everything were problematic, nobody could agree on anything. Rhetoric deals with the intersubjective problematic. Individual try to resolve it by relying on what is non-problematic for the locutor, and more especially for her audience. That relationship between the problematic and the non- problematic is called an argument (Meyer 2005). Style involves such things as choice of words, grammatical correctness, modes of discourse, levels of formality, and figures of speech. Confucius (1989 in You 2008) holds that a harmonious community is built through individuals performing rituals, including speaking and writing, appropriate to the social context. As rituals carry community-shared values, by participating in or
  • 16. 14 performing rituals, individuals can easily recognize and identify with the community values, and are thus persuaded automatically. Additionally, You (2008) advocates that patterned rhetorical strategies become an important ritual for community’s building and sharing. 2.2.1. Characteristics of Cyber-Rhetoric Ballot Box Communication (BBC) is a new communication feature in online communities and can be best summarized as an aggregation mechanism that reflects the common experience and opinions among individuals. By offering a limited number of choices such as voting, rating and tagging, BBC creates a new medium to effectively reveal the interests of mass population. BBC presents a new choice in which each user can express his/her opinion through BBC and their collective preferences can be heard as a dominant voice. There are three characteristics of BBC compared with CMC: (1) simplification, (2) the many-to-one nature, and (3) implicit influences on users (Xia et al. 2009). 2.2.2. Rhetorical strategies According to Anderson (2011, p.178) rhetorical strategies are defined as “methods of communicating the details of a message”. Common rhetorical strategies include narration, analysis, description, comparison, and persuasion. However, strategies might be classified differently depending on which facet of strategies is of interest. Thus there is no one correct (or best, or most nearly correct) list of compliance-gaining strategies. Rather, there are many different possible ‘‘strategy’’ classifications, each potentially useful for capturing a different dimension (O’Keefe 1990, p. 207; Wilson 2003). For instance, Scaraboto et al. (2012) have identified rhetorical strategies that are associated with four types of interpersonal influence, namely setting expectations, prescribing, claiming expertise, and celebrating acquiescence. Alternatively, King and Kugler (2000) describe a rhetorical strategy as a collection of arguments generated to persuade decision makers operating under deliberative circumstances, and subject to budget constraints, to commit resources to an innovation. A rhetorical strategy is therefore a cluster of arguments that have an intended set of characteristics where arguments can be defined as a function of their core appeal. The goal of this paper requires identify the rhetorical strategies employed by members of the collaborative innovative communities. For this purpose the definition of rhetorical strategies offered by King & Kugler (2000) is adopted; hence rhetorical strategies will be classified based on the core appeals.
  • 17. 15 2.3. Value Co-creation From a service-dominant logic viewpoint, value creation is an interactive and collaborative process that occurs through the exchange of service (Vargo & Lusch 2008 in Plé & Chumpitaz 2009). The factual value of a market offering can only be assessed through the lens of the customer. Gustafsson and Johnson (2003) explain that customers view products and services from the standpoint of the benefits they provide and the problems they solve, and also that the lens is used to measure satisfaction and loyalty. The discussion recently raised on customer involvement, wikinomics, power of the masses, crowdsourcing and the role of collaboration in creating unique value proposition. However, the role of the final customer has been instead long neglected. Only recently the ‘‘customer as a source of competences’’ idea appeared in literature (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2004; Füller et al. 2009, Rossi 2011 etc.) This shift was primarily enabled after opening the ways to a deeper customer involvement in the processes of value co-creation and collaborative innovation (Rossi 2011). With raise of Internet consumers are increasingly stimulate the interaction between the company and the consumer that may result in value co-creation (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2004) or value co-destruction (Echeverri & Skålén 2011; Plé & Chumpitaz 2009). The meaning of value and the process of value creation are rapidly shifting from a product- and firm-centric view to personalized consumer experiences. Informed, networked, empowered, and active consumers are increasingly co- creating value with the company. Consumers now seek to exercise their influence in every part of the business system. Armed with new tools and dissatisfied with available choices, consumers want to interact with company and thereby “co-create” value (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2004). Interactive value co-creation takes place during the interaction between the provider and the customer. The interaction is becoming the locus of value creation and value extraction. As value shifts to experiences, the market is becoming a forum for conversation and interactions between customer, customer communities, and company. It is this dialogue, access, transparency, and understanding of risk-benefits that is principal to the next practice in value creation. High-quality interactions that enable an individual customer to co- create unique experiences with the company are the key to unlocking new
  • 18. 16 sources of competitive advantage (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2000). Later authors resume (2003) that co-creation puts the spotlight squarely on consumer- company interaction as the locus of value creation. Company can create a personalized experience environment within which individual can create their own unique cocreating personalized experience. Products can be commoditized but co-creation experiences cannot be. Dialog is an important element in the co-creation view because it implies interactivity, deep engagement, and the ability and willingness to act on both sides (Levine at al. 2001 in Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2004) The information infrastructure must be centered on the consumer and encourage active participation in all aspects of the cocreation experience, including information search, configuration of products and services, fulfillment, and consumption. Co-creation means developing methods to attain a visceral understanding of co-creation experiences so that companies can co-shape consumer expectations and experiences along with their customers (Prahalad & Ramaswamy 2004). When interacting, service systems most likely intend to co-create value rather than co-destroy it. Therefore, it is important to identify where value can be destroyed so that it can be remedied. Value co-destruction is according to Plé & Chumpitaz (2009, p.433), an interactional process between service systems such as firm and its customers that results in a decline in at least one of the systems’ well-being. Co-destruction process may result either from accidental or intentional actions from service systems. If happened, accidental missuses may lead to unsuccessful co-innovation that in its turn may become a co- destruction process that decreases the firm’s competitive well-being, and limits its capacity to adapt to its competitive environment. Besides, this relative innovation failure necessitated the customer to bring in resources she could have employed for other more beneficial activities. This might provoke frustration and other psychological costs and eventually negatively affect her well-being. On the other side, there is an intentional misuse that happens if service systems may have an interest in misusing its own resources or the ones of another system on purpose. Doing so, this system plans to increase its well- being and its capacity of adaptiveness to the detriment of another system’s well-being and capacity of adaptiveness (Plé & Chumpitaz 2009).
