Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Transcripts - n.aris.barok
Flanders Netherlands Context (Flemish) (Dutch)• In the 17th century, Flanders (approximately present-day Belgium,but also small amounts of northern France and the Netherlands)remained Catholic and under Spanish control (can be referred to as“Spanish Netherlands”). As such, Flemish Baroque art is closelyrelated to the Baroque art of Italy.• The major art patron in 17th century France was the absolutistmonarch Louis XIV, the Sun King, the who consolidated power overFrance by eradicating the still-remaining feudal lords. Under his rule,France became the most powerful country of the 17th century.• The Thirty Years’ War (1618-1648), ended by the Treaty ofWestphalia, lead to a political restructuring of Europe.• As the divide between Protestants and Catholics widened, theneed for secular political systems became apparent.• Triangular trade increased variety of commodities available. Slavesfrom Africa were taken to colonies in the Americas to produce cropssuch as sugar, tobacco, and rice, increasing the prosperity ofEuropean nations. The resulting worldwide mercantile system European after the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648permanently changed the face of Europe. (Flanders is labeled as Spanish Netherlands)
Peter Paul Rubens • The greatest Flemish Baroque painter was Peter Paul Rubens, who was influenced by Michelangelo, Titian, Carracci, and Caravaggio. His own influence was likewise international. • Rubens possessed an aristocratic education and a courtier’s manner, diplomacy, and tact, which made him popular amongst the elites of Europe. • Among his patrons, Rubens counted the following: -Dukes of Mantua -King Philip IV of Spain (advised him in his art collecting) -King Charles I of England -Marie de’Medici of France -Spanish governors of Flanders • Because of his international popularity, he was often also entrusted with important diplomatic missions. • He produced a large volume of work by employing a large group of associates and assistant painters. • Rubens also amassed a large fortune as an art dealer to thePeter Paul Rubens. Lived 1577 – 1640. European elite, with which he bought a townhouse in Antwerp and a castle in the countryside.
Elevation (Raising) of the Cross Peter Paul Rubens. 1610. Oil on wood. Elevation of the CrossFrom St. Walburga, Antwerp. Center panel 15’ x 11’ • Rubens lived in Italy between 1600 and 1608, where he studied the Italian Renaissance and Baroque masters. • While in Italy, Rubens studied Michelangelo’s Sistine Chapel frescoes and important ancient sculptures, such as Laocoon and his Sons, by doing numerous black-chalk drawings. • After returning home, he painted the Elevation of the Cross for the church of Saint Walburga in Antwerp (later moved to the city’s cathedral). • By investing in sacred art, Flemish churches sought to affirm their allegiance to Catholicism and Spanish rule after a period of Protestant iconoclastic fervor in the region. • The choice of subject, the raising of Christ nailed to the cross, gave Rubens the opportunity to show off the muscular physiques and twisting movement he learned from Michelangelo’s work. • The dramatic lighting shows the influence of Caravaggio. • Although he later developed a softer, more coloristic style, the human body in action (draped or undraped, male or female) remained the focus of his art.
Arrival of Marie de’Medici at Marseilles Arrival of Marie de’ Medici at Marseilles Peter Paul Rubens. 1625. Oil on canvas. 13’ x 9’7”.• Rubens utilized the ostentation and spectacle that is characteristicof Italian Baroque art, which also appealed to royalty andaristocracy, as it did the Catholic Church in Italy. The magnificenceand splendor of Baroque imagery reinforced the authority and rightto rule of the highborn.• Marie de’Medici, a member of the famous Florentine house andwidow of Henry IV, the first Bourbon king of France, commissionedRubens to paint a series of huge canvases memorializing andglorifying her career.• In this image, Marie disembarks a ship after traveling to Francefrom Italy, where she is greeted by an allegorical personification ofFrance (dressed in a cape decorated with the fleur-de-lis, the symbolof French royalty).• The personification of Fame trumpets overhead, while Neptuneand the Nereids (daughters of the Titan sea god Nereus) hail herfrom below amid swirling waves.• Below the Medici coat of arms on the boat stands the commanderof the ship, whose unmoving pose and black clothing stands outagainst the other figures, who are vigorously animated in silver,ivory, gold, and red.
