1 Presented by: ...
2 Libraries and librarians have many stories toIntroduction: tell.Goals for t...
3My premise: Whilenew media & technologies create new forms of storytelling, ancient storytelling practices can and are i...
4Whereorganizations arenow creatingonline narrativesand engaging inonline storytelling
5Question is: The OPAC: • Resource discovery tool ...
6Literature Storytelling genres of science  Various works indicate how fiction, folklore and sto...
7 LIS literature on narratives and storiesBerrypicking ...
8Literature on storiesStories in learning Organizational storytelling The way people approach ne...
9 Metaphor for the OPAC Following Laurel (1993) and Fisher (2005),Laurel (1993) critique...
10Technology Prototypes for storytelling First person (journalistic) narratives (Miller, 2008)  Video performanc...
11Laurel, 1993prototype:Fictional personalstorytelling  demonstrates the feasibility of using fictional ...
12Laurel, 1993 These agents areprototype:  designed based first person narrative accountFictional per...
13Laurel, 1993prototype: Credibility of the agent performers establishedFictional personal through a video seg...
14Laurel, 1993prototype: The agentsFictional personal  represent varied point of views allowing forstorytel...
Carletto: a fictional Italian 15 anthropomorphic spider, acting as a ...
Carletto: 16 • produces mobile dramatic performanceLombardo & ...
augmented reality? 17 With Carletto, ...
Developers use ontological 18 ...
19What can we learn from theliterature?  The idea of representing viewpoints in information sources (Laurel, 1993)...
20 find information resources on restaurants 1st narrative: ...
21Fictional story In a parallel universe, John, a designer, steps into the virtual public library to use its online ...
22The query He types into the search box and launches into his search
23The results in the fictional worldOn analysis, he realizes that the library‟s catalogue retrieves 3 categories ofresults...
24Under non-fiction results, John sees thefollowing: Magazines and Newspaper articles:  Reviews of restaurants ...
25Under life-writing results, John sees thefollowing: Memoirs, autobiographies or biographies of:  Restaurant fo...
Analysis of the results that John sees: 26Nonfiction ...
Analysis of the results that John sees: 27Nonfiction ...
28So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. McDonnel, a journalist fromthe Public library press. ...
29So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. McDonnel, a professor at thePublic Library school ofho...
30So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. Chin, restaurant owner Hi, ...
31So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such results ...
32Practical application of results page Potential solution: Facebook‟s principle of:  “View as specific person”
33Narrative 2:Actual search in the real world Let me tell you about what happened to me ...
34Narrative 2:Actual search in the real world Anyway… The other day I experimented with th...
Books are listed first 35and then articles. Isn‟t that something you would expect
But a person using thelibrary catalogue may 36not want to see non-fiction first. I‟m quite sure that the sys...
37I checked out the non-fiction section for a life-writing source,and curiously noted the title: So I checked it out...
38 Here is what I found based on Amazon‟s book description:Temporarily putting aside his role as playwright, director,and ...
39You see.Titles are often misleading. The bookentitled Writing in restaurants by Mamethas nothing to do with restaurants ...
Fiction results: 40 Next, I checked the fiction ...
Fiction results: 41 ...
Fiction results: 42 Perha...
43That‟s right!But I still had some unanswered questions: Like what?1. How do we observe reality-based writ...
44In my view, there is no direct way providedfor the user to locate autobiographies andmemoirs of restaurant CEOs, owners ...
45You are right. Indirectly, one can expand thequery term restaurant„, like including„memoir‟ with it.
46 Stories have representational value, placing information in the context of...
47Conclusion: WE CAN TELL STORIES ABOUT OUR COLLECTIONS
484 Questions for the OPAC of the futureCan we1. have fictional (imaginary), historical or even real characters as narra...
49Other questions and issues: Can such principles be used for our information literacy sessions and training? Onc...
50Comments, Criticisms and Queries
51ReferencesBates, M. J. (2005). Berrypicking. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. Kendall, K. E. & Losee, R. D. (1...
52ReferencesPolletta, F., Chen, P. C. B., Gardner, B. G., & Motes, A.(2011). The sociology of storytelling. Annual Review ...