  • 19. 17 Next in this section the customer experience and consumer empowerment through co-creation will be reviewed since it is essential for understanding how value is co-created in the online collaborative innovative communities. 2.3.1. Understanding Customer Experience According to Dubois (2000, p.34), consumer involvement can be defined as a state of motivation, stimulation, or interest, which cannot be observed. Involvement refers to an individual’s state with regard to a domain of interest, the type and intensity of which can evolve according to circumstances. Customer experience is the cognitive and affective outcome of the customer’s interaction with a company’s employees, processes, technologies, products, services and other outputs (Buttle 2010). Author defines three main concepts that are associated with customer experience (Buttle 2010, p.170): • Touchpoints: include websites, contact centers, events, exhibitions, trade shows, seminars, direct mail, e-mail, advertising, sales calls, and retail stores etc. • Moment of Truth: Any occasion the customer interacts with, or is exposed to which leads to the formation of an impression of the organization. • Engagement: The customer’s emotional and rational response to a customer experience. Customer satisfaction can be defined as the customer’s fulfillment response to a customer experience or some part thereof (Buttle 2010, p.44). In order for one to obtain satisfaction, a customer must first have some sort of expectation for the product or service. Once the product is obtained, satisfaction can be measured against the presumed expectation in order to define whether the experience was satisfactory or dissatisfactory. As Dubois (2000, p. 248) adds, if repeated satisfaction is experienced, it often leads to customer loyalty, whereas dissatisfaction, usually due to performance below expectations, leads to a feeling of deception provoking complaints, which can go as far as service rejection. 2.3.2. Consumer Empowerment Through Co-creation Empowerment can be viewed as any means strengthening a person’s perception of self-determination, self-efficacy and reducing conditions contributing to feelings of powerlessness. Empowerment raise peoples’ experience of self-determination and efficacy together with the related enjoyment of a task determines initiation of an activity and increases
  • 20. 18 persistence of task performance, while a sense of powerlessness leads to lack of responsibility and demotivation (Füller et al. 2009). There are several ways through which self-efficacy can be increased, for example through mastery of experiences. Consumers’ actual or perceived influence on new product design and decision-making reflects participative management. Technologies and interaction tools enabling consumers to virtually engage in meaningful and challenging tasks, to effectively share their knowledge with producers, to feel they are autonomously contributing in the way and to the extent they like, to experience a culture of collaboration and to believe that their input will be seriously considered may provide those consumers with a sense of mastery. Thus, participants in virtual co-­‐creation may feel empowered. As the management literature has shown, the experience of empowerment enhances individuals’ motivation to repeat the task where they felt empowered. Therefore, perceived empowerment should increase participants’ intentions to participate in the future projects (Füller et al. 2009).
  • 21. 19 3. Research Methodology Methodology is the way in which a researcher conducts research, i.e. how s/he chooses to deal with a particular question (Jonkerm & Pennink 2010). This Methodology chapter presents the research process that took place in order to answer the research questions. The choices of research approaches that were made are explained and the description of the research process and overview of the case company is provided. A discussion regarding the reliability and validity of the results is presented in the end of this chapter. 3.1. Methodological Paradigm. Paradigm is usually called a basic attitude or affinity of a researcher. Gummesson (1999 in Jonkerm & Pennink 2010, p.26) describes it as: [...]   the   underpinning   values   and   rules   that   govern   the   thinking   and   behaviour  of  researchers.   A methodological paradigm specifies the research behavior and can therefore provide indications about the way in which research should be conducted. The implicit or explicit choice of a specific research paradigm is directed by the nature of the question respectively the phenomena to be examined, their context and the affinity of the researcher. To answer the research questions, the Interpretive Paradigm is identified for the framework of the study because it allows understand the world as it is to recognize the fundamental nature of the social world at the level of subjective experience. The Interpretive Paradigm seeks explanation within the realm of individual consciousness and subjectivity and it sees the social world as an emergent social process, which is created by the individuals concerned (Burrell & Morgan 1979). 3.2. Research Strategy Deduction and Induction are two opposite approaches to examine the research question: deductive approach entails a process in which theory leads to observations and findings, while with induction approach the connection is reversed, namely observation leads to the theory. However, just as deduction entails an element of induction, the inductive process is likely to entail a modicum of deduction (Bryman & Bell 2007, p.14). Careful investigating of the existing theories regarding rhetorical strategies and value co-creation in the collaborative innovative communities discovered too
  • 22. 20 little studies; probably because of the newness of this phenomenon. Consequently, the frame of literature references is weak. Therefore, in order to answer the research questions, only the inductive method grounded on the theory of Rhetoric and Value co-creation can be applied. This approach is in accordance with the principles of induction, because as Bryman and Bell (2007) claim: some inductive researches often use a grounded theory approach to the analysis of data and to the generation of theory. However, other researches generate interesting and illuminating findings but without clear theoretical significance so that they draw conclusions only based on the empirical findings. Guided by statement of Bryman and Bell (2007) that an inductive approach is appropriate when an apparent relationship between theories and empirical finding is vague, this study has been contacted with no specific hypothesis on what will be found and how strong the connection between existing theories and the empirical findings will happen to be. 3.3. Research Design Bryman and Bell (2007) state that a research design structures the collection and analysis of data. This research is designed as a single Case Study, which is defined by Yin (2003, p.13) as: [...]  an  empirical  inquiry  that  investigates  a  contemporary  phenomenon   within   its   real-­‐lid   context,   especially   when   the   boundaries   between   phenomenon  and  context  are  not  clearly  evident.     This thesis aims to contribute to the frame of reference surrounding rhetorical strategies and value co-creation, which take place at the online collaborative communities. By conducting research of a case study community that led by Salesforce.com, which is acknowledged to be the most innovative company in the world in 2011 and 2012 according to the Forbes metrics (Forbes 2012), this study is designed for the understanding what kinds of the rhetorical strategies are used by customers for articulating, promoting and discussing the innovative ideas and also for the interpersonal interaction. Moreover, the case study community is investigated for describing the rhetorical situation and explaining the social function of rhetoric that significantly contribute to the construction of the Value Co-creation Model. Consequently, this research has a descriptive design for the answering the first research question because it aims to identify and describe the rhetorical strategies and as an Exploratory Research for the second research question