Allegory of the Outbreak of War Allegory of the Outbreak of War (aka Consequences of War)• Rubens frequently promoted peace as a diplomat. When Rubens. 1638. Oil on canvas. 6’ 9” x 11’ 4.commissioned in 1638 to produce a painting for Ferdinando IIde’Medici, grand duke of Tuscany, Rubens expressed hisattitude towards the Thirty Years’ War.• He wrote a letter explaining the allegory to his patron:“The principal figure is Mars, who has left the open temple of Janus(which in time of peace, according to Roman custom, remained closed)and rushes forth with shield and blood-stained sword, threatening thepeople with great disaster. He pays little heed to Venus, his mistress,who, accompanied by Amors and Cupids, strives with caresses andembraces to hold him. From the other side, Mars is dragged forward bythe Fury Alekto, with a torch in her hand. Near by are monsterspersonifying Pestilence and Famine, those inseparable partners of War.On the ground, turning her back, lies a woman with a broken lute,representing Harmony, which is incompatible with the discord of War.There is also a mother with her child in her arms, indicating that fertility,procreation, and charity are thwarted by War, which corrupts anddestroys everything. In addition, one sees an architect thrown on hisback, with his instruments in his hand, to show that which, in time of Beside them is the caduceus and an olive branch, attribute of Peace; thesepeace, is constructed for the use and ornamentation of the City is hurled are also cast aside. That mournful woman clothed in black, with torn veil,to the ground by the force of arms and falls to ruin. I believe, if I robbed of all her jewels and other ornaments, is the unfortunate Europeremember rightly, that you will find on the ground, under the feet of who, for so many years now, has suffered plunder, outrage, and misery,Mars, a book and a drawing on paper, to imply that he treads underfoot which are so injurious to everyone that it is unnecessary to go into detail.all the arts and letters. There ought also to be a bundle of darts or arrows, Europe’s attribute is the globe, borne by a small angel or genius, andwith the band which held them together undone; these when bound surmounted by the cross, to symbolize the Christian world.”form the symbol of Concord.
Charles I Charles I DismountedDismountedAnthony Van • Although originally a student of Rubens, Van Dyck movedDyck. from Antwerp to Genoa, and later to London (as court painterC. 1635. to Charles I) so as not to be overshadowed by hisOil on internationally famous teacher.canvas. • Van Dyck developed a courtly manner of great elegance, and9’ x 12’ specialized in dramatic portraits. • In this painting, the English king Charles I stands in the countryside, with the River Thames (pronounced “Temz”) behind (which runs through London). • Attended by two servants, the portrait is a stylish image of relaxed authority, as if the king is out for a casual ride in the park, but no one can mistake the regal poise and the air of absolute authority. • Although Charles stands off center, the composition is balanced by the sideways glance to the viewer. • Charles I believed in the “divine right of kings” to rule (god- given power and authority). Unfortunately, his self-confidence lead to his death. • The English Parliament had him beheaded for various overreaches of power before his 50th birthday.
Louis XIV• Louis XIV, the Sun King, was a master of political strategy and propaganda. Louis XIVHe crafted a relationship with the nobility, granting them sufficient benefits Hyacintheto keep them pacified, while maintaining rigorous control to avoid rebellion. Rigaud.• Louis believed his power was given to him by divine right (as God’s will), 1701.making it incontestable. Oil on canvas.• Louis and his principal adviser, Jean-Baptiste Colbert, cultivated a public 9’2” x 6’3”.persona, and commissioned great monuments to the king’s absolute power.• Louis and Colbert sought to standardize taste and establish the classicalstyle as the preferred French manner. Louis founded the Royal Academy ofPainting and Sculpture in 1648 to advance this goal (along with otheracademies of various disciplines).• Louis maintained a workshop of artists, each with a specialization (i.e. faces,fabric, architecture, fur, armor, etc.), but his most famous portrait is by asingle artist – Rigaud.• Although the king was only 5’ 4” (the reason he invented the high-heeledshoes he is sporting), Rigaud painted him from below, so the king appears tolook down upon the viewer. Coupled with the angle, the pose (hand on hip,ermine robe loose on his shoulder) communicates haughtiness.• Although 63 at the time of this painting, Louis shows off his legs because hewas a ballet dancer in his youth, and was proud of his well-toned legs.• The sumptuous surroundings also communicate wealth and power.
Louvre, East Façade East Façade of the Louvre Claude Perrault, Louis Le Vau, & Charles Le Brun.• Louis and Colbert’s first architectural project was the closing of Paris, France, c. 1670.the east side of the Louvre’s quadrilateral Cour Carré (leftincomplete in the 16th century).• Bernini was summoned to present a design, but his designinvolved razing the entirety of the Louvre to create a hugecomplex, and was rejected.• Louis then turned to three French architects, who designed asynthesis of French and Italian classical elements, creating a newformula.• The façade has a central and two corner projecting columnarpavilions resting on a stately podium. The central pavilion is inthe form of a classical temple front. To either side is a giantcolonnade of paired columns, resembling the sides of a templefolded out like wings.• The designers used a balustraded, flat roofline, which wasbroken only by the central pediment, instead of the traditionalpyramidal roof of the west wing.• The horizontal façade went against the verticalityof the French Gothic style, and established a new,authoritative classical-based French manner.