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NCompass Live: Narrating the OPAC: How Can Storytelling and Narrative Analysis Improve the User-Friendliness of the Online Public Access Catalogue

This presentation investigates how narrative and storytelling principles can be applied to library online information retrieval technologies, and in particular to affecting the design of the library’s online public access catalogue (OPAC). Compelling evidence from both theory and actual prototypes demonstrates that narrative and storytelling principles can inform the design of modern information systems. Currently, corporations such as Coco Cola are recasting their Web presence as an online magazine reflecting a corporate trend by marketers to recast communications with consumers as storytelling rather than advertising. Libraries too can take advantage of these insights in storytelling for Web interface design and online communication, for recasting how we communicate to our users through our flagship service, the online catalogue. Speaker: Mark-Shane Scale is from Kingston, Jamaica in the West Indies/Caribbean, where he pursued a BSc in Political Science with Statistics and later MLIS at the University of the West Indies, Mona campus. He has worked as a teacher librarian in a vocational school and later as a Departmental Librarian at the University of the West Indies, Department of Library and Information Studies. Eventually Mark-Shane got the opportunity to work as an Assistant Lecturer for the Department. He currently lives in Canada and is pursuing a PhD in Library and Information Science. His area of interest and specialisation is in information sources in social media and personal and organizational storytelling in knowledge sharing. He also has an interest in keeping up with technological trends such as social media and artificial intelligence. He is married and is the thankful father of 3 young girls. In this monthly feature of NCompass Live, the NLC’s Technology Innovation Librarian, Michael Sauers, will discuss the tech news of the month and share new and exciting tech for your library. There will also be plenty of time in each episode for you to ask your tech questions. So, bring your questions with you, or send them in ahead of time, and Michael will have your answers. NCompass Live - March 20,2013 http://nlc.nebraska.gov/ncompasslive/
Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Published in: Education      
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NCompass Live: Narrating the OPAC: How Can Storytelling and Narrative Analysis Improve the User-Friendliness of the Online Public Access Catalogue

  • 1. 1 Presented by: Mark-Shane Scale PhD Candidate University of Western Ontario, Canada mscale@bell.net NARRATING THE OPAC:How Can Storytelling and Narrative Analysis Improve the User-Friendliness of the Online Public Access Catalogue (OPAC)
  • 2. 2 Libraries and librarians have many stories toIntroduction: tell.Goals for this presentation Main goals are to:  Change how we think about the OPAC  Get us to see how we can narrate our collections through the OPAC  Get us to see how we can apply storytelling to our library communication
  • 3. 3My premise: Whilenew media & technologies create new forms of storytelling, ancient storytelling practices can and are impacting the design and development of new technologies.
  • 4. 4Whereorganizations arenow creatingonline narrativesand engaging inonline storytelling
  • 5. 5Question is: The OPAC: • Resource discovery tool Can the same • Tells a narrative about human knowledge principles be applied • A narrative of the knowledge accessible to informing the through the library design of the library‟s OPAC?
  • 6. 6Literature Storytelling genres of science  Various works indicate how fiction, folklore and storytelling and narrative mythology (including Old can be applied to Testament) has impacted technology for the purposes the development of new of information provision. technologies(Laurel, 2001; Weizenbaum, (Powell, 1999; Kendall & Losee,1976) 1986; Domokos, 2007)
  • 7. 7 LIS literature on narratives and storiesBerrypicking Sense-Making  Bates (2005) online databases not  Dervin‟s sense-making metaphor designed based on how people includes narratives and stories as actually conduct searches. means by which people reduce uncertainty and bridge information  People pick up fragments of gaps. information from various sources and constructs a final story to organize the  Exchange of information often bits of information (Orr, 1996) accompanied by the exchange of stories (Orr, 1996; Fisher, 2005)  Also use personal experience (Schank, 1999; Orr, 1996)The Bricolage Information grounds
  • 8. 8Literature on storiesStories in learning Organizational storytelling The way people approach new  Boje‟s (2008) definition of stories – knowledge acquisition is through the more than one voices reliance on stories from others  Gabriel (2000) – stories are wish- (experts) combined with their own fulfilling fantasies between fiction and experience in order to learn reality something new (Kolodner, 1997; Schank, 1999)  Reality based, but not necessarily truth/fact  Artful manipulation of facts
  • 9. 9 Metaphor for the OPAC Following Laurel (1993) and Fisher (2005),Laurel (1993) critiques the rather than perceiving the OPAC as a toolmetaphors of the computer as a for resource discovery, let us conceptualizetool, and proposes instead the the OPAC asmetaphor of the computer as  a medium facilitating storytelling aboutmedium. humanity‟s knowledge as well as  A medium facilitating resource discovery.Fisher‟s idea of informationgrounds: liminal space forexchange of stories as well asinformation
  • 10. 10Technology Prototypes for storytelling First person (journalistic) narratives (Miller, 2008)  Video performance  Text and images (usually photographs) Timeline approaches (beginning, middle and end)
  • 11. 11Laurel, 1993prototype:Fictional personalstorytelling  demonstrates the feasibility of using fictional characters to provide access to non-fiction information sources.  features 3 agent characters/guides that provide multimedia access and narrative approach to navigating information in a database.  the 3 agent characters or guides embodied 3 alternative perspectives about various topics in American history: a frontiersman, a Native American and a settler woman.