  • 23. 21 because it aims to investigate relationship between variables, namely what kids of rhetorical strategies promote or impede the value co-creation experience. 3.4. Research Process This Inductive Research with Qualitative approach was conducted by applying Netnography as a method to collect data and the qualitative methods such as Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis and Rhetorical Analysis in order to identify the rhetorical strategies used by community’s members of a case study. Following the guidelines offered by Kozinets (1998, 2002, 2006) for the use of Netnography, and the ones outlined by Herring (2001, 2007) for the use of Computer-Mediated Discourse Analysis, this research developed in four stages: (1) defining the field, (2) entering the field, (3) collecting data, and (4) analyzing data. First, a study of the phenomenon of the online collaborative innovative communities was conducted through reading relevant literature and exploring relevant communities of a given practice. It resulted in a selection of an appropriate case study, namely Customer Community of Salesfore.com, which is based on the company’s Idea Exchange Platform. The second stage of the research process was the entrance in the field, involved the first contacts with the community through non-participant observation. At this entry stage the structure of topics were studied and it was proven that there is an easy access to the community’s statistics. After informing the management of Salesforce Company about the intend to conduct a research based on company’s community, the innovative ideas’ topics were explored further. Thirdly, data collection was initiated straightaway after entering the field. However, the dataset of community was so vast that a qualitative analysis of the whole dataset proved extremely difficult to accomplish. Hence, a sample of the 10 most popular ideas with 2018 comments were chosen as the most suitable to the development of this study. This decision was motivated by fact that ideas are organized by different threads so that one thread provides plenty of opinions about the same idea whereas customers use the different rhetorical strategies to persuade the company to implement their favorite ideas. This architecture absolutely corresponds to the purpose of the research. However, this community serves as a feedback channel where company representatives have the power to endorse and accelerate discussion, therefore, in order to
  • 24. 22 eliminate not organically created messages, only three discourse interactions such as (1) Customer to Company, (2) Customer to Customer and (3) Customer to Expert (IT developer) were taken into consideration. Finally, data analysis consisted of perusal readings of all of the messages included in the sample, intending at identifying rhetorical strategies in the participants’ rhetorical manifestations. This dataset was manually coded and then verified a set of conditions and practices that were relevant to the aim of this study. Content analysis revealed that after new idea is articulated other customers follow with non-synchronous responses, which elicit further responses. Therefore discourse is mainly focused on expressing personal motivations why the idea should be implemented; however there were also discovered other rhetorical situations such as asking advice, looking for the information, sharing experience etc. Therefore every message was closely zoomed and analyzed to find and pattern the rhetorical strategies based on the three persuasive appeals while keeping in mind particular rhetorical purposes and exigencies. Data collection stage ceased when the amount and variety of the data collected were considered sufficient to address the research question. 3.5. Case Study Research: Salesforce.com, Inc. As it was stated earlier in the Research Design section, the exploratory single- case study design is adopted to address the research goal. Yin (2003 in Jonkerm & Pennink 2010, p.83) defines the Case Study research as: “… using a limited number of units of analysis within their natural conditions”. Consequently, in order to identify the rhetorical strategies and provide a deeper understanding of the mechanism and processes of value co-creation, the Salesforce IdeaExchange Platform was selected as a case study. Salesforce.com, Inc. was founded in 1999 as a provider of enterprise cloud computing applications to businesses worldwide. In 2012 company reached more than 100 000 customers, 2000 partners, 8000 employees, 150 billion data center transactions and $2.5 billion annual revenue (salesforce 2012b). Company manages three communities on its website: for partners, developers and customers (salesforce 2012a). For the purpose of this study only customer community was studied. Customer community assists as an IdeaExchange platform, which is located at http://success.salesforce.com/. Appendix 1 illustrates its index page (salesforce 2012a). This platform works for the last 5 years and during this
  • 25. 23 time company has received: 22,355 ideas, 446,119 votes and 872 ideas were delivered. In average, 174 ideas delivered a year or 3 ideas a week. Delivered ideas reached 86,872 votes or 100 per idea (salesforce 2012d) despite the fact that Salesforce does not compensate contributors, but gives visibility to the best community’s members via using the elements of Gamification (salesforce 2012g). 3.6. Netnography as a data collection method In accordance with the research questions, and respecting the nature of the phenomenon, a qualitative research approach using Netnography (Kozinets (1998, 2002, 2006) as a method was adopted co collect data. Netnography (also known by a range of other terms, e.g. webethnography, webnography, online ethnography, virtual ethnography) is, essentially, the application of ethnographic methods to an online context (Kozinets 2002, Hine 2000, 2002 in Prior & Miller 2012). According to Kozinets (1998, p.366), Netnography can be defined as [...]  a  written  account  resulting  from  fieldwork  studying  the  cultures  and   communities  that  emerge  from  on-­‐line,  computer  mediated,  or  Internet-­‐ based   communications,   where   both   the   field   work   and   the   textual   account  are  methodologically  informed  by  the  traditions  and  techniques   of  cultural  anthropology.   Therefore, Netnography is a suitable method for the data collection from the online collaborative communities because “it tends to focus on the analysis of specified online communities where these are ‘computer-mediated social gatherings” (Kozinets 2002, p.61). To answer the research question of this paper, the purely Observational Netnography method was used in contrast to Participant-observational Netnography or Autonetnography (Kozinets 2006, p. 133). Observational Netnography means that the researcher does not reveal him or herself to the online community and its members. As the main purpose of this study was to identify the rhetoric strategies, which are chosen directly by community members and since all data of the case study community are available online to all non-registered viewers, there was no any necessity of a researcher’s involvement in the community life. Moreover, a specific culture of particular B2B community requires the access to the software products that are used by members as part of their daily business life. Therefore knowledge and experience in dealing with these IT products are essential for those who want to enter as a contributor because the interaction between members is based
