Current and Proposed DSM BPD Criteria Differentially Predict
Violence and Sexual Aggression in Sexual Offenders
Nicole D. ...
of 1

NASSPDposterfinal-2

Published on: Mar 3, 2016
Source: www.slideshare.net


Transcripts - NASSPDposterfinal-2

  • 1. Current and Proposed DSM BPD Criteria Differentially Predict Violence and Sexual Aggression in Sexual Offenders Nicole D. Cardona, Ariel K. Berman, & Raymond A. Knight, Ph.D Department of Psychology, Brandeis University Introduction Traits associated with the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised’s (PCL-R) Factor 2 (Impulsive/Antisocial Behavior) have previously predicted violence and sexual aggression among adult male sexual offenders (AMSOs). Blackburn (1996) described individuals high in Factor 2 traits as dependent, avoidant, and histrionic, with passive- aggressive and paranoid characteristics that seemed to reflect both the emotional lability and interpersonal dysfunction of borderline personality disorder (BPD). Individuals high in Factor 2 traits are likely to meet the criteria for BPD (Blackburn & Coid, 1998). Previously, we found that the Emotional Dysregulation component of the DSM-5 (2013) borderline personality disorder criteria (cBPD) predicted violence and sexual aggression over and above Factor 2 in a sample of incarcerated AMSOs. In the present study we attempted to determine whether DSM-5’s proposed BPD criteria in Section 3 (pBPD) yielded similar predictive efficacy for sexual aggression and violence in the same sample. Method We coded 198 AMSOs for psychopathic traits, cBPD, and pBPD. The 198 participants were a subset of a larger sample of 529 incarcerated offenders assessed in forensic institutions located in Massachusetts, Minnesota, and New Jersey. Two raters, blind to each other’s ratings, used archival file data to code for BPD traits using the Diagnostic Interview for Personality Disorders-IV (DIPD-IV; Zanarini et al., 1996) in the DSM-5. For each offender, we rated on a 0-2 scale the absence (0), likely presence (1), or definite presence (2) of each BPD trait. Additional raters independently scored the same offenders on the PCL-R (Hare, 2003), aggression demonstrated in exclusively sexual crimes (USSA) on a 6-point scale, and unsocialized general aggression (USAG) across the lifespan on a 7- point scale. Results Factor analysis on the nine cBPD variables yielded two factors that explained 49.1% of the variance, whereas factor analysis on the eleven pBPD variables produced four factors that explained 67% of the variance. Two series of hierarchical regressions assessed the covariation between the four pBPD factors, PCL-R Factors, and the dependent measures USSA and USAG. No pBPD variables reached significance for USSA, whereas Factor 2 predicted USSA over and above pBPD factors ( =.363, p=.000). As in the prior study, Factor 2 continued to predict USAG ( =.431, p=.000), but Self-Direction and Hostility (the fourth factor of pBPD) emerged as the only significant predictor of USAG ( = .169, p = .042). Discussion Within our sample, cBPD and pBPD factor in notably different ways. Whereas cBPD factored into two components, pBPD split into four. This contrasts the layout of pBPD criteria in the DSM-5, where the criteria are grouped by 1) personality functioning, and 2) personality traits. Additionally, our results suggest that different BPD criteria capture different underlying factors, and that the factors generated on cBPD, especially the Emotional Dysregulation component, covaries more with aggression and violence than any of the factors from pBPD. Future research could explore the role Self-Direction and Hostility pBPD criteria play in predicting violence in AMSOs as well as the assessment of these variables in other populations. USSA USAG Traits  p  p Factor 1 .05 .56 .04 .67 Factor 2 .27 .01* .43 .00** Dep/Int -.15 .09 -.04 .64 EmotDys/Ext .28 .00** .20 .03* Factor 1 x Factor 2 .12 .89 -.01 .89 Factor 1 x Dep/Int -.98 .40 .08 .48 Factor 1 x EmotDys/Ext .17 .10 -.11 .26 Factor 2 x Dep/Int .12 .30 -.12 .28 Factor 2 x EmotDys/Ext -.05 .59 .16 .07 Dep/Int x EmotDys/Ext .05 .54 -.05 .58 Table 1. Factor Analyses for cBPD Traits. Table 2. Factor Analyses pBPD Traits. Traits Depression/Internalizi ng Emotional Dysregulation /Externalizing Emptiness 40 Paranoia / Dissociation .78 Suicidality .62 Negative Affect .52 Anger .78 Interpersonal .75 Abandonment .49 Impulsivity .47 Self-Image .36 Traits Emotional Dysregulation Interpersonal Dysfunction Impulsivity Self-Direction & Hostility Identity .83 Depressivity .74 Anxiousness .74 Emotional Lability .65 Intimacy .80 Separation Insecurity .75 Empathy .67 Risk-Taking .86 Impulsivity .52 Self-Direction .82 Hostility .50 USSA USAG Traits  p  p Factor 1 .02 .86 .04 .61 Factor 2 .36 .00** .43 .00** Emotional Dysregulation -.12 .21 -.09 .32 Interpersonal Dysfunction .16 .11 .06 .52 Impulsivity .03 .76 .02 .80 Self-Direction & Hostility .06 .49 .17 .04* Table 3. Hierarchical Regression Analyses for PCL-R and cBPD Traits. Table 4. Hierarchical Regression Analyses for PCL-R and pBPD Traits * p < .05, ** p < .01 ** p < .01 For more information please contact Nicole Cardona – ncardona@brandeis.edu

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