  • 12. 12Laurel, 1993 These agents areprototype:  designed based first person narrative accountFictional personal of incidents and topics related to the westward expansion in America.storytelling  cast as anthropomorphic storytellers performing stories in video format.  characters represent and provide context to information sources in the database. Sources of these accounts are derived from diaries and journals of real historical persons that experienced the expansion.
  • 13. 13Laurel, 1993prototype: Credibility of the agent performers establishedFictional personal through a video segmentstorytelling  introducing themselves,  describing their real-life professions and  the source materials used and lessons learned. This establishes the agents as storytellers rather than fictitious characters, thereby reinforcing their credibility.
  • 14. 14Laurel, 1993prototype: The agentsFictional personal  represent varied point of views allowing forstorytelling multiple representations of events and knowledge,  give the user various perspectives from which to explore the content and the knowledge in the knowledgebase. This approach is natural in that in the real world human beings do not “navigate to” information, but rather experience information coming to them from a variety of sources (page 183).
  • 15. Carletto: a fictional Italian 15 anthropomorphic spider, acting as a virtual guide to a historical site.Lombardo & • Designed for mobile devicesDamiano‟s (2012) • Virtual representative of theCultural heritage interface of the application using storytelling to guide visitors touringspider tour guide an old Italian palace. • is the single-character narrator performing dramatically, communicating factual and fictional information about places and objects within the site.
  • 16. Carletto: 16 • produces mobile dramatic performanceLombardo & on the handheld devices of users, alternating between informationDamiano‟s (2012) provision of facts and anecdotes thatCultural heritage actually occurred in the space with fictional experiences.spider tour guide • professionally guides the visitor by discussing and formally describing rooms, their functions, historic events and the artistic features and objects in the room. • Template or script-based storytelling approach that responds to visitors movement
  • 17. augmented reality? 17 With Carletto, • fictional world is superimposed on toLombardo & the real world.Damiano‟s (2012) • follows the visitor by a webcam, by which he can give contextuallyCultural heritage relevant information to the currentspider tour guide room in which the visitor occupies. User‟s presence in a room is input to Cartello to provide information on the location.
  • 18. Developers use ontological 18 approach to fragment the communicativeCarletto knowledge into units from the most general to specific. Not all information is Carletto reacts to users‟ provided at once. location on the mobile Some retained, in case screen through the user later returns to annotated scripts. the room.
  • 19. 19What can we learn from theliterature?  The idea of representing viewpoints in information sources (Laurel, 1993)  Non-fiction information can be presented by imposing and combining fictional representation with real world factual information (Laurel, 1993; Lombardo  Such an effort can create an unforgettable experience for those who also access the information. (Laurel, 1993; Lombardo & Damiano, 2012)
  • 20. 20 find information resources on restaurants 1st narrative:  fictional – based on imagination about how the world should be (similar to philosophy‟s thoughtMethod: experiment?)  Sense-making of future possibilities using historical advancesOne query 2nd narrative:  created from dialogue with artificial intelligent2 narratives conversational agent, modifying the agent‟s response to more interesting and relevant(real & responses.fictional)  Sense-making of the present (about how the world currently operates & problems)
  • 21. 21Fictional story In a parallel universe, John, a designer, steps into the virtual public library to use its online catalogue to search for information resources on restaurants.