  • 26. 24 solely on the sharing the advanced professional knowledge and seeking the ways to enhance these products. Therefore, the researcher of this paper remained present to collect data yet distant from the community and its interactions. Thus the tactic of data collection can be characterized as completely unobtrusive and observational. Furthermore, in order to preserve the non-intrusive character of the method, was decided do not conduct interviews with community members. Therefore triangulation as the combination of methodologies was not carried on. Netnographic research ethics. Conducting primary research on the Internet raises some specific ethical issues. Kozinets (2002 in Kozinets 2006, p.136), recommends that the researchers should (1) disclose his/her presence and research intention; (2) guarantee confidentiality and anonymity to informants by providing them with pseudonyms; (3) seek and incorporate feedback from members of the online community being researched; and (4) to obtain permission from authors whose postings are directly quoted in the report; (5) to use member checks that means to present research findings to the people who have been studied in order to solicit their comments. The Salesforce customer community is a company’s public place where no registration is required to get an access to the IdeaExchange Platform, which stores all data. Therefore, all information of this community can be easily found through the search engines. However, the management of company was informed that data would be used and interpreted for the scientific purpose. Moreover, by the ethical motives, the identities of members are not revealed in the Finding chapter of this paper. Furthermore, this research is not present any sensitive information which might lead to embarrassment or ostracism. Nevertheless, member-checks method that was recommended by Kozinets (2006) was escaped since the quotes were cited verbatim and anonymously because the aim of the researcher is to apply the rhetorical analysis to analyze the persuasive appeals of their messages in order to identify the rhetorical strategies employed by customers. 3.7. Qualitative Data Analysis Methods After qualitative data were collected through the Netnography method, the next step was to interpret them with the aid of computer-mediated discourse analysis and rhetorical analysis. These two methods were chosen because while
  • 27. 25 discourses embody the universe of dialogic communication, rhetoric is the planned and effectual way to articulate persuasion. Qualitative data analysis is a very personal process, with few rigid rules and procedures. When data is analyzed by theme, it is called thematic analysis. This type of analysis is highly inductive, that is, the themes emerge from the data and are not imposed upon the researcher. In this type of analysis, the data collection and analysis take place simultaneously (Dawson 2002, p.116). Accordingly, the findings of this study are organized by theme. 3.7.1. Computer-mediated discourse analysis Computer-Mediated Discourse (CMD) is an analytical framework, which draws on linguistics, communication, and rhetoric studies to orient the analysis of computer-mediated communication (Herring 2001). CMD has important implications for understanding key concepts in discourse studies, such as interactional coherence, participant frameworks, intertextuality, language- identity relationships, and the notion of community. The CMD Analysis framework describes different domains of analysis of online discourse, including (1) structure, (2) meaning, (3) interaction management, and (4) social practices (Herring 2004). Discourse analysis method looks at patterns of speech, such as how people talk about a particular subject, what metaphors they use, how they take turns in conversation, and so on. Analysts see speech as a performance; it performs an action rather than describes a specific state of affairs or specific state of mind. Much of this analysis is intuitive and reflective, but it may also involve some form of counting, such as counting instances of turntaking and their influence on the conversation and the way in which people speak to others (Dawson 2002, p.119). 3.7.2. Rhetoric Analysis Rhetorical analysis is “an effort to understand how people within specific social situations attempt to influence others through language” (Selzer, 2004, p. 281). Therefore, Rhetorical Analysis might be interpreted as an effort of researcher to read a text interpretively, endeavoring to understand how the message was crafted to earn a specific response. A complete rhetorical analysis requires the researcher not only identifying and labeling characteristics of the text, that represents an empirical methodology,
  • 28. 26 but also interpreting the meaning of these textual components (both in isolation and in combination) for the other people who experiencing the text. This highly interpretative aspect of rhetorical analysis requires the analyst to address the effects of the different identified textual elements on the perception. Most texts, of course, include multiple features, so the analytical work involves addressing the cumulative effects of the selected combination of features in the text (Zachry 2009). According to Zachry (2009, p.70), basic but not necessary linear sequence of activities in conducting a rhetorical analysis includes: 1. Identify text(s) for analysis 2. Categorize the text(s) according to purpose and type 3. Identify constituent parts of text(s) 4. Interpret and discuss one or more configurations of the parts and/or whole of the text(s) in relationship with some overarching theoretical concept(s) The rhetorical analysis of this study is grounded on traditional rhetorical theory to consider how the authors use the appeals of ethos, pathos and logos (Zachry 2009). Additionally, rhetorical theory which explains the social function of rhetoric and portrays the rhetorical situation where applied for a better understanding of value co-creation processes. 3.8. Reliability and Validity Three of the most prominent criteria for the evaluation of business research are reliability, replication, and validity (Bryman & Bell 2007, p.40). 3.8.1. Reliability Reliability (dependability) is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study are repeatable. The term is commonly used in relation to the question of whether or not the measures that are devised for concepts in business are consistent. Reliability is particularly at issue in connection with quantitative research because it is likely to be concerned with the question of whether a measure is stable or not (Bryman & Bell 2007, p.41). In a given paper, the identified rhetorical strategies were supported with quotes to prove their existence in the case study community. Since collaborative innovative communities have similar characteristics, it is highly probable that identified rhetorical strategies are happening in the communities of a similar practice. However, it is important to acknowledge that the Qualitative Research is too subjective.