Versailles Palace and GardensJules Hardoiuin-Mansart, Charles Le Brun, & Andre Le Notre. Begun 1669. Versailles Palace and Gardens • Louis began his rule from the Louvre, however, he decided to remodel the hunting lodge at Versailles into a vast palace, a symbol of his power, to which he then moved. • He assembled a large number of architects, decorators, painters, sculptors, and landscape designers under the direction of Charles Le Brun. • In addition to the palace and gardens, a small city was built to house court and government officials, military detachments, courtiers, and servants. • The support-city was divided into three avenues, which converged at the palace in front of Louis bedroom window. • The decoration was extremely rich and detailed, reinforcing the splendor of Versailles. • The vast gardens, designed by Andre Le Notre, eases the transition between the heavily human-designed palace and its rural surroundings. The gardens closest to the palace are well manicured, with lawns, ponds, and fountains. The gardens slowly become more “natural” and forest-like further away. • The palace itself is more than a quarter mile long.
Royal Chapel of VersaillesJules Hardouin-Mansart and Versaillesceiling decorations by Antoine • Of the literally hundreds of rooms within the palace, theCoypel. most famous is the Galerie des Glaces, or Hall of Mirrors. Thec. 1700. hall overlooks the park from the second floor and extends along most of the width of the central block. • One side of the hall is composed of windows, the other is made of mirrors set into the wall which alleviate the room’s tunnel-like quality, and extend the width of the room. Hall of Mirrors, Versailles • The illusionary properties of the mirror made it popular in Jules Hardouin-Mansart and Baroque interior design. Charles Le Brun. • In 1698, Hardouin-Mansart received the commission to add c. 1680. a Royal Chapel. The paintings, added by Antoine Coypel, are the only part that suggest the drama and complexity of Italian Baroque art. • Otherwise, the rectangular chapel is evenly and brightly lit, and decorated with restraint. • The high apse is as tall as the nave. The royal gallery is flanked with Corinthian columns. • Louis’ pew was in the gallery directly across from the apse, accessible directly from his private apartments. • Versailles expresses power, as well as rationalism and the triumph of human intelligence over nature.
Apollo Attended by the Nymphs Apollo Attended by the Nymphs, Grotto of Thetis, Park of Versailles, France.• Located above a dramatic waterfall in the gardens of Francois Girardon and Thomas RegnaudinVersailles is the statue of Apollo Attended by the Nymphs. c. 1666-1672. Marble, life-sized.• The image depicts nymphs attending to Apollo at the end ofa long day.• Girardon’s study of classical Greco-Roman sculpture heavilyinfluenced his design of the figures, and the figurecompositions of the most renowned French painter of the era,Nicholas Poussin, inspired their arrangement.• As Apollo is considered the Sun God, an association could bemade to Louis XIV as the Sun King.• This association helped assure the sculpture’s success withthe royal court, and Girardon’s classical style and symbolismsuited France’s taste for classicism and the glorification ofroyal majesty.
Church of the InvalidesJules Hardouin-Mansart. Church of the Invalides Paris, France. • Jules Hardouin-Mansart, designer of the Versailles Chapel, also 1676-1706. designed the Eglise (EGG-leez) du Dome, or Church of the Invalides, in Paris. • The design for the Church of the Invalides also combines Italian Baroque and French classical architectural styles. • A square church with a massive dome, the building adjoins the veteran’s hospital Louis XIV established for the disabled soldiers of his many wars. • The façade is low and narrow in relation to the vast drum and dome, seeming to serve simply as a base for them. • The façade is distinctly divided into two sections, the upper one capped by a classical temple pediment. The grouping of the orders is similar to Italian Baroque buildings, however, it lacks the curved surfaces characteristic of such buildings. • The dome was ornately decorated inside and out.