  • 22. 22The query He types into the search box and launches into his search
  • 23. 23The results in the fictional worldOn analysis, he realizes that the library‟s catalogue retrieves 3 categories ofresults1. Non-fiction sources2. Life-writing sources – autobiographies, memoirs of restaurant founders and workers3. Fiction – stories with restaurant settings
  • 24. 24Under non-fiction results, John sees thefollowing: Magazines and Newspaper articles:  Reviews of restaurants  News features on restaurants Books:  Hospitality industry textbooks  Food and beverage service text books Scholarly journal articles  Operating and managing restaurants  Studies, issues and problems in restaurant management
  • 25. 25Under life-writing results, John sees thefollowing: Memoirs, autobiographies or biographies of:  Restaurant founders or owners  Employees /former employees Books, newspaper and magazine articles: Company documents and publications from  Restaurants  Industry and trade associations for restaurant service providers  Institutions and agencies that monitor restaurants
  • 26. Analysis of the results that John sees: 26Nonfiction Life-writing  Magazines and Newspaper articles:  Reviews of restaurants  Memoirs, autobiographies or biographies of:  News features on restaurants  Restaurant founders or owners  Employees /former employees  Books:  Hospitality industry textbooks  Books, newspaper and magazine articles:  Food and beverage service text books  Company documents and publications from  Scholarly journal articles  Restaurants  Operating and managing restaurants  Industry and trade associations for restaurant service providers  Studies, issues and problems in restaurant management  Institutions and agencies that monitor restaurants
  • 27. Analysis of the results that John sees: 27Nonfiction Life-writing  Magazines and Newspaper articles:  Reviews of restaurants  Memoirs, autobiographies or biographies of:  News features on restaurants  Restaurant founders or owners  Employees /former employees  Books:  Hospitality industry textbooks  Books, newspaper and magazine articles:  Food and beverage service text books  Company documents and publications from  Scholarly journal articles  Restaurants  Operating and managing restaurants  Industry and trade associations for restaurant service providers  Studies, issues and problems in restaurant management  Institutions and agencies that monitor restaurants
  • 28. 28So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. McDonnel, a journalist fromthe Public library press. Hi, I am J. McDonnel, a journalist from the Public library press. I have a number of media articles on restaurants to bring to your attention.  Breaking news on the trends in the restaurant industry  Reviews and reports of restaurants  Special news features on restaurants
  • 29. 29So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. McDonnel, a professor at thePublic Library school ofhospitality Hi, I am Prof. J. McDonnel, a professor at the Public Library school of hospitality. I have a number of research articles and monographs on restaurants to bring to your attention.  For an overview of the basics see:  Hospitality industry textbooks  Food and beverage service text books  For more current research, check out these databases
  • 30. 30So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such resultsJ. Chin, restaurant owner Hi, I am J. Chin, manager of family owned restaurant for a number of years. I want to bring to your attention a number of:  memoirs, autobiographies and biographies of:  Restaurant founders or owners  Employees /former employees
  • 31. 31So what if we tried Laurel‟s approachto presenting such results Customer of restaurants Hi, I am J. Fisher, and I have been a customer of restaurants for years. I want to bring to your attention these:  Reviews of restaurants  Tips on etiquette  Tips for eating out at restaurants  Consumer guides
  • 32. 32Practical application of results page Potential solution: Facebook‟s principle of:  “View as specific person”
  • 33. 33Narrative 2:Actual search in the real world Let me tell you about what happened to me the other day when I was searching the library catalogue of the London Public library I hear that England is a great place. No, not that London. London in Canada. I‟m sorry. First thing that comes to mind when I think London is England with tea and scones.
  • 34. 34Narrative 2:Actual search in the real world Anyway… The other day I experimented with the librarys online catalogue, and typed in restaurants. And in my analysis of the results, I noticed that the first assumption of the system is that the user wants non-fiction information.
  • 35. Books are listed first 35and then articles. Isn‟t that something you would expect
  • 36. But a person using thelibrary catalogue may 36not want to see non-fiction first. I‟m quite sure that the system provides some way of filtering the results so that you can find just fiction To be fair, I also noticed that to the side, one can select format – Fiction, picture book, DVD etc. But still that might not be sufficient.
  • 37. 37I checked out the non-fiction section for a life-writing source,and curiously noted the title: So I checked it out on Amazon to see what it was about as well as any reviews on the book.
  • 38. 38 Here is what I found based on Amazon‟s book description:Temporarily putting aside his role as playwright, director,and screen-writer, David Mamet digs deep and deliversthirty outrageously diverse vignettes. On subjectsranging from the vanishing American pool hall, familyvacations, and the art of being a b****, to the role oftodays actor, his celebrated contemporaries andpredecessors, and his undying commitment to thetheater, David Mamets concise style, lean dialogue,and gut-wrenching honesty give us a unique view of theworld as he sees it.
  • 39. 39You see.Titles are often misleading. The bookentitled Writing in restaurants by Mamethas nothing to do with restaurants at all.While the book is indeed non-fiction, it ismore life-writing or reality based, andshould not be confused in the non-fictioninformation category.
  • 40. Fiction results: 40 Next, I checked the fiction category. Key to my observation was whether or not I could find a fictional work is set in a restaurant setting. For this I saw a few results that matched what I was expecting to find Like these 2 resources that showcase fiction stories in restaurant settings.
  • 41. Fiction results: 41 So I clicked on the title: Simmer down And further found that the library in its subject description has a category for restaurants under fiction. I‟m not sure persons would be looking for fiction works based on settings. I don‟t think that would be a normal expectation of any fiction reader.