  • 29. 27 3.8.2. Replicability Study must be capable of replication in a case if other researches choose to replicate the findings, that will be possible only of the researcher describe the procedure of research design in great detail (Bryman & Bell 2007, p.41). The Research Methodology chapter of this paper thoroughly describes the process of conducting this research. The case study’s community has a great transparency and is opened for everyone; therefore this study is fully capable of replication. 3.8.3. Validity Validity is concerned with the integrity of the conclusions that are generated from a piece of research (Bryman & Bell 2007, p.41). Measurement validity applies primarily to quantitative research and to the search for measures of social scientific concepts. It means whether or not a measure that is devised of a concept really does reflect the concept that it is supposed to be denoting (Bryman & Bell 2007). To answer the research question, approximately 1/10 of available data set was study, however, the sample size answers the research question and therefore reflects the social scientific concepts, although not so thoroughly as it could. Internal validity (credibility) is concerned with the question of whether a conclusion that incorporates a causal relationship between two or more variables is consistent and reliable. How confident can we be that the independent variable really is at least in part responsible for the variation that has been identified in the dependent variable (Bryman & Bell 2007). In a given research, the data meet the internal validity instructions because it is the rhetorical strategies promote the participation, not vice versa, since it is a community with a narrow specialization and there is do not exist any other attractions and entertainments except the contributing and discussing ideas related to the product enhancement. External validity (transferability) is concerned with the question of whether the results of a study can be generalized beyond the specific research context (Bryman & Bell 2007). A given research was studying one of the open collaborative communities. Since all such communities are established with the same purpose, namely to
  • 30. 28 generate, discus and evaluate ideas they all have the similar characteristics; therefore the result of this study can be generalized to other online collaborative innovative communities and consequently this study can be generalized and applied to the whole domain of a given practice. Ecological validity is concerned with the question of whether or not social scientific findings are applicable to people’s everyday, natural social settings (Bryman & Bell 2007). This paper analysis the rhetorical strategies which are chosen by community member in order to persuade each other in necessity to implement specific not-existent ideas which could improve their daily professional life. The Netnography research method allows us to observe the community life without actual intervention in natural setting of those who we study. Therefore this paper captures the daily life conditions, values and attitudes of participators of collaborative innovative community.
  • 31. 29 4. Findings The goal of this study requires a deep understanding of the inner processes and architecture of the online collaborative innovative community because such knowledge will contribute to understanding of a rhetorical situation where the rhetorical strategies take place. Consequently, this chapter starts with a case induction using the IdeaExchange platform as the empirical case. Accordingly, an overall picture of the innovating process is provided and functions of the online collaborative platform are explored. Next, ten rhetorical strategies are identified supplemented by thematic analysis. 4.1. Innovating processes in the online collaborative community The observation of the case study community allowed understanding the role of the online collaborative community for the company’s innovation processes that are shown on the figure 2 (figure was adapted from Rossi (2011, p.52). Figure 2: Role of the IdeaExchange Platform in innovation processes of Salesforce.com As figure illustrates, consumers take an active role in ideas’ generation and evaluation process. Among main activities of the collaborative community members are to suggest ideas, comment and vote for best ones to refine those that are worth to be implemented. Therefore this platform plays the role of a filter that absorbs innovative ideas from the customer perspective. According to the company’s strategy, Ideas Community designed for Salesforce users to submit product feedback and suggest new features. Only members of the community can post ideas. Comments are plain text responses to posted ideas that enable discussions about the ideas. Company employs the Ballot
  • 32. 30 Box Communication (BBC) to track the popularity of ideas among customers. Thus, the demote button subtracts 10 points from the idea’s overall score and decrease its popularity ranking; the promote button adds 10 points to the idea. One idea can be promoted/demoted only once by one member. Figure 3: Salesforce’s Snapshot of an Idea Discussion Thread (salesforce 2012e) Figure 3 clarifies how the architecture of the case study community is constructed. According to a snapshot above, customers can contribute to the community in three forms: 1. Suggesting  new  ideas,  i-­‐innovations,  or  service  enhancements;     2. Voting  for  the  best  ideas  (promote  or  demote);   3. Discussing  the  submitted  ideas.   This section proceeds with answering the research question one, namely, “what kinds of rhetorical strategies are used by customers in online collaborative innovative communities?” For this purpose the study sample of the ten most popular ideas is chosen for analysis based on the Popular Ideas Search Tool, which sorts all submitted ideas by an internal calculation that reflects the age of an idea's positive votes (salesforce 2012f). 4.2. Rhetorical strategies Following Dawson (2002, p.116) regarding thematic analysis, presented below are the findings of this study accompanied by a brief analysis. Space limitations restrict the reproduction of lengthy extracts. Therefore descriptions are provided of how the arguments unfolded and excerpts from the transcripts are only used for illustrative purposes.