Et in Arcadia Ego Et in Arcadia Ego (Even in Arcadia, I [am present])• The French royal court valued artwork with classical style, Nicolas Poussin. C. 1655. Oil on canvas. 2’10 x 4’.and Poussin had spent much of his life in Rome, modelingpaintings on the works of ancient Greece and Rome, as well asTitian and Michelangelo.• Poussin believed that artworks should depict “grand”themes (heroic acts, battles, gods, and so on), and be paintedin a grand style, devoid of minute detail.• In this painting, instead of emphasizing dynamic movementand intense emotions, Poussin emulated the rational orderand stability of Raphael’s paintings and antique statuary.• In this image, three shepherds living in the idyllic land ofArcadia study an inscription on a tomb, as a statuesque femalefigure quietly places her hand on one’s shoulder.• She may be the spirit of death, reminding these mortals, asdoes the inscription, that death is found even in blissful andbeautiful Arcadia.• The figures are modeled after Greco-Roman statuary (theshepherd to the right is probably modeled after statues ofNeptune leaning on his trident).• The classically compact and balanced grouping of the figures,the even light, and the thoughtful and reserved moodcomplement Poussin’s classical figure types.
Landscape with St. John on Patmos • This is one of a pair of paintings Poussin painted for Gian Maria Roscioli, secretary to Pope Urban VIII. • This image, depicting St. John, was paired with a painting of St. Matthew, who reclined in right profile to face John. • Behind John is his symbol, the eagle (just as an angel is depicted behind the painting of Matthew). • St. John spent the end of his life on the Island of Patmos, composing the book of Revelation, his account of the end of the world and the second coming of Christ, a prophetic vision of violent destruction and the last judgment. • Ironically, Poussin’s setting is a serene classical landscape beneath a sunny sky. • St. John reclines in the foreground, posed like a Greco- Roman river god, amid shattered columns and a pedestal for aLandscape with St. John on Patmos statue that disappeared long ago. In the middle ground is aNicolas Poussin. 1640. Oil on canvas. decaying temple and an Egyptian obelisk (brought to Rome by3’3” x 4’5” ancient Emperors, and used more recently in projects by popes). The decaying buildings suggest the decline for great empires, to be replaced by Christianity in the new era. Landscape with St. Matthew • Poussin’s landscapes are idealized, generic settings, not and the Angel portraits of real places.
Adoration of the Shepherds• Georges de la Tour’s biblical subjects as well as his use of lightsuggest a familiarity with Caravaggio’s art or style.• The light, shaded by an old man’s hand, falls upon a group ofhumble men and women, coarsely clad, who gather in prayerfulvigil around a luminous baby Jesus.• Without the title, this image might be read as a genre piece,depicting a scene from daily peasant life. Nothing distinguishesthe figures as Mary, Joseph, Jesus, etc.• The light illuminates a group of ordinary people held in amystic trance induced by their witnessing of the miracle of theincarnation. Even to a person unfamiliar with the biblicalcontext, it is apparent that the people are viewing somethingthey believe to be important or sacred.• The supernatural calm pervading the painting is characteristicof the mood of La Tour’s art. He achieved this by:-Eliminating surface detail Adoration of the Shpherds Georges de la Tour.-Simplifying body volumes 1650. Oil on canvas. 3.5” x 4.5”.-Eliminating motion and emotive gestures• These stylistic traits are among those associated with classicaland Renaissance art.
Banqueting HouseInigo Jones. c. 1620. Banqueting HouseWhitehall, London, England. • The most prominent English architect of the early 1600s was Inigo Jones, architect to King James I and Charles I. • Jones spent time in Italy, and admired the classical authority and restraint of Palladio’s structures, and he studied Palladio’s treatise on architecture. • This banqueting house resembles the palazzos of Rome, as a great symmetrical block of clarity and dignity. • What types of columns are being used? • How has Jones handled the roofline? • What else does this building share in common with Roman palazzos?
St. Paul’s Cathedral St. Paul’s Cathedral• Although Christopher Wren became a professor of Sir Christopherastronomy in London at age 25, mathematics lead to Wren.architecture, and Charles II asked Wren to prepare a plan for London,restoring the old Gothic church of Saint Paul. England.• Wren proposed a new structure based on Roman structures, 1675-1710.and when the Great Fire of London destroyed the old structureand many other churches in 1666, he got his chance.• Like Jones, Wren was influenced by Italian architecture, suchas that by Palladio, however he was also well traveled inFrance, and was influenced by the splendid palaces and statebuildings being created around Paris.• The paired columns on the façade echo the use of pairedcolumns on the Louvre.• The great dome (situated farther back) is mitigated by thetwo towers on the façade, which act to balance out itspresence. The style of the towers is influenced by Borromini.• The classical temple style of the lower levels are influencedby Palladio (who used classical temple fronts/pediments in hisVilla Rotonda and San Giorgio Maggiore).