  • 42. Fiction results: 42 Perhaps not, but, did you also see that this fiction book contains recipes? Hmmm…I get you. So people can get non- fiction information out of supposedly fiction books.
  • 43. 43That‟s right!But I still had some unanswered questions: Like what?1. How do we observe reality-based writing or more accurately life-writing set in a restaurant setting?2. What is provided by the system to facilitate discovery of restaurant life-writing ?
  • 44. 44In my view, there is no direct way providedfor the user to locate autobiographies andmemoirs of restaurant CEOs, owners oremployees in book formats if they do notalready know the titles or authors. But I‟m sure that one can modify the query to get more specific results.
  • 45. 45You are right. Indirectly, one can expand thequery term restaurant„, like including„memoir‟ with it.
  • 46. 46 Stories have representational value, placing information in the context of view points.Summarizinglearning Storytelling also makes sharing and accessing information an experience
  • 47. 47Conclusion: WE CAN TELL STORIES ABOUT OUR COLLECTIONS
  • 48. 484 Questions for the OPAC of the futureCan we1. have fictional (imaginary), historical or even real characters as narrators representing the perspective of information resources/knowledge available through the library?2. combine the time line view for browsing purposes or use a “view as” interface to filter results?3. base narrators on the demography of users, creating characters that are imagined experts or others that represent people that users would consult for advice based on their task requirements?4. represent dialogic voices, disagreement or disputes over knowledge (neutrally) without taking sides and let the users decide which voice(s) to listen to?
  • 49. 49Other questions and issues: Can such principles be used for our information literacy sessions and training? Once exposed, user may no longer need the storytelling tutorial or guide to use the OPAC. Should the OPAC storytelling be an opt-in or opt-out experience, considering that some users are already experts and do need guidance?
  • 50. 50Comments, Criticisms and Queries
  • 51. 51ReferencesBates, M. J. (2005). Berrypicking. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. Kendall, K. E. & Losee, R. D. (1986). Information system FOLKLORE: AMcKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 58-62). new technique for system documentation. Information &Medford, N.J.: American Society for Information Science and Management 10, no. 2: 103-11.Technology by Information Today. Kolodner, J. L. (1997). Educational implications of analogy: A viewBoje, D. M. (2008). Storytelling organizations. Los Angeles: Sage. from case-based reasoning. American Psychologist, 52(1), 57-66. doi: 10.1037//0003-066X.52.1.57Dervin, B. (2005). What methodology does to theory: Sense-makingmethodology as exemplar. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. McKechnie Laurel, B. (2001). Utopian entrepreneur. A mediawork pamphlet.(Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 25-29). Medford, N.J.: Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press.Published for the American Society for Information Science andTechnology by Information Today. Laurel, B. (1993). Computers as theatre. Reading, Mass.: Addison- Wesley Pub. Co.Domokos, Mariann. 2007. Folklore and mobilecommunication. Fabula 48, no. 1/2: 50-9. Lombardo, V. & Damiano, R. (2012). Storytelling on mobile devices for cultural heritage. New Review of Hypermedia andFisher, K. E. (2005). Information grounds. In K. E. Fisher, S. Erdelez & L. Multimedia 18, no. 1-2 (March-June 2012): 11-35.McKechnie (Eds.), Theories of information behavior (pp. 185-190).Medford, N.J.: American Society for Information Science and Miller, C. H. (2008). Digital storytelling :A creators guide to interactiveTechnology by Information Today. entertainment (2nd ed.). Boston: Focal Press/Elsevier.Gabriel, Y. (2000). Storytelling in organizations :Facts, fictions, and Orr, J. E. (1996). Talking about machines :An ethnography of afantasies. Oxford ;; New York: Oxford University Press. modern job. Ithaca, N.Y.: ILR Press.
  • 52. 52ReferencesPolletta, F., Chen, P. C. B., Gardner, B. G., & Motes, A.(2011). The sociology of storytelling. Annual Review ofSociology, 37, 109-130. doi: 10.1146/annurev-soc-081309- Presented by:150106 Mark-Shane ScalePowell, Kevin. 1999. Structure versus context:Understanding the design and use of computer tools insocial settings. Library Trends 47, no. 3 (Winter): 473-84. PhD CandidateSchank, Roger C. 1999. Dynamic memory revisited. 2d ed. University of Western Ontario,Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. CanadaSturm, Brian (2009). Storytelling. In Marcia J. Bates andMary Niles Maack (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Library and mscale@bell.netInformation Sciences. 3rd edition. (pp. 5042-46). New York:Taylor & Francis.Weizenbaum, J. (1976). Computer power and humanreason: From judgement to calculation. San Francisco: W.H. Freeman.