  • 33. 31 The analysis of collected data allowed identification of the ten distinctive types of rhetorical strategies, which take place in an online collaborative innovative community, including: 1. “Requesting Implementation” is one of the most popular rhetorical strategies and it is used in a case when customers like the idea and therefore request the company to deliver it. If potential enhancement covers the important gap, customers ask company to implement the solution to the gap problem as soon as possible. Followers of this strategy usually submit the short persuasive arguments with the request without dipping into details. This strategy has following characteristics: a) Communication is of a neutral or positive polite tone: “This  is  totally  and  completely  necessary.”   “This  is  really  required.”   “Definitely  Needed!!”    “Salesforce,  please,  please,  please,  put  this  in  the  Summer  '09  release!”   b) Normally, customers identify themselves with other community members or with their co-workers and colleges. In other words, they are trying to demonstrate that there are many other people behind the community’s borders who need the implementation as well; this subcategory might be called as a “request through a group generalization”: “Everyone  needs  this”.       This  is  ABSOLUTELY  HUGE!!!!  We  have  been  dying  for  this  for  years.   “This  idea  is  crucial  for  folks  in  marketing...”   “We  SOOOOO  need  this!!...  Looks  like  demand  is  high...”   “I  am  sure  there  are  hundreds  of  other  users  who  feel  the  same  way.”   c) Moreover, customers tend to express the notion of urgency to get this solution as soon as possible: “Salesforce  needs  to  makes  this  happen  now!    We  desperately  need  this”.   “My   company   has   numerous   "overlay"   organisations   and   this   is   really   beginning   to   hurt   us   very   bad   indeed,   please,   please,   please   introduce   this  capability  ASAP”   “Eagerly  looking  for  this  feature    [User’s  real  name]”
  • 34. 32 2. “Advocating Strategy” is employed by those who publicly support the idea and provide the detailed arguments in favor of the idea’s implementation. Generally, pleaders use the persuasive appeals to advocate for the idea’s delivery in three main forms, such as: a) Citing how many people in their organizations have a need for this solution: …“our  staff  is  unhappy  that  their  work  is  not  being  reflected  correctly  if  i   create  multiple  reports  to  report  on  tasks  they  resolve  in  each  object.”     “If  you  have  worked  with  sales  people,  you  know  they  are  not  going  to   enter  all  those  contacts  and  activities,  as  it  is  excessively  time  consuming,   taking  away  from  selling  time….”   “My  sales  guys  run  into  this  problem  all  the  time  when  they  meet  with   several  people…”   “My  team  is  in  the  same  boat.  We  all  touch  many  people  every  day  and   entering  those  activites  is  too  painful.”   b) Complaining how existing solution creates the bottlenecks in their organizations: “[Currently]  I  need  to  create  a  list  of  all  Primary  Contacts  at  companies   that  have  an  active  contract.    To  achieve  this  I  have  been  using  Crystal   Reports…  [describes  6  steps  how  he  does  it]…  it  should  not  be  this  hard!!”   “Please  implement  so  that  we  can  avoid  doing  extra  steps  and  waste  our   time.”   “We  have  hundreds  upon  hundreds  of  reports  and  our  folder  system  has   become  a  nightmare.”   “To  have  an  accurate  history  by  contact,  you  currently  have  to  go  in  and   add  another  event  for  each  contact.  Very  time  consuming.  Typically  sales   rep  won't  bother.”   “Our   team   is   engaged   in   a   variety   of   meetings,   often   with   multiple   participants.  Using  "events"  to  manage  this  is  too  cumbersome.”   c) Citing benefits of how this potential solution will lead to value creation:  “It  would  especially  make  the  Reports  tab  a  lot  easier  to  navigate,  and   would   help   administrators   be   able   to   keep   analytics   better   organized   and  easier  to  find  -­‐  which  would  greatly  help  user  adoption.”   “This   would   be   good   for   reporting   and   history   reasons,   especially   for   contacts  involved  with  the  event  outside  the  account.”    “Yes!  This  would  be  especially  fabulous  for  conference  call  with  multiple   users  on  both  sides  of  the  call!”   “This  would  save  untold  amounts  of  time  for  our  representatives  as  well   as  improve  user  adoption.”
  • 35. 33 3. “Approving Strategy”. Customers who choose to follow this strategy persuade the company by showing that they are agreed with the author of the idea. Mainly sentences are composed of words such as: “I agree”, “also”, “too”, “we”, “not alone”. Usually sentences are short, just an expressing the solidarity of with an author. Customers want to show that the idea found their support. “I  completely  support  this  idea”.   “We  have  experienced  the  same  limitation”.   “I  agree  with  the  million  and  one  other  people  who  are  screaming  that   this  is  an  OBVIOUS  feature  that  should  have  been  included  since  day  1”.   “It  appears  I  am  not  alone  in  the  amount  of  time  spent  exporting  data…”   Additionally, there is an alternative solution for customer who likes the idea to vote for it with a BBC element such as the “promote button”. It can be used only once to give 10 points to one idea. Some customers choose to post additional message to increase the probability that their voice will be taken into consideration. “Hello,  hi  highly  vote  for  this  feature,  this  should  be  a  must  in  salesforce   reports.”     4. “Instructing Strategy” stands for providing proficient instructions for further service improvement. By employing this strategy, customers give directions to the company what it should do, normally in a directive tone with use of the signal words such as “should”, “must”, “need”, “have to” etc.: “Leads   and   Contacts   invited   to   an   event   should   have   the   event   in   the   Activitiy   related   list   on   their   Contact   and   Lead   records.   This   would   be   AWESOME  for  reporting  purposes.”   “…when   designing   this   solution,   please   also   incorporate   the   following   important   features:   1)make   notes…   2)create   an   activities   view…   3)enable  activities  to  be  tagged….”   “multiple   users   should   be   allowed   with   one   activity….Without   it,   Salesforce  is  quite  cripled  as  a  tool.”   “You   need   to   implement   nested   folders   like   the   CrystalReports.com   AppExchange   product   (Check   out   their   online   demo   to   see   what   I   am   talking  about)”   Moreover, some customers tend to act like experts and for many of them it seems not difficult to implement the solution: “amazed   that   three   years   of   IdeaExchange   comments   later   this   simple   functionality  is  still  yet  to  be  built  in.”
  • 36. 34 “Seems  like  a  simple  thing  to  offer.”   “Did  SF  build  their  DB  in  such  a  short-­‐sighted  flat  file  manner  that  they   cannot   implement   such   a   simple   enhancement   without   a   major   overhaul?”   “I'm  suprised  that  this  wasn't  discussed  in  the  initial  design….”     5. “Exploratory Strategy”. Sometimes customers expand the posted idea to a new level and suggest adds-on to the potential solution. It is similar to the brainstorm practice where customers offer new ideas and afterwards ask each other to evaluate their suggestions: “It   would   be   great   if   we   could   create   folder   hierarchies   for   Reports.   I   have   had   several   customers   request   this   feature.   It   would   make   the   Reports  tab  a  lot  easier  to  navigate  in,  and  would  help  administrators  be   able   to   keep   the   reports   organized…   Anyone   else   think   this   would   be   useful?”   “I  like  the  idea.  How  about  just  being  able  to  see  all  the  activities  in  an   account;   regardless   how   the   activity   is   attached   weather   it   be   an   Opportunity,  Account  or  Contact”.     “I  would  go  a  little  further  to  give  the  flexibility  to  the  SysAdmin  role  to   even  delegate  that  responsibility  to  be  able  to  login  as  any  role  to  other   folks  in  the  user  list  for  eg  the  support  reps  can  be  assigned  that  role  to   login  as  any  role  or  as  any  user.  Make  sense?”     6. “Warning Strategy”. Customers who think that idea does not help them or contradicts to their values or social norms, try to prevent idea from being implemented. “[In   response   to   those   who   advocate   for   idea]   Having   a   user   approve   that  you  log  in  as  them  is  good  karma.  (because  it)…  builds  a  level  of   trust  between  the  user  community  and  the  Admin  team.”   “While  asking  a  user  for  login  access  maybe  the  "politically  correct"  way   to  get  access  to  assist  a  user,  it  is  not  always  timely.  Also,  how  can  you   require  a  user  to  grant  the  login  access  to  system  administrators.  There   are   legal   implications   to   some   of   the   modifications   system   administrators  are  required  to  make  to  user  settings”   “I  could  not  disagree  more,  assigning  a  task  to  a  group  of  people  is  the   best  way  to  ensure  that  it  does  not  get  done.  In  all  likelihood,  the  task  is   too  broadly  defined  (and  will  never  get  done)  or  lacks  a  single  point  of   accountability…  “.   Additionally, the same function has a BBC element “demote button” which is attached to every idea’s thread so that customers who do not like the idea can subtract 10 points out of its total popularity.
  • 37. 35 7. “Criticizing Strategy” used by customers who want the implementation of the idea so badly that they start to express their disappointment, sarcasm, or just complain that company does not listen to what they say. a) Criticizing about prolonged waiting: “So  disappointed  that  Summer  '07  custom  report  types  failed  to  deliver   what  was  needed!  Hate  to  go  back  to  our  users  now  and  tell  them  they   have  to  wait  even  longer.”   “First  joining  tables  was  going  to  be  delivered  in  spring  of  2007  then  in   summer  of  2007  and  now  it  "may"  be  part  of  the  spring  2008  update  if   what  was  posted  in  a  similar  topic  is  true.”   b) Criticizing company’s ignorance to its customers: “...  Is  anyone  at  Salesforce  even  reading  these  posts!?  I'm  a  sales  analyst   and   used   to   reporting   on   data   from   various   unrelated   tables   (objects)   using  a  date  field  e.g.”   “Come  on  guys  -­‐  listen  to  your  user  base  and  sort  it  out!”   “…  This  one  has  a  pretty  high  promotion  count.    The  app  mentioned  a   few  years  ago  isn't  available.”   “This  one  has  a  pretty  high  promotion  count.    The  app  mentioned  a  few   years  ago  isn't  available.”   “Has  someone  from  Salesforce  even  seen  this  feature  request?  Is  this  even   on   their   radar?   …It   seems   that   most   ideas   on   the   exchange   have   a   moderator  assigned,  but  so  far  this  idea  has  no  posts  from  a  Salesforce   employee.  I  certainly  hope  this  request  is  not  falling  on  def  ears.”   “Does  anyone  at  Salesforce  ever  have  to  deal  with  Salespeople?  There  are   numerous  idea's  with  >10,000  votes  which  there  seems  to  be  no  progress   on,  and  my  Users  are  losing  their  appreciation  for  Salesforce!!”   c) Criticizing company’s unjust treatment of its customers: “Ever  since  starting  out  with  SF,  I've  been  pretty  shocked  that  this  is  not   already  an  option.”   “This   is   to   be   implemented   in   Spring   12,   but   ONLY   IF   YOU   PAY   ADDITIONAL  $$$!    That  is  an  unexpected  disappointment.”   “I  cant  believe  I  cant  do  this  kind  of  report.  Its  essential.”   “Does  anyone  at  Salesforce  ever  have  to  deal  with  Salespeople?  There  are   numerous  idea's  with  >10,000  votes  which  there  seems  to  be  no  progress   on,  and  my  Users  are  losing  their  appreciation  for  Salesforce!!”   “Would  someone  from  Salesforce  please  respond  to  this,  and  tell  us  what   the  status  of  this  is?????!!!!!!”   “it  seems  this  feature  is  not  on  the  roadmap...  maybe  because  SFDC  does   not   want   to   ruin   their   partners.   In   this   case,   I   would   appreciate   some   honesty:  just  tell  your  customers  that  you  are  not  going  to  deliver  this   feature,  because  you  want  us  to  use  the  partners.”
  • 38. 36 “OMG   Salesforce,   this   is   such   a   no   brainer.   Get   with   it.   What   a   vanilla   feature.  Why  was  "Getting  Buy-­‐in"  once  again  such  a  persistent  theme  at   Dreamforce?   Because   salespeople   hate   Salesforce.   That's   why.   Why?   Because  of  oversights  like  this….”     8. “Provoking strategy” typically is employed by those customers who desperately want the idea’s implementation and therefore they request the solution under the threat of changing the service provider. That is in accordance with Dubois (2000) statement that repeated dissatisfaction usually leads to a feeling of deception provoking complaints, which can go as far as service rejection. Dissatisfied customers of the case study community construct the arguments in a provocative manner; for example, they mention the existing solutions offered by competitors or express other provocations such as: a) Threating to quite subscription: “This   needs   to   happen.     Our   Leasdership   is   questioning   whether   the   salesforce  decison  was  a  poor  one  based  on  this  alone.”   “The   main   reason   we   chose   to   expand   our   business   model   within   Salesforce.com  was  so  we  could  have  one  source  of  data,  one  source  of   reporting,   and   get   rid   of   all   the   various   spreadsheets   and   other   databases  we  were  using.  Because  of  this  limitation,  I  have  to  export  3   separate   reports   into   Excel   and   manually   merge   them   together...a   complete  contradiction  to  the  reason  we  invested  more  time  and  money   into  Salesforce.com”   “this  request  has  been  around  since  2007,  yet  the  status  is  still  only  at   "under   consideration".  in   my   opinion,   salesforce   has   already   stopped   improving   the   basic   requirements,  but   rather   focus   to   add   more   fancy   features   like   chatter   (like   twitter)   that   most   of   us   don't   need.  maybe   those   things   are   important   to   attract   new   customers   for   salesforce.    i   already  gave  up  on  salesforce  to  improve  the  basics…  i  just  hope  there   will  be  strong  competitor(s)  to  salesforce  asap  ...”   b) Mentioning the Salesforce competitors’ solutions: “A  very  MAJOR  competitor  to  Salesforce.com  has  a  BEAUTIFUL!!!!!!  way   of  handling  this.  There  are  fewer  than  200  countries  in  the  world,  and   they've  managed  to  do  the  research  on  every  country's  address  format.   You  pick  the  country  out  of  the  picklist  and  it  gives  you  the  proper  fields   and  format  to  use.”   “Every  freebie  online  DB  in  the  world  provides  for  a  simple  key  between   tables   to   allow   for   multiple   joins.   Did   SF   build   their   DB   in   such   a   shortsighted  flat  file  manner  that  they  cannot  implement  such  a  simple   enhancement  without  a  major  overhaul?  With  the  piecemeal  way  they   have   approached   all   enhancements   to   the   underlying   data   structures
  • 39. 37 either   this   fear   is   true   or   they   lay   the   technical   prowess   to   implement   such  changes.”   “I've   used   ACT!   (and   Goldmine   and   Outlook)   for   years   and   this   is   standard   functionality   in   any   other   CRM   product….   We   are   scratching   our  heads  as  to  why  this  isn't  already  a  feature.”   Moreover, it is dangerous sign when customers employ this strategy because they might express not just dissatisfaction about one particular feature, but about the overall experience of dealing with the company. In other words, it leads to a “snowball effect” of critics: “….  since  the  upgrade  to  Winter  2011  release,  i  found  it  takes  longer  to   load  a  Salesforce  page  than  before.  i  like  the  previous  sidebar  which  the   user  can  choose  to  hide  /  unhide  very  easily.  I  like  the  previous  search   box   which   the   user   can   specify   which   object   they   want   to   search   very   easily  but   I   cannot   do   those   anymore   with   Winter   2011   release.    also,   apart   from   basic   input   for   basic   objects   like   account   /   opportunity   /   contact,  SalesForce  is  actually  not  so  user  friendly  when  it  comes  to  input   /  edit  details,  like  opportunity  products  /  quotes.”   9. “Advisory Strategy”. Since customers discuss solutions, which could improve their daily operations, they also want to share experience how the obstacles, which they face, could be overcome already today because in some cases, it can take years for the official solution to be delivered. This strategy could be described as a problem related discussion where customers help each other to deal with their difficulties. This positive experience, according to Füller et al (2009) creates a culture of collaboration that leads to empowerment and therefore enhances customers’ motivation to participate in the future projects. This rhetorical strategy is characterized by: a) Asking advice: “Does  anyone  have  a  current  workaround  for  this?  “   “Is   there   anything   that   does   this   currently   or   are   we   in   the   waiting   stage??”   b) Giving advice: “We  get  around  this  in  two  ways:  campaigns  and  opportunities.  I'll  use   mtlcanuck's  average  day  example  (offering  multiple  training  sessions  at   one   site)   above.   First   technique:   using   campaigns…(explanation).   The   second  way  is  by  using  an  opportunity….(explanation)  So  think  about  the   Opportunity  object  or  the  Campaign  object  to  help  you.”   c) Cheering and supporting each other: “[User  name]:  Thank  you  for  your  input  -­‐  glad  we  are  all  thinking  out   here.  The  input,  however,  is  not  an  overall  solution  to  the  issue”.
  • 40. 38 10. “Self-governing Strategy” indicates that customers take control of the community because they try to avoid the similar ideas to be published twice. It reveals the sense of membership, which was described by Ridings et al. (2002) who state that when members form relationships with each other it leads to the formation of strong codes of conduct. One of the examples of such behavior is that “the voluntary community officers” take attempts to keep the community in order.  “this  idea  is  same  as  (link)”   “Shouldn't  this  idea  be  merged  with  this  one:s  (link)”   “This  request  seems  repetitive  of  the  one  (link)”   Moreover, “the voluntary community officers” take care hat the information is easy to use for all community’s members: “Can   somebody   maybe   relabel   the   idea,   because   it's   very   misleading?   "without   reports"   had   me   thinking   Tadd   was   asking   for   reports   that   don't   use   reports   (for   whatever   that   would   be   good),   while   he   really   meant   "Outer   Joins"   or   "Reports   on   missing   records".   Both   terms   are   much  better  to  understand.”   “This   title   should   most   definately   be   updated   to   include   outer   join.   Granted  you  can  still  find  this  with  a  keyword  search  but  it  would  make   this   at   a   glance   much   more   clear.   Is   there   anyway   an   admin   or   the   original  poster  could  add  to  the  title?”   To sum up, above were presented the identified rhetorical strategies. Analysis chapter will continue to discover the identified patterns by applying persuasive appeals of rhetorical analyses to each strategy.

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